Abstract

In coherent homodyne apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy (ASNOM) the background field cannot be fully suppressed because of the interference between the different collected fields, making the images difficult to interpret. We show that implementing the heterodyne version of ASNOM allows one to overcome this issue. We present a comparison between homodyne and heterodyne ASNOM through near-field analysis of gold nanowells, integrated waveguides, and a single evanescent wave generated by total internal reflection. The heterodyne approach allows for the control of the interferometric effect with the background light. In particular, the undesirable background is shown to be replaced by a controlled reference field. As a result, near-field information undetectable by a homodyne ASNOM is extracted by use of the heterodyne approach. Additionally, it is shown that field amplitude and field phase can be detected separately.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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2005 (2)

2004 (9)

R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, S. Blaize, S. Aubert, A. Bruyant, and P. Royer, "Probing photonic and optoelectronic structures by apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy," Microsc. Res. Tech. 64, 441-452 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Taubner, R. Hillenbrand, and F. Keilmann, "Nanoscale polymer recognition by spectral signature in scattering infrared near-field microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5064-5066 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Ducourtieux, S. Grésillon, J. C. Rivoal, C. Vannier, C. Bainier, D. Courjon, and H. Cory, "Imaging subwavelength holes in chromium films in scanning near-field optical microscopy. Comparison between experiments and calculation," Eur. Phys. J.: Appl. Phys. 26, 35-43 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Hua, Y. Sun, A. Gaur, M. A. Meitl, L. Bilhaut, L. Rotkina, J. Wang, P. Geil, M. Shim, and J. A. Rogers, "Polymer imprint lithography with molecular-scale resolution," Nano Lett. 4, 2467-2471 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Hutter and J. Fendler, "Exploitation of localized surface plasmon resonance," Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 16, 1685-1706 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Wiederrecht, "Near-field imaging of metal nanoparticles," Eur. Phys. J.: Appl. Phys. 28, 3-18 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Patanè, G. P. Gucciardi, M. Labardi, and M. Allegrini, "Apertureless near-field optical microscopy," Riv. Nuovo Cimento 27, 1-46 (2004).

L. Aigouy, Y. De Wilde, M. Mortier, J. Giérak, and E. Bourhis, "Fabrication and characterization of fluorescent rare-earth-doped glass-particle-based tips for near-field optical imaging applications," Appl. Opt. 43, 3829-3837 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bouhelier, M. R. Beversluis, and L. Novotny, "Applications of field-enhanced near-field optical microscopy," Ultramicroscopy 100, 413-419 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (6)

S. Aubert, A. Bruyant, S. Blaize, R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, S. Hudlet, and P. Royer, "Analysis of the interferometric effect of the background light in apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 2117-2124 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Taubner, R. Hillenbrand, and F. Keilmann, "Performance of visible and mid-infrared scattering-type near-field optical microscopes," J. Microsc. 210, 311-314 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Hillenbrand, F. Keilmann, P. Hanarp, D. S. Sutherland, and J. Aizpurua, "Coherent imaging of nanoscale plasmon patterns with a carbon nanotube optical probe," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 368-370 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Wurtz, J. S. Im, S. K. Gray, and G. P. Wiederrecht, "Optical scattering from isolated metal nanoparticles and arrays," J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 14191-14198 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Gray and T. Kupka, "Propagation of light in metallic nanowire arrays: finite-difference time-domain results for silver cylinders," Phys. Rev. B 68, 045415 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Blaize, S. Aubert, A. Bruyant, R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, P. Royer, J. M. Broquin, and V. Minier, "Apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy for ion exchanged channel waveguide characterization," J. Microsc. 209, 155-161 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (4)

J.-E. Broquin, "Ion-exchange integrated devices," in Integrated Optical Devices V, V. Giancarlo, C. Righini, and S. Honkanen, eds., Proc. SPIE 4277, 105-115 (2001).

M. L. M. Balistreri, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, "Phase mapping of optical fields in integrated optical waveguide structures," J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1169-1176 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. Sandoghdar, J. Michaelis, C. Hettich, C. Schmitt, J. Zitzmann, and S. Kühn, "Results and thoughts on optical microscopy using a single-molecule probe," Single Mol. 2, 277-281 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Walford, J. A. Porto, R. Carminati, J.-J. Greffet, P. M. Adam, S. Hudlet, J.-L. Bijeon, A. Stashkevich, and P. Royer, "Influence of tip modulation on image formation in scanning near-field optical microscopy," J. Appl. Phys. 89, 5159-5169 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

R. Hillenbrand, B. Knoll, and F. Keilmann, "Pure optical contrast in scattering-type scanning near-field microscopy," J. Microsc. 202, 77-83 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Hillenbrand and F. Keilmann, "Complex optical constants on a subwavelength scale," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3029-3032 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

G. Wurtz, R. Bachelot, and P. Royer, "Imaging a GaAlAs laser diode in operation using apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy," Eur. Phys. J.: Appl. Phys. 5, 269-275 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Laddada, S. Benrezzak, P. M. Adam, G. Viardot, J. L. Bijeon, and P. Royer, "Detection of an evanescent field scattered silicon tips in an apertureless scanning near-field optical microscope," Eur. Phys. J.: Appl. Phys. 6, 171-178 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

J. J. Greffet and R. Carminati, "Image formation in near-field optics," Prog. Surf. Sci. 56, 133-237 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

1994 (3)

Y. Inouye and S. Kawata, "Near-field scanning optical microscope with a metallic probe tip," Opt. Lett. 19, 159-161 (1994).
[CrossRef]

F. Zenhausern, M. P. O'Boyle, and H. K. Wickramasinghe, "Apertureless near-field optical microscope," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1623-1625 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. Bachelot, P. Gleyzes, and A. C. Boccara, "Near-field optical microscopy by local perturbation of a diffraction spot," Microsc. Microanal. Microstruct. 5, 389-397 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

W. Denk and D. W. Pohl, "Near-field optics: microscopy with nanometer-size fields," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 9, 510-513 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

1984 (1)

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, and M. Lanz, "Optical stethoscopy: image recording with resolution lambda/20," Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651-653 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Adam, P. M.

J. N. Walford, J. A. Porto, R. Carminati, J.-J. Greffet, P. M. Adam, S. Hudlet, J.-L. Bijeon, A. Stashkevich, and P. Royer, "Influence of tip modulation on image formation in scanning near-field optical microscopy," J. Appl. Phys. 89, 5159-5169 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Laddada, S. Benrezzak, P. M. Adam, G. Viardot, J. L. Bijeon, and P. Royer, "Detection of an evanescent field scattered silicon tips in an apertureless scanning near-field optical microscope," Eur. Phys. J.: Appl. Phys. 6, 171-178 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Aigouy, L.

Aizpurua, J.

R. Hillenbrand, F. Keilmann, P. Hanarp, D. S. Sutherland, and J. Aizpurua, "Coherent imaging of nanoscale plasmon patterns with a carbon nanotube optical probe," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 368-370 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Allegrini, M.

S. Patanè, G. P. Gucciardi, M. Labardi, and M. Allegrini, "Apertureless near-field optical microscopy," Riv. Nuovo Cimento 27, 1-46 (2004).

Aubert, S.

I. Sefanon, S. Blaize, A. Bruyant, S. Aubert, G. Lerondel, R. Bachelot, and P. Royer, "Heterodyne detection of guided waves using a scattering-type Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscope," Opt. Express 13, 5553-5564 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, S. Blaize, S. Aubert, A. Bruyant, and P. Royer, "Probing photonic and optoelectronic structures by apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy," Microsc. Res. Tech. 64, 441-452 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Blaize, S. Aubert, A. Bruyant, R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, P. Royer, J. M. Broquin, and V. Minier, "Apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy for ion exchanged channel waveguide characterization," J. Microsc. 209, 155-161 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Aubert, A. Bruyant, S. Blaize, R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, S. Hudlet, and P. Royer, "Analysis of the interferometric effect of the background light in apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 2117-2124 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bachelot, R.

I. Sefanon, S. Blaize, A. Bruyant, S. Aubert, G. Lerondel, R. Bachelot, and P. Royer, "Heterodyne detection of guided waves using a scattering-type Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscope," Opt. Express 13, 5553-5564 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, S. Blaize, S. Aubert, A. Bruyant, and P. Royer, "Probing photonic and optoelectronic structures by apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy," Microsc. Res. Tech. 64, 441-452 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Blaize, S. Aubert, A. Bruyant, R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, P. Royer, J. M. Broquin, and V. Minier, "Apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy for ion exchanged channel waveguide characterization," J. Microsc. 209, 155-161 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Aubert, A. Bruyant, S. Blaize, R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, S. Hudlet, and P. Royer, "Analysis of the interferometric effect of the background light in apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 2117-2124 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Wurtz, R. Bachelot, and P. Royer, "Imaging a GaAlAs laser diode in operation using apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy," Eur. Phys. J.: Appl. Phys. 5, 269-275 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Lahrech, R. Bachelot, P. Gleyzes, and A. C. Boccara, "Infrared-reflection-mode near-field microscopy using an apertureless probe with a resolution of lambda/600," Opt. Lett. 21, 1315-1317 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Bachelot, P. Gleyzes, and A. C. Boccara, "Near-field optical microscope based on local perturbation of a diffraction spot," Opt. Lett. 20, 1924-1926 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Bachelot, P. Gleyzes, and A. C. Boccara, "Near-field optical microscopy by local perturbation of a diffraction spot," Microsc. Microanal. Microstruct. 5, 389-397 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bainier, C.

S. Ducourtieux, S. Grésillon, J. C. Rivoal, C. Vannier, C. Bainier, D. Courjon, and H. Cory, "Imaging subwavelength holes in chromium films in scanning near-field optical microscopy. Comparison between experiments and calculation," Eur. Phys. J.: Appl. Phys. 26, 35-43 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Courjon and C. Bainier, eds., Le Champ Proche Optique. Théorie et applications (Springer-Verlag France and France Télécom R&D, 2001).

Balistreri, M. L. M.

Benrezzak, S.

R. Laddada, S. Benrezzak, P. M. Adam, G. Viardot, J. L. Bijeon, and P. Royer, "Detection of an evanescent field scattered silicon tips in an apertureless scanning near-field optical microscope," Eur. Phys. J.: Appl. Phys. 6, 171-178 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Beversluis, M. R.

A. Bouhelier, M. R. Beversluis, and L. Novotny, "Applications of field-enhanced near-field optical microscopy," Ultramicroscopy 100, 413-419 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bijeon, J. L.

R. Laddada, S. Benrezzak, P. M. Adam, G. Viardot, J. L. Bijeon, and P. Royer, "Detection of an evanescent field scattered silicon tips in an apertureless scanning near-field optical microscope," Eur. Phys. J.: Appl. Phys. 6, 171-178 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bijeon, J.-L.

J. N. Walford, J. A. Porto, R. Carminati, J.-J. Greffet, P. M. Adam, S. Hudlet, J.-L. Bijeon, A. Stashkevich, and P. Royer, "Influence of tip modulation on image formation in scanning near-field optical microscopy," J. Appl. Phys. 89, 5159-5169 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bilhaut, L.

F. Hua, Y. Sun, A. Gaur, M. A. Meitl, L. Bilhaut, L. Rotkina, J. Wang, P. Geil, M. Shim, and J. A. Rogers, "Polymer imprint lithography with molecular-scale resolution," Nano Lett. 4, 2467-2471 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Blaize, S.

I. Sefanon, S. Blaize, A. Bruyant, S. Aubert, G. Lerondel, R. Bachelot, and P. Royer, "Heterodyne detection of guided waves using a scattering-type Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscope," Opt. Express 13, 5553-5564 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, S. Blaize, S. Aubert, A. Bruyant, and P. Royer, "Probing photonic and optoelectronic structures by apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy," Microsc. Res. Tech. 64, 441-452 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Aubert, A. Bruyant, S. Blaize, R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, S. Hudlet, and P. Royer, "Analysis of the interferometric effect of the background light in apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 2117-2124 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Blaize, S. Aubert, A. Bruyant, R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, P. Royer, J. M. Broquin, and V. Minier, "Apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy for ion exchanged channel waveguide characterization," J. Microsc. 209, 155-161 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boccara, A. C.

Bouhelier, A.

A. Bouhelier, M. R. Beversluis, and L. Novotny, "Applications of field-enhanced near-field optical microscopy," Ultramicroscopy 100, 413-419 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bourhis, E.

Broquin, J. M.

S. Blaize, S. Aubert, A. Bruyant, R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, P. Royer, J. M. Broquin, and V. Minier, "Apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy for ion exchanged channel waveguide characterization," J. Microsc. 209, 155-161 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Broquin, J.-E.

J.-E. Broquin, "Ion-exchange integrated devices," in Integrated Optical Devices V, V. Giancarlo, C. Righini, and S. Honkanen, eds., Proc. SPIE 4277, 105-115 (2001).

Bruyant, A.

I. Sefanon, S. Blaize, A. Bruyant, S. Aubert, G. Lerondel, R. Bachelot, and P. Royer, "Heterodyne detection of guided waves using a scattering-type Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscope," Opt. Express 13, 5553-5564 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, S. Blaize, S. Aubert, A. Bruyant, and P. Royer, "Probing photonic and optoelectronic structures by apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy," Microsc. Res. Tech. 64, 441-452 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Blaize, S. Aubert, A. Bruyant, R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, P. Royer, J. M. Broquin, and V. Minier, "Apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy for ion exchanged channel waveguide characterization," J. Microsc. 209, 155-161 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Aubert, A. Bruyant, S. Blaize, R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, S. Hudlet, and P. Royer, "Analysis of the interferometric effect of the background light in apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 2117-2124 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Carminati, R.

J. N. Walford, J. A. Porto, R. Carminati, J.-J. Greffet, P. M. Adam, S. Hudlet, J.-L. Bijeon, A. Stashkevich, and P. Royer, "Influence of tip modulation on image formation in scanning near-field optical microscopy," J. Appl. Phys. 89, 5159-5169 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Greffet and R. Carminati, "Image formation in near-field optics," Prog. Surf. Sci. 56, 133-237 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chang, S.-H.

Cory, H.

S. Ducourtieux, S. Grésillon, J. C. Rivoal, C. Vannier, C. Bainier, D. Courjon, and H. Cory, "Imaging subwavelength holes in chromium films in scanning near-field optical microscopy. Comparison between experiments and calculation," Eur. Phys. J.: Appl. Phys. 26, 35-43 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Courjon, D.

S. Ducourtieux, S. Grésillon, J. C. Rivoal, C. Vannier, C. Bainier, D. Courjon, and H. Cory, "Imaging subwavelength holes in chromium films in scanning near-field optical microscopy. Comparison between experiments and calculation," Eur. Phys. J.: Appl. Phys. 26, 35-43 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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S. Ducourtieux, S. Grésillon, J. C. Rivoal, C. Vannier, C. Bainier, D. Courjon, and H. Cory, "Imaging subwavelength holes in chromium films in scanning near-field optical microscopy. Comparison between experiments and calculation," Eur. Phys. J.: Appl. Phys. 26, 35-43 (2004).
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J. N. Walford, J. A. Porto, R. Carminati, J.-J. Greffet, P. M. Adam, S. Hudlet, J.-L. Bijeon, A. Stashkevich, and P. Royer, "Influence of tip modulation on image formation in scanning near-field optical microscopy," J. Appl. Phys. 89, 5159-5169 (2001).
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T. Taubner, R. Hillenbrand, and F. Keilmann, "Nanoscale polymer recognition by spectral signature in scattering infrared near-field microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5064-5066 (2004).
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R. Hillenbrand, F. Keilmann, P. Hanarp, D. S. Sutherland, and J. Aizpurua, "Coherent imaging of nanoscale plasmon patterns with a carbon nanotube optical probe," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 368-370 (2003).
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T. Taubner, R. Hillenbrand, and F. Keilmann, "Performance of visible and mid-infrared scattering-type near-field optical microscopes," J. Microsc. 210, 311-314 (2003).
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R. Hillenbrand, B. Knoll, and F. Keilmann, "Pure optical contrast in scattering-type scanning near-field microscopy," J. Microsc. 202, 77-83 (2000).
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R. Hillenbrand and F. Keilmann, "Complex optical constants on a subwavelength scale," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3029-3032 (2000).
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R. Laddada, S. Benrezzak, P. M. Adam, G. Viardot, J. L. Bijeon, and P. Royer, "Detection of an evanescent field scattered silicon tips in an apertureless scanning near-field optical microscope," Eur. Phys. J.: Appl. Phys. 6, 171-178 (1999).
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R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, S. Blaize, S. Aubert, A. Bruyant, and P. Royer, "Probing photonic and optoelectronic structures by apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy," Microsc. Res. Tech. 64, 441-452 (2004).
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S. Blaize, S. Aubert, A. Bruyant, R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, P. Royer, J. M. Broquin, and V. Minier, "Apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy for ion exchanged channel waveguide characterization," J. Microsc. 209, 155-161 (2003).
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S. Aubert, A. Bruyant, S. Blaize, R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, S. Hudlet, and P. Royer, "Analysis of the interferometric effect of the background light in apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 2117-2124 (2003).
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F. Hua, Y. Sun, A. Gaur, M. A. Meitl, L. Bilhaut, L. Rotkina, J. Wang, P. Geil, M. Shim, and J. A. Rogers, "Polymer imprint lithography with molecular-scale resolution," Nano Lett. 4, 2467-2471 (2004).
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V. Sandoghdar, J. Michaelis, C. Hettich, C. Schmitt, J. Zitzmann, and S. Kühn, "Results and thoughts on optical microscopy using a single-molecule probe," Single Mol. 2, 277-281 (2001).
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S. Blaize, S. Aubert, A. Bruyant, R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, P. Royer, J. M. Broquin, and V. Minier, "Apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy for ion exchanged channel waveguide characterization," J. Microsc. 209, 155-161 (2003).
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M. A. Paesler and P. J. Moyer, Near-Field Optics (Wiley, 1996).

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S. Patanè, G. P. Gucciardi, M. Labardi, and M. Allegrini, "Apertureless near-field optical microscopy," Riv. Nuovo Cimento 27, 1-46 (2004).

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W. Denk and D. W. Pohl, "Near-field optics: microscopy with nanometer-size fields," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 9, 510-513 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, and M. Lanz, "Optical stethoscopy: image recording with resolution lambda/20," Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651-653 (1984).
[CrossRef]

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J. N. Walford, J. A. Porto, R. Carminati, J.-J. Greffet, P. M. Adam, S. Hudlet, J.-L. Bijeon, A. Stashkevich, and P. Royer, "Influence of tip modulation on image formation in scanning near-field optical microscopy," J. Appl. Phys. 89, 5159-5169 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rivoal, J. C.

S. Ducourtieux, S. Grésillon, J. C. Rivoal, C. Vannier, C. Bainier, D. Courjon, and H. Cory, "Imaging subwavelength holes in chromium films in scanning near-field optical microscopy. Comparison between experiments and calculation," Eur. Phys. J.: Appl. Phys. 26, 35-43 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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F. Hua, Y. Sun, A. Gaur, M. A. Meitl, L. Bilhaut, L. Rotkina, J. Wang, P. Geil, M. Shim, and J. A. Rogers, "Polymer imprint lithography with molecular-scale resolution," Nano Lett. 4, 2467-2471 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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F. Hua, Y. Sun, A. Gaur, M. A. Meitl, L. Bilhaut, L. Rotkina, J. Wang, P. Geil, M. Shim, and J. A. Rogers, "Polymer imprint lithography with molecular-scale resolution," Nano Lett. 4, 2467-2471 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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I. Sefanon, S. Blaize, A. Bruyant, S. Aubert, G. Lerondel, R. Bachelot, and P. Royer, "Heterodyne detection of guided waves using a scattering-type Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscope," Opt. Express 13, 5553-5564 (2005).
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R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, S. Blaize, S. Aubert, A. Bruyant, and P. Royer, "Probing photonic and optoelectronic structures by apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy," Microsc. Res. Tech. 64, 441-452 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Blaize, S. Aubert, A. Bruyant, R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, P. Royer, J. M. Broquin, and V. Minier, "Apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy for ion exchanged channel waveguide characterization," J. Microsc. 209, 155-161 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Aubert, A. Bruyant, S. Blaize, R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, S. Hudlet, and P. Royer, "Analysis of the interferometric effect of the background light in apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 2117-2124 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Walford, J. A. Porto, R. Carminati, J.-J. Greffet, P. M. Adam, S. Hudlet, J.-L. Bijeon, A. Stashkevich, and P. Royer, "Influence of tip modulation on image formation in scanning near-field optical microscopy," J. Appl. Phys. 89, 5159-5169 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

G. Wurtz, R. Bachelot, and P. Royer, "Imaging a GaAlAs laser diode in operation using apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy," Eur. Phys. J.: Appl. Phys. 5, 269-275 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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V. Sandoghdar, J. Michaelis, C. Hettich, C. Schmitt, J. Zitzmann, and S. Kühn, "Results and thoughts on optical microscopy using a single-molecule probe," Single Mol. 2, 277-281 (2001).
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Schmitt, C.

V. Sandoghdar, J. Michaelis, C. Hettich, C. Schmitt, J. Zitzmann, and S. Kühn, "Results and thoughts on optical microscopy using a single-molecule probe," Single Mol. 2, 277-281 (2001).
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Shim, M.

F. Hua, Y. Sun, A. Gaur, M. A. Meitl, L. Bilhaut, L. Rotkina, J. Wang, P. Geil, M. Shim, and J. A. Rogers, "Polymer imprint lithography with molecular-scale resolution," Nano Lett. 4, 2467-2471 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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J. N. Walford, J. A. Porto, R. Carminati, J.-J. Greffet, P. M. Adam, S. Hudlet, J.-L. Bijeon, A. Stashkevich, and P. Royer, "Influence of tip modulation on image formation in scanning near-field optical microscopy," J. Appl. Phys. 89, 5159-5169 (2001).
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F. Hua, Y. Sun, A. Gaur, M. A. Meitl, L. Bilhaut, L. Rotkina, J. Wang, P. Geil, M. Shim, and J. A. Rogers, "Polymer imprint lithography with molecular-scale resolution," Nano Lett. 4, 2467-2471 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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R. Hillenbrand, F. Keilmann, P. Hanarp, D. S. Sutherland, and J. Aizpurua, "Coherent imaging of nanoscale plasmon patterns with a carbon nanotube optical probe," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 368-370 (2003).
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T. Taubner, R. Hillenbrand, and F. Keilmann, "Nanoscale polymer recognition by spectral signature in scattering infrared near-field microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5064-5066 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Taubner, R. Hillenbrand, and F. Keilmann, "Performance of visible and mid-infrared scattering-type near-field optical microscopes," J. Microsc. 210, 311-314 (2003).
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S. Ducourtieux, S. Grésillon, J. C. Rivoal, C. Vannier, C. Bainier, D. Courjon, and H. Cory, "Imaging subwavelength holes in chromium films in scanning near-field optical microscopy. Comparison between experiments and calculation," Eur. Phys. J.: Appl. Phys. 26, 35-43 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Viardot, G.

R. Laddada, S. Benrezzak, P. M. Adam, G. Viardot, J. L. Bijeon, and P. Royer, "Detection of an evanescent field scattered silicon tips in an apertureless scanning near-field optical microscope," Eur. Phys. J.: Appl. Phys. 6, 171-178 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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J. N. Walford, J. A. Porto, R. Carminati, J.-J. Greffet, P. M. Adam, S. Hudlet, J.-L. Bijeon, A. Stashkevich, and P. Royer, "Influence of tip modulation on image formation in scanning near-field optical microscopy," J. Appl. Phys. 89, 5159-5169 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

F. Hua, Y. Sun, A. Gaur, M. A. Meitl, L. Bilhaut, L. Rotkina, J. Wang, P. Geil, M. Shim, and J. A. Rogers, "Polymer imprint lithography with molecular-scale resolution," Nano Lett. 4, 2467-2471 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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Wickramasinghe, H. K.

F. Zenhausern, M. P. O'Boyle, and H. K. Wickramasinghe, "Apertureless near-field optical microscope," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1623-1625 (1994).
[CrossRef]

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G. P. Wiederrecht, "Near-field imaging of metal nanoparticles," Eur. Phys. J.: Appl. Phys. 28, 3-18 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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G. Wurtz, R. Bachelot, and P. Royer, "Imaging a GaAlAs laser diode in operation using apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy," Eur. Phys. J.: Appl. Phys. 5, 269-275 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wurtz, G. A.

G. A. Wurtz, J. S. Im, S. K. Gray, and G. P. Wiederrecht, "Optical scattering from isolated metal nanoparticles and arrays," J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 14191-14198 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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F. Zenhausern, M. P. O'Boyle, and H. K. Wickramasinghe, "Apertureless near-field optical microscope," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1623-1625 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Zitzmann, J.

V. Sandoghdar, J. Michaelis, C. Hettich, C. Schmitt, J. Zitzmann, and S. Kühn, "Results and thoughts on optical microscopy using a single-molecule probe," Single Mol. 2, 277-281 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) (1)

E. Hutter and J. Fendler, "Exploitation of localized surface plasmon resonance," Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 16, 1685-1706 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

R. Hillenbrand, F. Keilmann, P. Hanarp, D. S. Sutherland, and J. Aizpurua, "Coherent imaging of nanoscale plasmon patterns with a carbon nanotube optical probe," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 368-370 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, and M. Lanz, "Optical stethoscopy: image recording with resolution lambda/20," Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651-653 (1984).
[CrossRef]

F. Zenhausern, M. P. O'Boyle, and H. K. Wickramasinghe, "Apertureless near-field optical microscope," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1623-1625 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Taubner, R. Hillenbrand, and F. Keilmann, "Nanoscale polymer recognition by spectral signature in scattering infrared near-field microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5064-5066 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Phys. J.: Appl. Phys. (4)

S. Ducourtieux, S. Grésillon, J. C. Rivoal, C. Vannier, C. Bainier, D. Courjon, and H. Cory, "Imaging subwavelength holes in chromium films in scanning near-field optical microscopy. Comparison between experiments and calculation," Eur. Phys. J.: Appl. Phys. 26, 35-43 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Laddada, S. Benrezzak, P. M. Adam, G. Viardot, J. L. Bijeon, and P. Royer, "Detection of an evanescent field scattered silicon tips in an apertureless scanning near-field optical microscope," Eur. Phys. J.: Appl. Phys. 6, 171-178 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Wiederrecht, "Near-field imaging of metal nanoparticles," Eur. Phys. J.: Appl. Phys. 28, 3-18 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Wurtz, R. Bachelot, and P. Royer, "Imaging a GaAlAs laser diode in operation using apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy," Eur. Phys. J.: Appl. Phys. 5, 269-275 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. N. Walford, J. A. Porto, R. Carminati, J.-J. Greffet, P. M. Adam, S. Hudlet, J.-L. Bijeon, A. Stashkevich, and P. Royer, "Influence of tip modulation on image formation in scanning near-field optical microscopy," J. Appl. Phys. 89, 5159-5169 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Microsc. (3)

T. Taubner, R. Hillenbrand, and F. Keilmann, "Performance of visible and mid-infrared scattering-type near-field optical microscopes," J. Microsc. 210, 311-314 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Blaize, S. Aubert, A. Bruyant, R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, P. Royer, J. M. Broquin, and V. Minier, "Apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy for ion exchanged channel waveguide characterization," J. Microsc. 209, 155-161 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Hillenbrand, B. Knoll, and F. Keilmann, "Pure optical contrast in scattering-type scanning near-field microscopy," J. Microsc. 202, 77-83 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

G. A. Wurtz, J. S. Im, S. K. Gray, and G. P. Wiederrecht, "Optical scattering from isolated metal nanoparticles and arrays," J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 14191-14198 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

W. Denk and D. W. Pohl, "Near-field optics: microscopy with nanometer-size fields," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 9, 510-513 (1991).
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Microsc. Microanal. Microstruct. (1)

R. Bachelot, P. Gleyzes, and A. C. Boccara, "Near-field optical microscopy by local perturbation of a diffraction spot," Microsc. Microanal. Microstruct. 5, 389-397 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Microsc. Res. Tech. (1)

R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, S. Blaize, S. Aubert, A. Bruyant, and P. Royer, "Probing photonic and optoelectronic structures by apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy," Microsc. Res. Tech. 64, 441-452 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nano Lett. (1)

F. Hua, Y. Sun, A. Gaur, M. A. Meitl, L. Bilhaut, L. Rotkina, J. Wang, P. Geil, M. Shim, and J. A. Rogers, "Polymer imprint lithography with molecular-scale resolution," Nano Lett. 4, 2467-2471 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

S. K. Gray and T. Kupka, "Propagation of light in metallic nanowire arrays: finite-difference time-domain results for silver cylinders," Phys. Rev. B 68, 045415 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic configuration of a homodyned ASNOM. The detected light is the coherent superposition of the field scattered by the tip E t and a background field E b originating from the sample. (b) Schematic configuration of heterodyned ASNOM where a frequency-shifted reference field E r is added to control the background signal.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Details of the reflection-mode backscattered heterodyne setup. The incident light from a Kr-ion laser is split into two beams by BS1. The transmitted beam, i.e., the reference field E r , is frequency shifted by two crossed acousto-optical cells and is coupled to a single-mode fiber. The beam reflected from BS1 is directed through a lens combination (L3 and L1) and is focused on the tip extremity by the objective O. The scattered light originating from the tip–sample ( E t + E b ) is collected by the same objective O and is partially coupled to the optical fiber. The remaining fraction of the scattered light is imaged on a CCD camera for alignment purposes. The signals E t , E b , and E r then interfere in the fiber, and the modulation is lock-in detected (b) Details of the heterodyned apparatus for an evanescent illumination of the tip–sample. The evanescent excitation is performed through total internal reflection inside an hemispherical lens. The heterodyne detection is essentially the same as in (a).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

ASNOM image of a gold nanowire obtained with homodyne detection. The sample was illuminated using the evanescent excitation depicted in Fig. 2b. The incident beam is p polarized, and the signal was demodulated (amplitude channel) at the tapping frequency f. The arrows represent the orientations of the projection on the sample surface of incident wave vector k i and the detected wave vector k d .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Homodyned ASNOM images of the nano wells. (a) SEM image of the nanowells. (b) Topography of the wells obtained by tapping-mode AFM. (c) Homodyne detection of the amplitude signal obtained by demodulating the scattered intensity at the tapping frequency f for an incident p polarization. The arrows represent the orientations of the incident wave vector k i and the detected wave vector k d . The white circle indicates the perturbation of the fringes by the well. (d) ASNOM image of a sample zone without any holes. The image was obtained under the same condition as for (c). (e) Demodulation of the scattered intensity at 2 f .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Heterodyned ASNOM images of the nanowells. (a) Heterodyne amplitude signal obtained by demodulating the detected intensity at the frequency ( 2 Ω Δ ω ) 2 π = 100 kHz . The arrows represent the orientations of the incident wave vector k i and the detected wave vector k d . The incident beam is p polarized, and the scattered signal is also detected along the p direction. (b) Same configuration as in (a) with an s-excitation polarization and a signal detected at p.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Sketch of the geometry. The white circle represents the rim of the well, and the labels p 1 , p 2 , s 1 , and s 2 indicate the location of different polarization cases considered in (b) to (e). (b) and (c) Schematics of the corner axis for a p polarization at the points labeled p 1 and p 2 . (d) and (e) Schematics of the corner axis for a s polarization at the points labeled s 1 and s 2 .

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Three-dimensional FDTD results ( 2 μ m × 2 μ m calculated images). The arrows represent the projection of the incident wave vector: (a) p incident polarization, magnitude of the total field at the sample surface; (b) p incident polarization, surface normal component; (c) s incident polarization, magnitude of the total field; (d) s incident polarization, normal component.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Approach curves recorded above a prism in which a total internal reflection was performed. ASNOM signal (from the amplitude channel of the lock-in amplifier, arbitrary units) as a function of the average distance between the vibrating probe and the prism surface. Field depth penetration was d p = 144 nm . (a) Signal demodulated at frequency f Δ ω 2 π . Apparent depth penetration d p . (b) Signal demodulated at frequency f Δ ω 2 π . The tip was placed at a 2 μ m distance from the position for (a). Apparent depth penetration d p . (c) Signal demodulated at frequency f. The background was low because the tip was placed at a clean zone. Apparent depth penetration d p 2 .

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Near-field images of 10 μ m × 10 μ m of a buried ion-exchanged waveguide. (a) AFM image. The image height range is 70 nm , and the guide height is 20 nm . The white arrows represent the respective projection of the incident and detection wave vectors used for the optical analysis. (b)–(d) ASNOM images at λ = 1.55 μ m . (b) ASNOM image obtained by lock-in detection (amplitude channel) at frequency f. The black segments highlight the oblique fringes. (c) ASNOM image obtained by lock-in detection (amplitude channel) at frequency f Δ ω 2 π . (b) ASNOM image obtained by lock-in detection (phase channel) at frequency f Δ ω 2 π .

Equations (10)

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I = ( E b + E t ) ( E b * + E t * ) ,
I = { E b exp [ j ( ω t + ϕ b ) ] + E t exp [ j ( ω t + ϕ t ) ] } { E b exp [ j ( ω t + ϕ b ) ] + E t exp [ j ( ω t + ϕ t ) ] } = E b 2 + E t 2 + 2 E b E t cos ( ϕ t ϕ b ) .
I = E t 2 + 2 E b E t cos ( ϕ t ϕ b ) .
I = ( E b + E t + E r ) ( E b * + E t * + E r * ) ,
I = I 1 + I 2 + I 3 + I 4 + I 5 + I 6 = E b 2 + E r 2 + E t 2 + 2 E b E t cos ( ϕ b ϕ t ) + 2 E b E r cos ( Δ ω t + ϕ r ϕ b ) + 2 E t E r cos ( Δ ω t + ϕ r ϕ t ) .
I 6 = A 1 E t cos ( Ω t ) E r cos ( Δ ω t + ϕ r ϕ t ) + A 2 E t cos ( 2 Ω t ) E r cos ( Δ ω t + ϕ r ϕ t ) + A 3 E t cos ( 3 Ω t ) E r cos ( Δ ω t + ϕ r ϕ t ) + ,
I 6 α E t E r cos [ ( 2 Ω ± Δ ω ) t + ϕ r ϕ t ] .
E ( z ) = E o exp ( z d p ) ,
d p = λ 2 π ( n p 2 sin 2 θ n air 2 ) 1 2 ,
I ( z ) = E o 2 exp ( 2 z d p ) .

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