Abstract

We describe the design, construction, and initial performance evaluation of a high-repetition-rate cavity ringdown spectrometer. The spectrometer is based on the use of the Pound–Drever–Hall technique to lock the laser frequency to the maximum of a transmission fringe of the interferometer used as a sample cell. This results in continuous injection of light into the interferometer. The injection is repetitively interrupted with an acousto-optical modulator to generate ringdowns (exponential decays) at a typical rate of 10kHz. Averaging of these large numbers of fitted ringdown times allows us to attain a minimum detectable absorption of 1.43×1011cm1Hz12 short term and 9.0×1011cm1Hz12 long term. In addition, the spectrometer has a continuous tuning capability of 1cm1, which allows the use of standard linearization and frequency calibration techniques for the spectrum. To illustrate the operation and sensitivity of the spectrometer, part of the Q-branch of a weak acetylene overtone has been recorded.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. O'Keefe and D. A. G. Deacon, "Cavity ring-down optical spectrometer for absorption measurements using pulsed laser sources," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 2544-2551 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. O'Keefe, "Trace gas analysis by pulsed laser absorption spectroscopy," Am. Lab. (Shelton, Conn.) 21, 19-22 (1989).
  3. A. O'Keefe, J. J. Scherer, A. L. Cooksy, R. Sheeks, J. Heath, and R. J. Saykally, "Cavity ring down dye laser spectroscopy of jet-cooled metal clusters: Cu2 and Cu3," Chem. Phys. Lett. 172, 215-218 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. D. Wheeler, S. M. Newman, A. J. Orr-Ewing, and M. N. R. Ashfold, "Cavity ring-down spectroscopy," J. Chem. Soc., Faraday Trans. 94, 337-351 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. Berden, R. Peeters, and G. Meijer, "Cavity ring-down spectroscopy: Experimental schemes and applications," Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 19, 565-607 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. Romanini and K. K. Lehmann, "Ring-down cavity absorption spectroscopy of the very weak HCN overtone bands with six, seven and eight stretching quanta," J. Chem. Phys. 99, 6287-6301 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. Romanini and K. K. Lehmann, "Cavity ring-down overtone spectroscopy of HCN, HC13N and HC15N," J. Chem. Phys. 102, 633-642 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  8. P. Zalicki and R. N. Zare, "Cavity ring-down spectroscopy for quantitative absorption measurements," J. Chem. Phys. 102, 2708-2717 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. T. Jongma, M. G. H. Boogaarts, I. Holleman, and G. Meijer, "Trace gas detection with cavity ring down spectroscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 2821-2828 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. T. Hodges, J. P. Looney, and R. D. van Zee, "Laser bandwidth effects in quantitative cavity ring-down spectroscopy," Appl. Opt. 35, 4112-4116 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. T. Hodges, J. P. Looney, and R. D. van Zee, "Response of a ring-down cavity to an arbitrary excitation," J. Chem. Phys. 105, 10278-10288 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. Martin, B. A. Paldus, P. Zalicki, E. H. Wahl, T. G. Owano, J. S. Harris Jr., C. H. Kruger, and R. N. Zare, "Cavity ring-down spectroscopy with Fourier-transform-limited laser pulses," Chem. Phys. Lett. 258, 63-70 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  13. K. K. Lehmann and D. Romanini, "The superposition principle and cavity ring-down spectroscopy," J. Chem. Phys. 105, 10263-10277 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  14. K. K. Lehmann, "Ring-down cavity spectroscopy cell using continuous wave excitation for trace species detection," U.S. Patent 5,528,040, June 18, 1996.
  15. D. Romanini, J. Gambogi, and K. K. Lehmann, "Cavity ring down spectroscopy with cw diode laser excitation," presented at the 50th Ohio State University Symposium on Molecular Spectroscopy, Columbus, Ohio, June 12-16, 1995.
  16. D. Romanini, A. A. Kachanov, N. Sadeghi, and F. Stoeckel, "CW cavity ring down spectroscopy," Chem. Phys. Lett. 264, 316-322 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  17. D. Romanini, A. A. Kachanov, and F. Stoeckel, "Diode laser cavity ring down spectroscopy," Chem. Phys. Lett. 270, 538-545 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  18. D. Romanini, A. A. Kachanov, and F. Stoeckel, "Cavity ringdown spectroscopy: broad band absolute absorption measurements," Chem. Phys. Lett. 270, 546-550 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  19. Li Ziyuan, R. G. T. Bennett, and G. E. Stedman, "Swept-frequency induced optical cavity ringing," Opt. Commun. 86, 51-56 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  20. K. An, C. Yang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Cavity ring-down technique and its application to the measurement of ultraslow velocities," Opt. Lett. 20, 1068-1070 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. J. Poirson, F. Bretenaker, M. Vallet, and A. Le Floch, "Analytical and experimental study of ringing effects in a Fabry-Perot cavity. Application to the measurement of high finesses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2811-2817 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  22. M. J. Lawrence, B. Willke, M. E. Husman, E. K. Gustafson, and R. L. Byer, "Dynamic response of a Fabry-Perot interferometer," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 523-532 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  23. J. Ye and J. L. Hall, "Cavity ringdown heterodyne spectroscopy: High sensitivity with microwatt light power," Phys. Rev. A 61, 061802 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  24. B. A. Paldus, C. C. Harb, T. G. Spence, B. Wilke, J. Xie, J. S. Harris, and R. N. Zare, "Cavity-locked ring-down spectroscopy," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3991-3997 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  25. R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, "Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator," Appl. Phys. B: Photophys. Laser Chem. 31, 97-105 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  26. T. G. Spence, C. C. Harb, B. A. Paldus, R. N. Zare, B. Wilke, and R. L. Byer, "A laser-locked cavity ring-down spectrometer employing an analog detection scheme," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 347-353 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  27. R. W. Fox, C. W. Oates, and L. W. Hollberg, "Stabilizing diode lasers to high-finesse cavities," in Cavity-Enhanced Spectroscopies, R.D.Van Zee and J.P.Looney, eds. (Academic, 2002).
  28. N. J. van Leeuwen, J. C. Diettrich, and A. C. Wilson, "Periodically locked continuous-wave cavity ringdown spectroscopy," Appl. Opt. 42, 3670-3677 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. Typically, with mirror reflectivities of 99.95% and higher.
  30. J. A. Barnes, T. E. Gough, and M. Stoer, "Laser power build-up cavity for high-resolution laser spectroscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3515-3518 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  31. T. Day, E. K. Gustafson, and R. L. Byer, "Sub-hertz relative frequency stabilization of two diode-laser-pumped Nd:YAG lasers locked to a Fabry-Perot interferometer," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1106-1117 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  32. Nominally, the sensitivity of CRDS experiments is independent of the light intensity used, but this is true only as long as the intensity is large enough to stay away from the noise floor of the detectors. When detector noise is no longer negligible, the sensitivity is also reduced.
  33. R. J. Cvetanovic, D. L. Singleton, and G. Paraskevopoulos, "Evaluations of the mean values and standard errors of rate constants and their temperature coefficients," J. Phys. Chem. 83, 50-60 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  34. J. Ye, Joint Institute for Laboratory Astrophysics (Space), National Institute of Standards and Technology, and University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0440 (personal communication, 2005).
  35. M. Metsälä, S. Yang, O. Vaittinen, D. Permogorov, and L. Halonen, "High-resolution cavity ring-down study of acetylene between 12 260 and 12380 cm−1," Chem. Phys. Lett. 346, 373-378 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  36. We will confine our discussion to what we regard as "standard" cavity ringdown setups, which rely on the measurement of the decay time of the cavity. This explicitly excludes the group of what nowadays are called "cavity-enhanced" techniques, which are also based on the use of external interferometers but typically do not rely on the measurement of decay times. While technically complex, some of these techniques have demonstrated exceptional sensitivities.
  37. J. B. Dudek, P. B. Tarsa, A. Velasquez, M. Wladyslawski, P. Rabinowitz, and K. K. Lehmann, "Trace moisture detection using continuous-wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy," Anal. Chem. 75, 4599-4605 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

N. J. van Leeuwen, J. C. Diettrich, and A. C. Wilson, "Periodically locked continuous-wave cavity ringdown spectroscopy," Appl. Opt. 42, 3670-3677 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Dudek, P. B. Tarsa, A. Velasquez, M. Wladyslawski, P. Rabinowitz, and K. K. Lehmann, "Trace moisture detection using continuous-wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy," Anal. Chem. 75, 4599-4605 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

M. Metsälä, S. Yang, O. Vaittinen, D. Permogorov, and L. Halonen, "High-resolution cavity ring-down study of acetylene between 12 260 and 12380 cm−1," Chem. Phys. Lett. 346, 373-378 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

T. G. Spence, C. C. Harb, B. A. Paldus, R. N. Zare, B. Wilke, and R. L. Byer, "A laser-locked cavity ring-down spectrometer employing an analog detection scheme," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 347-353 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Ye and J. L. Hall, "Cavity ringdown heterodyne spectroscopy: High sensitivity with microwatt light power," Phys. Rev. A 61, 061802 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Berden, R. Peeters, and G. Meijer, "Cavity ring-down spectroscopy: Experimental schemes and applications," Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 19, 565-607 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

J. A. Barnes, T. E. Gough, and M. Stoer, "Laser power build-up cavity for high-resolution laser spectroscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3515-3518 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Lawrence, B. Willke, M. E. Husman, E. K. Gustafson, and R. L. Byer, "Dynamic response of a Fabry-Perot interferometer," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 523-532 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

B. A. Paldus, C. C. Harb, T. G. Spence, B. Wilke, J. Xie, J. S. Harris, and R. N. Zare, "Cavity-locked ring-down spectroscopy," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3991-3997 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Wheeler, S. M. Newman, A. J. Orr-Ewing, and M. N. R. Ashfold, "Cavity ring-down spectroscopy," J. Chem. Soc., Faraday Trans. 94, 337-351 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

D. Romanini, A. A. Kachanov, N. Sadeghi, and F. Stoeckel, "CW cavity ring down spectroscopy," Chem. Phys. Lett. 264, 316-322 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Romanini, A. A. Kachanov, and F. Stoeckel, "Diode laser cavity ring down spectroscopy," Chem. Phys. Lett. 270, 538-545 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Romanini, A. A. Kachanov, and F. Stoeckel, "Cavity ringdown spectroscopy: broad band absolute absorption measurements," Chem. Phys. Lett. 270, 546-550 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Poirson, F. Bretenaker, M. Vallet, and A. Le Floch, "Analytical and experimental study of ringing effects in a Fabry-Perot cavity. Application to the measurement of high finesses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2811-2817 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

J. T. Hodges, J. P. Looney, and R. D. van Zee, "Laser bandwidth effects in quantitative cavity ring-down spectroscopy," Appl. Opt. 35, 4112-4116 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Hodges, J. P. Looney, and R. D. van Zee, "Response of a ring-down cavity to an arbitrary excitation," J. Chem. Phys. 105, 10278-10288 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Martin, B. A. Paldus, P. Zalicki, E. H. Wahl, T. G. Owano, J. S. Harris Jr., C. H. Kruger, and R. N. Zare, "Cavity ring-down spectroscopy with Fourier-transform-limited laser pulses," Chem. Phys. Lett. 258, 63-70 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. K. Lehmann and D. Romanini, "The superposition principle and cavity ring-down spectroscopy," J. Chem. Phys. 105, 10263-10277 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

D. Romanini and K. K. Lehmann, "Cavity ring-down overtone spectroscopy of HCN, HC13N and HC15N," J. Chem. Phys. 102, 633-642 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Zalicki and R. N. Zare, "Cavity ring-down spectroscopy for quantitative absorption measurements," J. Chem. Phys. 102, 2708-2717 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Jongma, M. G. H. Boogaarts, I. Holleman, and G. Meijer, "Trace gas detection with cavity ring down spectroscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 2821-2828 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. An, C. Yang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Cavity ring-down technique and its application to the measurement of ultraslow velocities," Opt. Lett. 20, 1068-1070 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993

D. Romanini and K. K. Lehmann, "Ring-down cavity absorption spectroscopy of the very weak HCN overtone bands with six, seven and eight stretching quanta," J. Chem. Phys. 99, 6287-6301 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

T. Day, E. K. Gustafson, and R. L. Byer, "Sub-hertz relative frequency stabilization of two diode-laser-pumped Nd:YAG lasers locked to a Fabry-Perot interferometer," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1106-1117 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

Li Ziyuan, R. G. T. Bennett, and G. E. Stedman, "Swept-frequency induced optical cavity ringing," Opt. Commun. 86, 51-56 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

A. O'Keefe, J. J. Scherer, A. L. Cooksy, R. Sheeks, J. Heath, and R. J. Saykally, "Cavity ring down dye laser spectroscopy of jet-cooled metal clusters: Cu2 and Cu3," Chem. Phys. Lett. 172, 215-218 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

A. O'Keefe, "Trace gas analysis by pulsed laser absorption spectroscopy," Am. Lab. (Shelton, Conn.) 21, 19-22 (1989).

1988

A. O'Keefe and D. A. G. Deacon, "Cavity ring-down optical spectrometer for absorption measurements using pulsed laser sources," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 2544-2551 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1983

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, "Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator," Appl. Phys. B: Photophys. Laser Chem. 31, 97-105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1979

R. J. Cvetanovic, D. L. Singleton, and G. Paraskevopoulos, "Evaluations of the mean values and standard errors of rate constants and their temperature coefficients," J. Phys. Chem. 83, 50-60 (1979).
[CrossRef]

An, K.

Ashfold, M. N. R.

M. D. Wheeler, S. M. Newman, A. J. Orr-Ewing, and M. N. R. Ashfold, "Cavity ring-down spectroscopy," J. Chem. Soc., Faraday Trans. 94, 337-351 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, J. A.

J. A. Barnes, T. E. Gough, and M. Stoer, "Laser power build-up cavity for high-resolution laser spectroscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3515-3518 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, R. G. T.

Li Ziyuan, R. G. T. Bennett, and G. E. Stedman, "Swept-frequency induced optical cavity ringing," Opt. Commun. 86, 51-56 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Berden, G.

G. Berden, R. Peeters, and G. Meijer, "Cavity ring-down spectroscopy: Experimental schemes and applications," Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 19, 565-607 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Boogaarts, M. G. H.

R. T. Jongma, M. G. H. Boogaarts, I. Holleman, and G. Meijer, "Trace gas detection with cavity ring down spectroscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 2821-2828 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bretenaker, F.

Byer, R. L.

T. G. Spence, C. C. Harb, B. A. Paldus, R. N. Zare, B. Wilke, and R. L. Byer, "A laser-locked cavity ring-down spectrometer employing an analog detection scheme," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 347-353 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Lawrence, B. Willke, M. E. Husman, E. K. Gustafson, and R. L. Byer, "Dynamic response of a Fabry-Perot interferometer," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 523-532 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Day, E. K. Gustafson, and R. L. Byer, "Sub-hertz relative frequency stabilization of two diode-laser-pumped Nd:YAG lasers locked to a Fabry-Perot interferometer," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1106-1117 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Cooksy, A. L.

A. O'Keefe, J. J. Scherer, A. L. Cooksy, R. Sheeks, J. Heath, and R. J. Saykally, "Cavity ring down dye laser spectroscopy of jet-cooled metal clusters: Cu2 and Cu3," Chem. Phys. Lett. 172, 215-218 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Cvetanovic, R. J.

R. J. Cvetanovic, D. L. Singleton, and G. Paraskevopoulos, "Evaluations of the mean values and standard errors of rate constants and their temperature coefficients," J. Phys. Chem. 83, 50-60 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Dasari, R. R.

Day, T.

T. Day, E. K. Gustafson, and R. L. Byer, "Sub-hertz relative frequency stabilization of two diode-laser-pumped Nd:YAG lasers locked to a Fabry-Perot interferometer," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1106-1117 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Deacon, D. A. G.

A. O'Keefe and D. A. G. Deacon, "Cavity ring-down optical spectrometer for absorption measurements using pulsed laser sources," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 2544-2551 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Diettrich, J. C.

Drever, R. W. P.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, "Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator," Appl. Phys. B: Photophys. Laser Chem. 31, 97-105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Dudek, J. B.

J. B. Dudek, P. B. Tarsa, A. Velasquez, M. Wladyslawski, P. Rabinowitz, and K. K. Lehmann, "Trace moisture detection using continuous-wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy," Anal. Chem. 75, 4599-4605 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feld, M. S.

Ford, G. M.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, "Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator," Appl. Phys. B: Photophys. Laser Chem. 31, 97-105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Fox, R. W.

R. W. Fox, C. W. Oates, and L. W. Hollberg, "Stabilizing diode lasers to high-finesse cavities," in Cavity-Enhanced Spectroscopies, R.D.Van Zee and J.P.Looney, eds. (Academic, 2002).

Gambogi, J.

D. Romanini, J. Gambogi, and K. K. Lehmann, "Cavity ring down spectroscopy with cw diode laser excitation," presented at the 50th Ohio State University Symposium on Molecular Spectroscopy, Columbus, Ohio, June 12-16, 1995.

Gough, T. E.

J. A. Barnes, T. E. Gough, and M. Stoer, "Laser power build-up cavity for high-resolution laser spectroscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3515-3518 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gustafson, E. K.

M. J. Lawrence, B. Willke, M. E. Husman, E. K. Gustafson, and R. L. Byer, "Dynamic response of a Fabry-Perot interferometer," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 523-532 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Day, E. K. Gustafson, and R. L. Byer, "Sub-hertz relative frequency stabilization of two diode-laser-pumped Nd:YAG lasers locked to a Fabry-Perot interferometer," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1106-1117 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hall, J. L.

J. Ye and J. L. Hall, "Cavity ringdown heterodyne spectroscopy: High sensitivity with microwatt light power," Phys. Rev. A 61, 061802 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, "Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator," Appl. Phys. B: Photophys. Laser Chem. 31, 97-105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Halonen, L.

M. Metsälä, S. Yang, O. Vaittinen, D. Permogorov, and L. Halonen, "High-resolution cavity ring-down study of acetylene between 12 260 and 12380 cm−1," Chem. Phys. Lett. 346, 373-378 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Harb, C. C.

T. G. Spence, C. C. Harb, B. A. Paldus, R. N. Zare, B. Wilke, and R. L. Byer, "A laser-locked cavity ring-down spectrometer employing an analog detection scheme," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 347-353 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Paldus, C. C. Harb, T. G. Spence, B. Wilke, J. Xie, J. S. Harris, and R. N. Zare, "Cavity-locked ring-down spectroscopy," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3991-3997 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Harris, J. S.

B. A. Paldus, C. C. Harb, T. G. Spence, B. Wilke, J. Xie, J. S. Harris, and R. N. Zare, "Cavity-locked ring-down spectroscopy," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3991-3997 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Martin, B. A. Paldus, P. Zalicki, E. H. Wahl, T. G. Owano, J. S. Harris Jr., C. H. Kruger, and R. N. Zare, "Cavity ring-down spectroscopy with Fourier-transform-limited laser pulses," Chem. Phys. Lett. 258, 63-70 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Heath, J.

A. O'Keefe, J. J. Scherer, A. L. Cooksy, R. Sheeks, J. Heath, and R. J. Saykally, "Cavity ring down dye laser spectroscopy of jet-cooled metal clusters: Cu2 and Cu3," Chem. Phys. Lett. 172, 215-218 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hodges, J. T.

J. T. Hodges, J. P. Looney, and R. D. van Zee, "Response of a ring-down cavity to an arbitrary excitation," J. Chem. Phys. 105, 10278-10288 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Hodges, J. P. Looney, and R. D. van Zee, "Laser bandwidth effects in quantitative cavity ring-down spectroscopy," Appl. Opt. 35, 4112-4116 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hollberg, L. W.

R. W. Fox, C. W. Oates, and L. W. Hollberg, "Stabilizing diode lasers to high-finesse cavities," in Cavity-Enhanced Spectroscopies, R.D.Van Zee and J.P.Looney, eds. (Academic, 2002).

Holleman, I.

R. T. Jongma, M. G. H. Boogaarts, I. Holleman, and G. Meijer, "Trace gas detection with cavity ring down spectroscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 2821-2828 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hough, J.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, "Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator," Appl. Phys. B: Photophys. Laser Chem. 31, 97-105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Husman, M. E.

Jongma, R. T.

R. T. Jongma, M. G. H. Boogaarts, I. Holleman, and G. Meijer, "Trace gas detection with cavity ring down spectroscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 2821-2828 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kachanov, A. A.

D. Romanini, A. A. Kachanov, N. Sadeghi, and F. Stoeckel, "CW cavity ring down spectroscopy," Chem. Phys. Lett. 264, 316-322 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Romanini, A. A. Kachanov, and F. Stoeckel, "Cavity ringdown spectroscopy: broad band absolute absorption measurements," Chem. Phys. Lett. 270, 546-550 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Romanini, A. A. Kachanov, and F. Stoeckel, "Diode laser cavity ring down spectroscopy," Chem. Phys. Lett. 270, 538-545 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kowalski, F. V.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, "Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator," Appl. Phys. B: Photophys. Laser Chem. 31, 97-105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Kruger, C. H.

J. Martin, B. A. Paldus, P. Zalicki, E. H. Wahl, T. G. Owano, J. S. Harris Jr., C. H. Kruger, and R. N. Zare, "Cavity ring-down spectroscopy with Fourier-transform-limited laser pulses," Chem. Phys. Lett. 258, 63-70 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lawrence, M. J.

Le Floch, A.

Lehmann, K. K.

J. B. Dudek, P. B. Tarsa, A. Velasquez, M. Wladyslawski, P. Rabinowitz, and K. K. Lehmann, "Trace moisture detection using continuous-wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy," Anal. Chem. 75, 4599-4605 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. K. Lehmann and D. Romanini, "The superposition principle and cavity ring-down spectroscopy," J. Chem. Phys. 105, 10263-10277 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. Romanini and K. K. Lehmann, "Cavity ring-down overtone spectroscopy of HCN, HC13N and HC15N," J. Chem. Phys. 102, 633-642 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Romanini and K. K. Lehmann, "Ring-down cavity absorption spectroscopy of the very weak HCN overtone bands with six, seven and eight stretching quanta," J. Chem. Phys. 99, 6287-6301 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. K. Lehmann, "Ring-down cavity spectroscopy cell using continuous wave excitation for trace species detection," U.S. Patent 5,528,040, June 18, 1996.

D. Romanini, J. Gambogi, and K. K. Lehmann, "Cavity ring down spectroscopy with cw diode laser excitation," presented at the 50th Ohio State University Symposium on Molecular Spectroscopy, Columbus, Ohio, June 12-16, 1995.

Looney, J. P.

J. T. Hodges, J. P. Looney, and R. D. van Zee, "Laser bandwidth effects in quantitative cavity ring-down spectroscopy," Appl. Opt. 35, 4112-4116 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Hodges, J. P. Looney, and R. D. van Zee, "Response of a ring-down cavity to an arbitrary excitation," J. Chem. Phys. 105, 10278-10288 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Martin, J.

J. Martin, B. A. Paldus, P. Zalicki, E. H. Wahl, T. G. Owano, J. S. Harris Jr., C. H. Kruger, and R. N. Zare, "Cavity ring-down spectroscopy with Fourier-transform-limited laser pulses," Chem. Phys. Lett. 258, 63-70 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Meijer, G.

G. Berden, R. Peeters, and G. Meijer, "Cavity ring-down spectroscopy: Experimental schemes and applications," Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 19, 565-607 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Jongma, M. G. H. Boogaarts, I. Holleman, and G. Meijer, "Trace gas detection with cavity ring down spectroscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 2821-2828 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Metsälä, M.

M. Metsälä, S. Yang, O. Vaittinen, D. Permogorov, and L. Halonen, "High-resolution cavity ring-down study of acetylene between 12 260 and 12380 cm−1," Chem. Phys. Lett. 346, 373-378 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Munley, A. J.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, "Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator," Appl. Phys. B: Photophys. Laser Chem. 31, 97-105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Newman, S. M.

M. D. Wheeler, S. M. Newman, A. J. Orr-Ewing, and M. N. R. Ashfold, "Cavity ring-down spectroscopy," J. Chem. Soc., Faraday Trans. 94, 337-351 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Oates, C. W.

R. W. Fox, C. W. Oates, and L. W. Hollberg, "Stabilizing diode lasers to high-finesse cavities," in Cavity-Enhanced Spectroscopies, R.D.Van Zee and J.P.Looney, eds. (Academic, 2002).

O'Keefe, A.

A. O'Keefe, J. J. Scherer, A. L. Cooksy, R. Sheeks, J. Heath, and R. J. Saykally, "Cavity ring down dye laser spectroscopy of jet-cooled metal clusters: Cu2 and Cu3," Chem. Phys. Lett. 172, 215-218 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. O'Keefe, "Trace gas analysis by pulsed laser absorption spectroscopy," Am. Lab. (Shelton, Conn.) 21, 19-22 (1989).

A. O'Keefe and D. A. G. Deacon, "Cavity ring-down optical spectrometer for absorption measurements using pulsed laser sources," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 2544-2551 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Orr-Ewing, A. J.

M. D. Wheeler, S. M. Newman, A. J. Orr-Ewing, and M. N. R. Ashfold, "Cavity ring-down spectroscopy," J. Chem. Soc., Faraday Trans. 94, 337-351 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Owano, T. G.

J. Martin, B. A. Paldus, P. Zalicki, E. H. Wahl, T. G. Owano, J. S. Harris Jr., C. H. Kruger, and R. N. Zare, "Cavity ring-down spectroscopy with Fourier-transform-limited laser pulses," Chem. Phys. Lett. 258, 63-70 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Paldus, B. A.

T. G. Spence, C. C. Harb, B. A. Paldus, R. N. Zare, B. Wilke, and R. L. Byer, "A laser-locked cavity ring-down spectrometer employing an analog detection scheme," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 347-353 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Paldus, C. C. Harb, T. G. Spence, B. Wilke, J. Xie, J. S. Harris, and R. N. Zare, "Cavity-locked ring-down spectroscopy," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3991-3997 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Martin, B. A. Paldus, P. Zalicki, E. H. Wahl, T. G. Owano, J. S. Harris Jr., C. H. Kruger, and R. N. Zare, "Cavity ring-down spectroscopy with Fourier-transform-limited laser pulses," Chem. Phys. Lett. 258, 63-70 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Paraskevopoulos, G.

R. J. Cvetanovic, D. L. Singleton, and G. Paraskevopoulos, "Evaluations of the mean values and standard errors of rate constants and their temperature coefficients," J. Phys. Chem. 83, 50-60 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Peeters, R.

G. Berden, R. Peeters, and G. Meijer, "Cavity ring-down spectroscopy: Experimental schemes and applications," Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 19, 565-607 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Permogorov, D.

M. Metsälä, S. Yang, O. Vaittinen, D. Permogorov, and L. Halonen, "High-resolution cavity ring-down study of acetylene between 12 260 and 12380 cm−1," Chem. Phys. Lett. 346, 373-378 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Poirson, J.

Rabinowitz, P.

J. B. Dudek, P. B. Tarsa, A. Velasquez, M. Wladyslawski, P. Rabinowitz, and K. K. Lehmann, "Trace moisture detection using continuous-wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy," Anal. Chem. 75, 4599-4605 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Romanini, D.

D. Romanini, A. A. Kachanov, N. Sadeghi, and F. Stoeckel, "CW cavity ring down spectroscopy," Chem. Phys. Lett. 264, 316-322 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Romanini, A. A. Kachanov, and F. Stoeckel, "Diode laser cavity ring down spectroscopy," Chem. Phys. Lett. 270, 538-545 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Romanini, A. A. Kachanov, and F. Stoeckel, "Cavity ringdown spectroscopy: broad band absolute absorption measurements," Chem. Phys. Lett. 270, 546-550 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. K. Lehmann and D. Romanini, "The superposition principle and cavity ring-down spectroscopy," J. Chem. Phys. 105, 10263-10277 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. Romanini and K. K. Lehmann, "Cavity ring-down overtone spectroscopy of HCN, HC13N and HC15N," J. Chem. Phys. 102, 633-642 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Romanini and K. K. Lehmann, "Ring-down cavity absorption spectroscopy of the very weak HCN overtone bands with six, seven and eight stretching quanta," J. Chem. Phys. 99, 6287-6301 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. Romanini, J. Gambogi, and K. K. Lehmann, "Cavity ring down spectroscopy with cw diode laser excitation," presented at the 50th Ohio State University Symposium on Molecular Spectroscopy, Columbus, Ohio, June 12-16, 1995.

Sadeghi, N.

D. Romanini, A. A. Kachanov, N. Sadeghi, and F. Stoeckel, "CW cavity ring down spectroscopy," Chem. Phys. Lett. 264, 316-322 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Saykally, R. J.

A. O'Keefe, J. J. Scherer, A. L. Cooksy, R. Sheeks, J. Heath, and R. J. Saykally, "Cavity ring down dye laser spectroscopy of jet-cooled metal clusters: Cu2 and Cu3," Chem. Phys. Lett. 172, 215-218 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, J. J.

A. O'Keefe, J. J. Scherer, A. L. Cooksy, R. Sheeks, J. Heath, and R. J. Saykally, "Cavity ring down dye laser spectroscopy of jet-cooled metal clusters: Cu2 and Cu3," Chem. Phys. Lett. 172, 215-218 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sheeks, R.

A. O'Keefe, J. J. Scherer, A. L. Cooksy, R. Sheeks, J. Heath, and R. J. Saykally, "Cavity ring down dye laser spectroscopy of jet-cooled metal clusters: Cu2 and Cu3," Chem. Phys. Lett. 172, 215-218 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Singleton, D. L.

R. J. Cvetanovic, D. L. Singleton, and G. Paraskevopoulos, "Evaluations of the mean values and standard errors of rate constants and their temperature coefficients," J. Phys. Chem. 83, 50-60 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Spence, T. G.

T. G. Spence, C. C. Harb, B. A. Paldus, R. N. Zare, B. Wilke, and R. L. Byer, "A laser-locked cavity ring-down spectrometer employing an analog detection scheme," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 347-353 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Paldus, C. C. Harb, T. G. Spence, B. Wilke, J. Xie, J. S. Harris, and R. N. Zare, "Cavity-locked ring-down spectroscopy," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3991-3997 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stedman, G. E.

Li Ziyuan, R. G. T. Bennett, and G. E. Stedman, "Swept-frequency induced optical cavity ringing," Opt. Commun. 86, 51-56 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Stoeckel, F.

D. Romanini, A. A. Kachanov, and F. Stoeckel, "Cavity ringdown spectroscopy: broad band absolute absorption measurements," Chem. Phys. Lett. 270, 546-550 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Romanini, A. A. Kachanov, and F. Stoeckel, "Diode laser cavity ring down spectroscopy," Chem. Phys. Lett. 270, 538-545 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Romanini, A. A. Kachanov, N. Sadeghi, and F. Stoeckel, "CW cavity ring down spectroscopy," Chem. Phys. Lett. 264, 316-322 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Stoer, M.

J. A. Barnes, T. E. Gough, and M. Stoer, "Laser power build-up cavity for high-resolution laser spectroscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3515-3518 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tarsa, P. B.

J. B. Dudek, P. B. Tarsa, A. Velasquez, M. Wladyslawski, P. Rabinowitz, and K. K. Lehmann, "Trace moisture detection using continuous-wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy," Anal. Chem. 75, 4599-4605 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vaittinen, O.

M. Metsälä, S. Yang, O. Vaittinen, D. Permogorov, and L. Halonen, "High-resolution cavity ring-down study of acetylene between 12 260 and 12380 cm−1," Chem. Phys. Lett. 346, 373-378 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vallet, M.

van Leeuwen, N. J.

van Zee, R. D.

J. T. Hodges, J. P. Looney, and R. D. van Zee, "Response of a ring-down cavity to an arbitrary excitation," J. Chem. Phys. 105, 10278-10288 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Hodges, J. P. Looney, and R. D. van Zee, "Laser bandwidth effects in quantitative cavity ring-down spectroscopy," Appl. Opt. 35, 4112-4116 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Velasquez, A.

J. B. Dudek, P. B. Tarsa, A. Velasquez, M. Wladyslawski, P. Rabinowitz, and K. K. Lehmann, "Trace moisture detection using continuous-wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy," Anal. Chem. 75, 4599-4605 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wahl, E. H.

J. Martin, B. A. Paldus, P. Zalicki, E. H. Wahl, T. G. Owano, J. S. Harris Jr., C. H. Kruger, and R. N. Zare, "Cavity ring-down spectroscopy with Fourier-transform-limited laser pulses," Chem. Phys. Lett. 258, 63-70 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ward, H.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, "Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator," Appl. Phys. B: Photophys. Laser Chem. 31, 97-105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Wheeler, M. D.

M. D. Wheeler, S. M. Newman, A. J. Orr-Ewing, and M. N. R. Ashfold, "Cavity ring-down spectroscopy," J. Chem. Soc., Faraday Trans. 94, 337-351 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wilke, B.

T. G. Spence, C. C. Harb, B. A. Paldus, R. N. Zare, B. Wilke, and R. L. Byer, "A laser-locked cavity ring-down spectrometer employing an analog detection scheme," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 347-353 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Paldus, C. C. Harb, T. G. Spence, B. Wilke, J. Xie, J. S. Harris, and R. N. Zare, "Cavity-locked ring-down spectroscopy," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3991-3997 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Willke, B.

Wilson, A. C.

Wladyslawski, M.

J. B. Dudek, P. B. Tarsa, A. Velasquez, M. Wladyslawski, P. Rabinowitz, and K. K. Lehmann, "Trace moisture detection using continuous-wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy," Anal. Chem. 75, 4599-4605 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xie, J.

B. A. Paldus, C. C. Harb, T. G. Spence, B. Wilke, J. Xie, J. S. Harris, and R. N. Zare, "Cavity-locked ring-down spectroscopy," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3991-3997 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C.

Yang, S.

M. Metsälä, S. Yang, O. Vaittinen, D. Permogorov, and L. Halonen, "High-resolution cavity ring-down study of acetylene between 12 260 and 12380 cm−1," Chem. Phys. Lett. 346, 373-378 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ye, J.

J. Ye and J. L. Hall, "Cavity ringdown heterodyne spectroscopy: High sensitivity with microwatt light power," Phys. Rev. A 61, 061802 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Ye, Joint Institute for Laboratory Astrophysics (Space), National Institute of Standards and Technology, and University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0440 (personal communication, 2005).

Zalicki, P.

J. Martin, B. A. Paldus, P. Zalicki, E. H. Wahl, T. G. Owano, J. S. Harris Jr., C. H. Kruger, and R. N. Zare, "Cavity ring-down spectroscopy with Fourier-transform-limited laser pulses," Chem. Phys. Lett. 258, 63-70 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. Zalicki and R. N. Zare, "Cavity ring-down spectroscopy for quantitative absorption measurements," J. Chem. Phys. 102, 2708-2717 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zare, R. N.

T. G. Spence, C. C. Harb, B. A. Paldus, R. N. Zare, B. Wilke, and R. L. Byer, "A laser-locked cavity ring-down spectrometer employing an analog detection scheme," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 347-353 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Paldus, C. C. Harb, T. G. Spence, B. Wilke, J. Xie, J. S. Harris, and R. N. Zare, "Cavity-locked ring-down spectroscopy," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3991-3997 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Martin, B. A. Paldus, P. Zalicki, E. H. Wahl, T. G. Owano, J. S. Harris Jr., C. H. Kruger, and R. N. Zare, "Cavity ring-down spectroscopy with Fourier-transform-limited laser pulses," Chem. Phys. Lett. 258, 63-70 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. Zalicki and R. N. Zare, "Cavity ring-down spectroscopy for quantitative absorption measurements," J. Chem. Phys. 102, 2708-2717 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ziyuan, Li

Li Ziyuan, R. G. T. Bennett, and G. E. Stedman, "Swept-frequency induced optical cavity ringing," Opt. Commun. 86, 51-56 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Am. Lab. (Shelton, Conn.)

A. O'Keefe, "Trace gas analysis by pulsed laser absorption spectroscopy," Am. Lab. (Shelton, Conn.) 21, 19-22 (1989).

Anal. Chem.

J. B. Dudek, P. B. Tarsa, A. Velasquez, M. Wladyslawski, P. Rabinowitz, and K. K. Lehmann, "Trace moisture detection using continuous-wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy," Anal. Chem. 75, 4599-4605 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. B: Photophys. Laser Chem.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, "Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator," Appl. Phys. B: Photophys. Laser Chem. 31, 97-105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett.

M. Metsälä, S. Yang, O. Vaittinen, D. Permogorov, and L. Halonen, "High-resolution cavity ring-down study of acetylene between 12 260 and 12380 cm−1," Chem. Phys. Lett. 346, 373-378 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. O'Keefe, J. J. Scherer, A. L. Cooksy, R. Sheeks, J. Heath, and R. J. Saykally, "Cavity ring down dye laser spectroscopy of jet-cooled metal clusters: Cu2 and Cu3," Chem. Phys. Lett. 172, 215-218 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Martin, B. A. Paldus, P. Zalicki, E. H. Wahl, T. G. Owano, J. S. Harris Jr., C. H. Kruger, and R. N. Zare, "Cavity ring-down spectroscopy with Fourier-transform-limited laser pulses," Chem. Phys. Lett. 258, 63-70 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. Romanini, A. A. Kachanov, N. Sadeghi, and F. Stoeckel, "CW cavity ring down spectroscopy," Chem. Phys. Lett. 264, 316-322 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Romanini, A. A. Kachanov, and F. Stoeckel, "Diode laser cavity ring down spectroscopy," Chem. Phys. Lett. 270, 538-545 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Romanini, A. A. Kachanov, and F. Stoeckel, "Cavity ringdown spectroscopy: broad band absolute absorption measurements," Chem. Phys. Lett. 270, 546-550 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

T. Day, E. K. Gustafson, and R. L. Byer, "Sub-hertz relative frequency stabilization of two diode-laser-pumped Nd:YAG lasers locked to a Fabry-Perot interferometer," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1106-1117 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Int. Rev. Phys. Chem.

G. Berden, R. Peeters, and G. Meijer, "Cavity ring-down spectroscopy: Experimental schemes and applications," Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 19, 565-607 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

B. A. Paldus, C. C. Harb, T. G. Spence, B. Wilke, J. Xie, J. S. Harris, and R. N. Zare, "Cavity-locked ring-down spectroscopy," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3991-3997 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys.

D. Romanini and K. K. Lehmann, "Ring-down cavity absorption spectroscopy of the very weak HCN overtone bands with six, seven and eight stretching quanta," J. Chem. Phys. 99, 6287-6301 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. Romanini and K. K. Lehmann, "Cavity ring-down overtone spectroscopy of HCN, HC13N and HC15N," J. Chem. Phys. 102, 633-642 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Zalicki and R. N. Zare, "Cavity ring-down spectroscopy for quantitative absorption measurements," J. Chem. Phys. 102, 2708-2717 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Hodges, J. P. Looney, and R. D. van Zee, "Response of a ring-down cavity to an arbitrary excitation," J. Chem. Phys. 105, 10278-10288 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. K. Lehmann and D. Romanini, "The superposition principle and cavity ring-down spectroscopy," J. Chem. Phys. 105, 10263-10277 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Soc., Faraday Trans.

M. D. Wheeler, S. M. Newman, A. J. Orr-Ewing, and M. N. R. Ashfold, "Cavity ring-down spectroscopy," J. Chem. Soc., Faraday Trans. 94, 337-351 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Phys. Chem.

R. J. Cvetanovic, D. L. Singleton, and G. Paraskevopoulos, "Evaluations of the mean values and standard errors of rate constants and their temperature coefficients," J. Phys. Chem. 83, 50-60 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

Li Ziyuan, R. G. T. Bennett, and G. E. Stedman, "Swept-frequency induced optical cavity ringing," Opt. Commun. 86, 51-56 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

J. Ye and J. L. Hall, "Cavity ringdown heterodyne spectroscopy: High sensitivity with microwatt light power," Phys. Rev. A 61, 061802 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

A. O'Keefe and D. A. G. Deacon, "Cavity ring-down optical spectrometer for absorption measurements using pulsed laser sources," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 2544-2551 (1988).
[CrossRef]

T. G. Spence, C. C. Harb, B. A. Paldus, R. N. Zare, B. Wilke, and R. L. Byer, "A laser-locked cavity ring-down spectrometer employing an analog detection scheme," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 347-353 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Barnes, T. E. Gough, and M. Stoer, "Laser power build-up cavity for high-resolution laser spectroscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3515-3518 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Jongma, M. G. H. Boogaarts, I. Holleman, and G. Meijer, "Trace gas detection with cavity ring down spectroscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 2821-2828 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other

K. K. Lehmann, "Ring-down cavity spectroscopy cell using continuous wave excitation for trace species detection," U.S. Patent 5,528,040, June 18, 1996.

D. Romanini, J. Gambogi, and K. K. Lehmann, "Cavity ring down spectroscopy with cw diode laser excitation," presented at the 50th Ohio State University Symposium on Molecular Spectroscopy, Columbus, Ohio, June 12-16, 1995.

We will confine our discussion to what we regard as "standard" cavity ringdown setups, which rely on the measurement of the decay time of the cavity. This explicitly excludes the group of what nowadays are called "cavity-enhanced" techniques, which are also based on the use of external interferometers but typically do not rely on the measurement of decay times. While technically complex, some of these techniques have demonstrated exceptional sensitivities.

J. Ye, Joint Institute for Laboratory Astrophysics (Space), National Institute of Standards and Technology, and University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0440 (personal communication, 2005).

Nominally, the sensitivity of CRDS experiments is independent of the light intensity used, but this is true only as long as the intensity is large enough to stay away from the noise floor of the detectors. When detector noise is no longer negligible, the sensitivity is also reduced.

R. W. Fox, C. W. Oates, and L. W. Hollberg, "Stabilizing diode lasers to high-finesse cavities," in Cavity-Enhanced Spectroscopies, R.D.Van Zee and J.P.Looney, eds. (Academic, 2002).

Typically, with mirror reflectivities of 99.95% and higher.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Electronic feedback system. (a) Simplified scheme of the feedback electronics. (b) Gain transfer function of the feedback electronics.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Oscilloscope trace of the repetitive locking/unlocking process.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Distribution of 10 000 decay times.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Sample of baseline noise during a scan.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Q-branch head of the recorded C 2 12 H 2 overtone. (a) Global view of the first lines of the Q-brnach. (b) Gaussian fit of the J = 10 line.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

α = 1 R L Δ τ τ .
α = 1 c ( 1 τ 1 τ 0 ) ,
α min = 1 c ( 1 τ 0 σ 0 1 τ 0 ) .

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