Abstract

The paper presents a reliable organic solid-state tunable laser. Distributed-feedback lasing of [3-(2-benzothiazolyl)-7-(diethylamino)coumarin] (Coumarin 6) in a polymeric waveguide was achieved using holographic dynamic gratings. A low-threshold energy of lasing from Coumarin 6 was achieved in a poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVCz) matrix waveguide and in a tris(8-quinolinolato)aluminum (Alq) dispersed polystyrene (PS) matrix waveguide. For both PVCz / Coumarin 6 and PS/Alq/ Coumarin 6, the effective energy transfer played a significant role for lowering a lasing threshold. By rotating a Lloyd mirror, simply tunable lasing from 516to546nm was achieved.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. K. P. Kretsch, W. J. Blau, V. Dumarcher, L. Rocha, C. Fiorini, J.-M. Nunzi, S. Pfeiffer, H. Tillmann, and H.-H. Hörhold, "Distributed feedback laser action from polymeric waveguides doped with logo phenylene model compounds," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2149-2151 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Y. Oki, T. Yoshiura, Y. Chisaki, and M. Maeda, "Fabrication of a distributed-feedback dye laser with a grating structure in its plastic waveguide," Appl. Opt. 41, 5030-5035 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. D. Schneider, S. Hartmann, T. Benstem, T. Dobbertin, D. Heithecker, D. Metzdorf, E. Becker, T. Riedl, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, T. Weimann, J. Wang, and P. Hinze, "Wavelength-tunable organic solid-state distributed-feedback laser," Appl. Phys. B 77, 399-402 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. Schneider, T. Rabe, T. Riedl, T. Dobbertin, O. Werner, M. Kröger, E. Becker, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, T. Weimann, J. Wang, P. Hinze, A. Gerhard, P. Stössel, and H. Vestweber, "Deep blue widely tunable organic solid-state laser based on a spirobifluorene derivative," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4693-4695 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. Schneider, T. Rabe, T. Riedl, T. Dobbertin, M. Kröger, E. Becker, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, T. Weimann, J. Wang, and P. Hinze, "Laser threshold reduction in an all-spiro guest-host system," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1659-1661 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. N. Tsutsumi, T. Kawahira, and W. Sakai, "Amplified spontaneous emission and distributed feedback lasing from a conjugated compound in various polymer matrices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2533-2535 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. N. Tsutsumi and A. Fujihara, "Tunable distributed feedback lasing with narrowed emission using holographic dynamic gratings in a polymeric waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 16011 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. Kogelnik and C. V. Shank, "Stimulated emission in a periodic structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 152-154 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. Kogelnik and C. V. Shank, "Coupled-wave theory of distributed feedback lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 43, 2327-2335 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Otomo, S. Yokoyama, T. Nakahama, and S. Mashiko, "Supernarrowing mirrorless laser emission in dendrimer-doped polymer waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3881-3883 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  11. K. Shimizu, D. Hoshino, and S. Hotta, "Unusually narrowed emission lines from a single crystal of thiophene/phenylene co-oligomer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4494-4496 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2005 (1)

N. Tsutsumi and A. Fujihara, "Tunable distributed feedback lasing with narrowed emission using holographic dynamic gratings in a polymeric waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 16011 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

D. Schneider, T. Rabe, T. Riedl, T. Dobbertin, O. Werner, M. Kröger, E. Becker, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, T. Weimann, J. Wang, P. Hinze, A. Gerhard, P. Stössel, and H. Vestweber, "Deep blue widely tunable organic solid-state laser based on a spirobifluorene derivative," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4693-4695 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Schneider, T. Rabe, T. Riedl, T. Dobbertin, M. Kröger, E. Becker, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, T. Weimann, J. Wang, and P. Hinze, "Laser threshold reduction in an all-spiro guest-host system," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1659-1661 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

N. Tsutsumi, T. Kawahira, and W. Sakai, "Amplified spontaneous emission and distributed feedback lasing from a conjugated compound in various polymer matrices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2533-2535 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Schneider, S. Hartmann, T. Benstem, T. Dobbertin, D. Heithecker, D. Metzdorf, E. Becker, T. Riedl, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, T. Weimann, J. Wang, and P. Hinze, "Wavelength-tunable organic solid-state distributed-feedback laser," Appl. Phys. B 77, 399-402 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Shimizu, D. Hoshino, and S. Hotta, "Unusually narrowed emission lines from a single crystal of thiophene/phenylene co-oligomer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4494-4496 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2000 (2)

K. P. Kretsch, W. J. Blau, V. Dumarcher, L. Rocha, C. Fiorini, J.-M. Nunzi, S. Pfeiffer, H. Tillmann, and H.-H. Hörhold, "Distributed feedback laser action from polymeric waveguides doped with logo phenylene model compounds," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2149-2151 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Otomo, S. Yokoyama, T. Nakahama, and S. Mashiko, "Supernarrowing mirrorless laser emission in dendrimer-doped polymer waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3881-3883 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

M. Berggren, A. Dodabalapur, R. E. Slusher, and Z. Bao, "Light amplification in organic thin films using cascade energy transfer" Nature 389, 466-468 (1997).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Kozlov, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, and S. R. Forrest, "Laser action in organic semiconductor waveguide and double-heterostructure devices" Nature 389, 362-364 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

H. Kogelnik and C. V. Shank, "Coupled-wave theory of distributed feedback lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 43, 2327-2335 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

H. Kogelnik and C. V. Shank, "Stimulated emission in a periodic structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 152-154 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Bao, Z.

M. Berggren, A. Dodabalapur, R. E. Slusher, and Z. Bao, "Light amplification in organic thin films using cascade energy transfer" Nature 389, 466-468 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Becker, E.

D. Schneider, T. Rabe, T. Riedl, T. Dobbertin, O. Werner, M. Kröger, E. Becker, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, T. Weimann, J. Wang, P. Hinze, A. Gerhard, P. Stössel, and H. Vestweber, "Deep blue widely tunable organic solid-state laser based on a spirobifluorene derivative," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4693-4695 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Schneider, T. Rabe, T. Riedl, T. Dobbertin, M. Kröger, E. Becker, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, T. Weimann, J. Wang, and P. Hinze, "Laser threshold reduction in an all-spiro guest-host system," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1659-1661 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Schneider, S. Hartmann, T. Benstem, T. Dobbertin, D. Heithecker, D. Metzdorf, E. Becker, T. Riedl, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, T. Weimann, J. Wang, and P. Hinze, "Wavelength-tunable organic solid-state distributed-feedback laser," Appl. Phys. B 77, 399-402 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Benstem, T.

D. Schneider, S. Hartmann, T. Benstem, T. Dobbertin, D. Heithecker, D. Metzdorf, E. Becker, T. Riedl, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, T. Weimann, J. Wang, and P. Hinze, "Wavelength-tunable organic solid-state distributed-feedback laser," Appl. Phys. B 77, 399-402 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Berggren, M.

M. Berggren, A. Dodabalapur, R. E. Slusher, and Z. Bao, "Light amplification in organic thin films using cascade energy transfer" Nature 389, 466-468 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Birks, J. B.

J. B. BirksPhotophysics of Aromatic Molecules (Wiley-Interscience, 1970), Chap. 11.

Blau, W. J.

K. P. Kretsch, W. J. Blau, V. Dumarcher, L. Rocha, C. Fiorini, J.-M. Nunzi, S. Pfeiffer, H. Tillmann, and H.-H. Hörhold, "Distributed feedback laser action from polymeric waveguides doped with logo phenylene model compounds," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2149-2151 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bulovic, V.

V. G. Kozlov, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, and S. R. Forrest, "Laser action in organic semiconductor waveguide and double-heterostructure devices" Nature 389, 362-364 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Burrows, P. E.

V. G. Kozlov, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, and S. R. Forrest, "Laser action in organic semiconductor waveguide and double-heterostructure devices" Nature 389, 362-364 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chisaki, Y.

Dobbertin, T.

D. Schneider, T. Rabe, T. Riedl, T. Dobbertin, O. Werner, M. Kröger, E. Becker, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, T. Weimann, J. Wang, P. Hinze, A. Gerhard, P. Stössel, and H. Vestweber, "Deep blue widely tunable organic solid-state laser based on a spirobifluorene derivative," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4693-4695 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Schneider, T. Rabe, T. Riedl, T. Dobbertin, M. Kröger, E. Becker, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, T. Weimann, J. Wang, and P. Hinze, "Laser threshold reduction in an all-spiro guest-host system," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1659-1661 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Schneider, S. Hartmann, T. Benstem, T. Dobbertin, D. Heithecker, D. Metzdorf, E. Becker, T. Riedl, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, T. Weimann, J. Wang, and P. Hinze, "Wavelength-tunable organic solid-state distributed-feedback laser," Appl. Phys. B 77, 399-402 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dodabalapur, A.

M. Berggren, A. Dodabalapur, R. E. Slusher, and Z. Bao, "Light amplification in organic thin films using cascade energy transfer" Nature 389, 466-468 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dumarcher, V.

K. P. Kretsch, W. J. Blau, V. Dumarcher, L. Rocha, C. Fiorini, J.-M. Nunzi, S. Pfeiffer, H. Tillmann, and H.-H. Hörhold, "Distributed feedback laser action from polymeric waveguides doped with logo phenylene model compounds," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2149-2151 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fiorini, C.

K. P. Kretsch, W. J. Blau, V. Dumarcher, L. Rocha, C. Fiorini, J.-M. Nunzi, S. Pfeiffer, H. Tillmann, and H.-H. Hörhold, "Distributed feedback laser action from polymeric waveguides doped with logo phenylene model compounds," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2149-2151 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Forrest, S. R.

V. G. Kozlov, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, and S. R. Forrest, "Laser action in organic semiconductor waveguide and double-heterostructure devices" Nature 389, 362-364 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fujihara, A.

N. Tsutsumi and A. Fujihara, "Tunable distributed feedback lasing with narrowed emission using holographic dynamic gratings in a polymeric waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 16011 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gerhard, A.

D. Schneider, T. Rabe, T. Riedl, T. Dobbertin, O. Werner, M. Kröger, E. Becker, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, T. Weimann, J. Wang, P. Hinze, A. Gerhard, P. Stössel, and H. Vestweber, "Deep blue widely tunable organic solid-state laser based on a spirobifluorene derivative," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4693-4695 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hartmann, S.

D. Schneider, S. Hartmann, T. Benstem, T. Dobbertin, D. Heithecker, D. Metzdorf, E. Becker, T. Riedl, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, T. Weimann, J. Wang, and P. Hinze, "Wavelength-tunable organic solid-state distributed-feedback laser," Appl. Phys. B 77, 399-402 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Heithecker, D.

D. Schneider, S. Hartmann, T. Benstem, T. Dobbertin, D. Heithecker, D. Metzdorf, E. Becker, T. Riedl, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, T. Weimann, J. Wang, and P. Hinze, "Wavelength-tunable organic solid-state distributed-feedback laser," Appl. Phys. B 77, 399-402 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hinze, P.

D. Schneider, T. Rabe, T. Riedl, T. Dobbertin, O. Werner, M. Kröger, E. Becker, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, T. Weimann, J. Wang, P. Hinze, A. Gerhard, P. Stössel, and H. Vestweber, "Deep blue widely tunable organic solid-state laser based on a spirobifluorene derivative," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4693-4695 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Schneider, T. Rabe, T. Riedl, T. Dobbertin, M. Kröger, E. Becker, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, T. Weimann, J. Wang, and P. Hinze, "Laser threshold reduction in an all-spiro guest-host system," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1659-1661 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Schneider, S. Hartmann, T. Benstem, T. Dobbertin, D. Heithecker, D. Metzdorf, E. Becker, T. Riedl, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, T. Weimann, J. Wang, and P. Hinze, "Wavelength-tunable organic solid-state distributed-feedback laser," Appl. Phys. B 77, 399-402 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hörhold, H.-H.

K. P. Kretsch, W. J. Blau, V. Dumarcher, L. Rocha, C. Fiorini, J.-M. Nunzi, S. Pfeiffer, H. Tillmann, and H.-H. Hörhold, "Distributed feedback laser action from polymeric waveguides doped with logo phenylene model compounds," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2149-2151 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hoshino, D.

K. Shimizu, D. Hoshino, and S. Hotta, "Unusually narrowed emission lines from a single crystal of thiophene/phenylene co-oligomer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4494-4496 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hotta, S.

K. Shimizu, D. Hoshino, and S. Hotta, "Unusually narrowed emission lines from a single crystal of thiophene/phenylene co-oligomer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4494-4496 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Johannes, H.-H.

D. Schneider, T. Rabe, T. Riedl, T. Dobbertin, M. Kröger, E. Becker, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, T. Weimann, J. Wang, and P. Hinze, "Laser threshold reduction in an all-spiro guest-host system," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1659-1661 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Schneider, T. Rabe, T. Riedl, T. Dobbertin, O. Werner, M. Kröger, E. Becker, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, T. Weimann, J. Wang, P. Hinze, A. Gerhard, P. Stössel, and H. Vestweber, "Deep blue widely tunable organic solid-state laser based on a spirobifluorene derivative," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4693-4695 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Schneider, S. Hartmann, T. Benstem, T. Dobbertin, D. Heithecker, D. Metzdorf, E. Becker, T. Riedl, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, T. Weimann, J. Wang, and P. Hinze, "Wavelength-tunable organic solid-state distributed-feedback laser," Appl. Phys. B 77, 399-402 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kawahira, T.

N. Tsutsumi, T. Kawahira, and W. Sakai, "Amplified spontaneous emission and distributed feedback lasing from a conjugated compound in various polymer matrices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2533-2535 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kogelnik, H.

H. Kogelnik and C. V. Shank, "Coupled-wave theory of distributed feedback lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 43, 2327-2335 (1972).
[CrossRef]

H. Kogelnik and C. V. Shank, "Stimulated emission in a periodic structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 152-154 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Kowalsky, W.

D. Schneider, T. Rabe, T. Riedl, T. Dobbertin, M. Kröger, E. Becker, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, T. Weimann, J. Wang, and P. Hinze, "Laser threshold reduction in an all-spiro guest-host system," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1659-1661 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Schneider, T. Rabe, T. Riedl, T. Dobbertin, O. Werner, M. Kröger, E. Becker, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, T. Weimann, J. Wang, P. Hinze, A. Gerhard, P. Stössel, and H. Vestweber, "Deep blue widely tunable organic solid-state laser based on a spirobifluorene derivative," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4693-4695 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Schneider, S. Hartmann, T. Benstem, T. Dobbertin, D. Heithecker, D. Metzdorf, E. Becker, T. Riedl, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, T. Weimann, J. Wang, and P. Hinze, "Wavelength-tunable organic solid-state distributed-feedback laser," Appl. Phys. B 77, 399-402 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kozlov, V. G.

V. G. Kozlov, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, and S. R. Forrest, "Laser action in organic semiconductor waveguide and double-heterostructure devices" Nature 389, 362-364 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kretsch, K. P.

K. P. Kretsch, W. J. Blau, V. Dumarcher, L. Rocha, C. Fiorini, J.-M. Nunzi, S. Pfeiffer, H. Tillmann, and H.-H. Hörhold, "Distributed feedback laser action from polymeric waveguides doped with logo phenylene model compounds," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2149-2151 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kröger, M.

D. Schneider, T. Rabe, T. Riedl, T. Dobbertin, O. Werner, M. Kröger, E. Becker, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, T. Weimann, J. Wang, P. Hinze, A. Gerhard, P. Stössel, and H. Vestweber, "Deep blue widely tunable organic solid-state laser based on a spirobifluorene derivative," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4693-4695 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Schneider, T. Rabe, T. Riedl, T. Dobbertin, M. Kröger, E. Becker, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, T. Weimann, J. Wang, and P. Hinze, "Laser threshold reduction in an all-spiro guest-host system," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1659-1661 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Maeda, M.

Mashiko, S.

A. Otomo, S. Yokoyama, T. Nakahama, and S. Mashiko, "Supernarrowing mirrorless laser emission in dendrimer-doped polymer waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3881-3883 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Metzdorf, D.

D. Schneider, S. Hartmann, T. Benstem, T. Dobbertin, D. Heithecker, D. Metzdorf, E. Becker, T. Riedl, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, T. Weimann, J. Wang, and P. Hinze, "Wavelength-tunable organic solid-state distributed-feedback laser," Appl. Phys. B 77, 399-402 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nakahama, T.

A. Otomo, S. Yokoyama, T. Nakahama, and S. Mashiko, "Supernarrowing mirrorless laser emission in dendrimer-doped polymer waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3881-3883 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nunzi, J.-M.

K. P. Kretsch, W. J. Blau, V. Dumarcher, L. Rocha, C. Fiorini, J.-M. Nunzi, S. Pfeiffer, H. Tillmann, and H.-H. Hörhold, "Distributed feedback laser action from polymeric waveguides doped with logo phenylene model compounds," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2149-2151 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Oki, Y.

Otomo, A.

A. Otomo, S. Yokoyama, T. Nakahama, and S. Mashiko, "Supernarrowing mirrorless laser emission in dendrimer-doped polymer waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3881-3883 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pfeiffer, S.

K. P. Kretsch, W. J. Blau, V. Dumarcher, L. Rocha, C. Fiorini, J.-M. Nunzi, S. Pfeiffer, H. Tillmann, and H.-H. Hörhold, "Distributed feedback laser action from polymeric waveguides doped with logo phenylene model compounds," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2149-2151 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rabe, T.

D. Schneider, T. Rabe, T. Riedl, T. Dobbertin, O. Werner, M. Kröger, E. Becker, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, T. Weimann, J. Wang, P. Hinze, A. Gerhard, P. Stössel, and H. Vestweber, "Deep blue widely tunable organic solid-state laser based on a spirobifluorene derivative," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4693-4695 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Schneider, T. Rabe, T. Riedl, T. Dobbertin, M. Kröger, E. Becker, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, T. Weimann, J. Wang, and P. Hinze, "Laser threshold reduction in an all-spiro guest-host system," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1659-1661 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Riedl, T.

D. Schneider, T. Rabe, T. Riedl, T. Dobbertin, M. Kröger, E. Becker, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, T. Weimann, J. Wang, and P. Hinze, "Laser threshold reduction in an all-spiro guest-host system," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1659-1661 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Schneider, T. Rabe, T. Riedl, T. Dobbertin, O. Werner, M. Kröger, E. Becker, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, T. Weimann, J. Wang, P. Hinze, A. Gerhard, P. Stössel, and H. Vestweber, "Deep blue widely tunable organic solid-state laser based on a spirobifluorene derivative," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4693-4695 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Schneider, S. Hartmann, T. Benstem, T. Dobbertin, D. Heithecker, D. Metzdorf, E. Becker, T. Riedl, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, T. Weimann, J. Wang, and P. Hinze, "Wavelength-tunable organic solid-state distributed-feedback laser," Appl. Phys. B 77, 399-402 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rocha, L.

K. P. Kretsch, W. J. Blau, V. Dumarcher, L. Rocha, C. Fiorini, J.-M. Nunzi, S. Pfeiffer, H. Tillmann, and H.-H. Hörhold, "Distributed feedback laser action from polymeric waveguides doped with logo phenylene model compounds," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2149-2151 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sakai, W.

N. Tsutsumi, T. Kawahira, and W. Sakai, "Amplified spontaneous emission and distributed feedback lasing from a conjugated compound in various polymer matrices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2533-2535 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, D.

D. Schneider, T. Rabe, T. Riedl, T. Dobbertin, M. Kröger, E. Becker, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, T. Weimann, J. Wang, and P. Hinze, "Laser threshold reduction in an all-spiro guest-host system," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1659-1661 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Schneider, T. Rabe, T. Riedl, T. Dobbertin, O. Werner, M. Kröger, E. Becker, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, T. Weimann, J. Wang, P. Hinze, A. Gerhard, P. Stössel, and H. Vestweber, "Deep blue widely tunable organic solid-state laser based on a spirobifluorene derivative," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4693-4695 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Schneider, S. Hartmann, T. Benstem, T. Dobbertin, D. Heithecker, D. Metzdorf, E. Becker, T. Riedl, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, T. Weimann, J. Wang, and P. Hinze, "Wavelength-tunable organic solid-state distributed-feedback laser," Appl. Phys. B 77, 399-402 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shank, C. V.

H. Kogelnik and C. V. Shank, "Coupled-wave theory of distributed feedback lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 43, 2327-2335 (1972).
[CrossRef]

H. Kogelnik and C. V. Shank, "Stimulated emission in a periodic structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 152-154 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Shimizu, K.

K. Shimizu, D. Hoshino, and S. Hotta, "Unusually narrowed emission lines from a single crystal of thiophene/phenylene co-oligomer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4494-4496 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Slusher, R. E.

M. Berggren, A. Dodabalapur, R. E. Slusher, and Z. Bao, "Light amplification in organic thin films using cascade energy transfer" Nature 389, 466-468 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Stössel, P.

D. Schneider, T. Rabe, T. Riedl, T. Dobbertin, O. Werner, M. Kröger, E. Becker, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, T. Weimann, J. Wang, P. Hinze, A. Gerhard, P. Stössel, and H. Vestweber, "Deep blue widely tunable organic solid-state laser based on a spirobifluorene derivative," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4693-4695 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tillmann, H.

K. P. Kretsch, W. J. Blau, V. Dumarcher, L. Rocha, C. Fiorini, J.-M. Nunzi, S. Pfeiffer, H. Tillmann, and H.-H. Hörhold, "Distributed feedback laser action from polymeric waveguides doped with logo phenylene model compounds," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2149-2151 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tsutsumi, N.

N. Tsutsumi and A. Fujihara, "Tunable distributed feedback lasing with narrowed emission using holographic dynamic gratings in a polymeric waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 16011 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Tsutsumi, T. Kawahira, and W. Sakai, "Amplified spontaneous emission and distributed feedback lasing from a conjugated compound in various polymer matrices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2533-2535 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vestweber, H.

D. Schneider, T. Rabe, T. Riedl, T. Dobbertin, O. Werner, M. Kröger, E. Becker, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, T. Weimann, J. Wang, P. Hinze, A. Gerhard, P. Stössel, and H. Vestweber, "Deep blue widely tunable organic solid-state laser based on a spirobifluorene derivative," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4693-4695 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

D. Schneider, T. Rabe, T. Riedl, T. Dobbertin, O. Werner, M. Kröger, E. Becker, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, T. Weimann, J. Wang, P. Hinze, A. Gerhard, P. Stössel, and H. Vestweber, "Deep blue widely tunable organic solid-state laser based on a spirobifluorene derivative," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4693-4695 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Schneider, T. Rabe, T. Riedl, T. Dobbertin, M. Kröger, E. Becker, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, T. Weimann, J. Wang, and P. Hinze, "Laser threshold reduction in an all-spiro guest-host system," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1659-1661 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Schneider, S. Hartmann, T. Benstem, T. Dobbertin, D. Heithecker, D. Metzdorf, E. Becker, T. Riedl, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, T. Weimann, J. Wang, and P. Hinze, "Wavelength-tunable organic solid-state distributed-feedback laser," Appl. Phys. B 77, 399-402 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Weimann, T.

D. Schneider, T. Rabe, T. Riedl, T. Dobbertin, O. Werner, M. Kröger, E. Becker, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, T. Weimann, J. Wang, P. Hinze, A. Gerhard, P. Stössel, and H. Vestweber, "Deep blue widely tunable organic solid-state laser based on a spirobifluorene derivative," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4693-4695 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Schneider, T. Rabe, T. Riedl, T. Dobbertin, M. Kröger, E. Becker, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, T. Weimann, J. Wang, and P. Hinze, "Laser threshold reduction in an all-spiro guest-host system," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1659-1661 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Schneider, S. Hartmann, T. Benstem, T. Dobbertin, D. Heithecker, D. Metzdorf, E. Becker, T. Riedl, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, T. Weimann, J. Wang, and P. Hinze, "Wavelength-tunable organic solid-state distributed-feedback laser," Appl. Phys. B 77, 399-402 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Werner, O.

D. Schneider, T. Rabe, T. Riedl, T. Dobbertin, O. Werner, M. Kröger, E. Becker, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, T. Weimann, J. Wang, P. Hinze, A. Gerhard, P. Stössel, and H. Vestweber, "Deep blue widely tunable organic solid-state laser based on a spirobifluorene derivative," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4693-4695 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv, Optical Electronics in Modern Communications (Oxford U. Press, 1997) pp. 616-638.

Yokoyama, S.

A. Otomo, S. Yokoyama, T. Nakahama, and S. Mashiko, "Supernarrowing mirrorless laser emission in dendrimer-doped polymer waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3881-3883 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yoshiura, T.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

D. Schneider, S. Hartmann, T. Benstem, T. Dobbertin, D. Heithecker, D. Metzdorf, E. Becker, T. Riedl, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, T. Weimann, J. Wang, and P. Hinze, "Wavelength-tunable organic solid-state distributed-feedback laser," Appl. Phys. B 77, 399-402 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (8)

D. Schneider, T. Rabe, T. Riedl, T. Dobbertin, O. Werner, M. Kröger, E. Becker, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, T. Weimann, J. Wang, P. Hinze, A. Gerhard, P. Stössel, and H. Vestweber, "Deep blue widely tunable organic solid-state laser based on a spirobifluorene derivative," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4693-4695 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Schneider, T. Rabe, T. Riedl, T. Dobbertin, M. Kröger, E. Becker, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, T. Weimann, J. Wang, and P. Hinze, "Laser threshold reduction in an all-spiro guest-host system," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1659-1661 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. Tsutsumi, T. Kawahira, and W. Sakai, "Amplified spontaneous emission and distributed feedback lasing from a conjugated compound in various polymer matrices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2533-2535 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Tsutsumi and A. Fujihara, "Tunable distributed feedback lasing with narrowed emission using holographic dynamic gratings in a polymeric waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 16011 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Kogelnik and C. V. Shank, "Stimulated emission in a periodic structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 152-154 (1971).
[CrossRef]

A. Otomo, S. Yokoyama, T. Nakahama, and S. Mashiko, "Supernarrowing mirrorless laser emission in dendrimer-doped polymer waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3881-3883 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Shimizu, D. Hoshino, and S. Hotta, "Unusually narrowed emission lines from a single crystal of thiophene/phenylene co-oligomer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4494-4496 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Kretsch, W. J. Blau, V. Dumarcher, L. Rocha, C. Fiorini, J.-M. Nunzi, S. Pfeiffer, H. Tillmann, and H.-H. Hörhold, "Distributed feedback laser action from polymeric waveguides doped with logo phenylene model compounds," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2149-2151 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. Kogelnik and C. V. Shank, "Coupled-wave theory of distributed feedback lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 43, 2327-2335 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

M. Berggren, A. Dodabalapur, R. E. Slusher, and Z. Bao, "Light amplification in organic thin films using cascade energy transfer" Nature 389, 466-468 (1997).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Kozlov, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, and S. R. Forrest, "Laser action in organic semiconductor waveguide and double-heterostructure devices" Nature 389, 362-364 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

A. Yariv, Optical Electronics in Modern Communications (Oxford U. Press, 1997) pp. 616-638.

J. B. BirksPhotophysics of Aromatic Molecules (Wiley-Interscience, 1970), Chap. 11.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Spectra of absorption (Abs) and photoluminescence (PL) of fluorescence for PS–Coumarin 6 ( 1 wt % ) , PVCz–Coumarin 6 ( 3 wt % ) and PS–Alq–Coumarin 6 (67–30–3 by wt.). Inset, structural formulas of lasing material Coumarin 6, and host matrix of PVCz and Alq. ASE, amplified spontaneous emission.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Tunable lasing spectra from Coumarin 6 in PS. Lasing is tuned with changing incidence angle.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Dependence of threshold energy on the wavelength of the lasing peak.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Plot of lasing threshold energy as a function of Coumarin 6 content in PS and PVCz. (b) Plot of lasing threshold energy as function of Alq content.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Spectra of absorption (Abs) and photoluminescence (PL) of fluorescence for each species.

Equations (1)

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λ L = 2 n eff Λ th m = n eff λ p m sin θ ,

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