Abstract

An analytic theory is proposed that characterizes Q switching in an active mode-locked cavity as the nonlinear interaction of two unstable modes: one symmetric, another antisymmetric. The phase difference between these modes generates a nonlinear beating interaction that gives rise to quasi-periodic behavior in the laser cavity. This quasi-periodic behavior is responsible for the Q-switching phenomenon and is controlled by the interaction and overlap between neighboring pulses. With a linear stability analysis, a simple qualitative description of the Q-switching phenomenon is given that is verified with numerical simulations of the governing active mode-locked equations. This model characterizes the Q switching as a function of the physical parameters of the laser cavity and elucidates the mechanisms for controlling its behavior.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. A. Haus, "Parameter ranges for CW passive mode locking," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 12, 169-176 (1976).
  2. F. X. Kärtner, L. Brovelli, D. Kopf, M. Kamp, I. Calasso, and U. Keller, "Control of solid state laser dynamics of semiconductor devices," Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 34, 2024-2036 (1995).
  3. C. Hönninger, P. Paschotta, F. Morier-Genoud, M. Moser, and U. Keller, "Q-switching stability limits of continuous-wave passive mode locking," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 45-56 (1999).
  4. H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, and K. Tamura, "Additive-pulse mode-locking in fiber lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 200-208 (1994).
  5. H. A. Haus, "Mode-locking of lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 1173-1185 (2000).
  6. J. J. O'Neil, J. N. Kutz, and B. Sandstede, "Theory and simulation of the dynamics and stability of actively mode-locked lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1412-1419 (2002).
  7. G. L. Eesley, "Generation of nonequilibrium electron and lattice temperature in copper by picosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. B 33, 2144-2151 (1986).
  8. V. I. Klimov and D. W. McBranch, "Femtosecond high-sensitivity, chirp-free transient absorption spectroscopy using kilohertz lasers," Opt. Lett. 23, 277-279 (1998).
  9. J. A. Squier, M. Müller, G. J. Brakenhoff, and K. R. Wilson, "Third harmonic generation microscopy," Opt. Express 3, 315-324 (1998).
  10. J.-M. Hopkins and W. Sibbett, "Utrashort-pulse lasers: big payoffs in a flash," Sci. Am. September 2000, pp. 73-79.
  11. G. A. Mourou and D. Umdstader, "Extreme light," Sci. Am. June 2002, pp. 63-68.
  12. L. da Silva, M. Perry, M. Feit, and B. Stuart, "The short-pulse laser: a safe, painless surgical tool," Sci. Technol. Rev. September 1995, pp. 29-31.
  13. H. A. Haus and W. S. Wong, "Solitons in optical communications," Rev. Mod. Phys. 68, 423-444 (1996).
  14. K. Tamura, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, "Self-starting additive pulse mode-locked erbium fiber ring laser," Electron. Lett. 28, 2226-2228 (1992).
  15. M. E. Fermann, M. J. Andrejco, Y. Silverberg, and M. L. Stock, "Passive mode locking by using nonlinear polarization evolution in a polarizing-maintaining erbium-doped fiber laser," Opt. Lett. 29, 447-449 (1993).
  16. D. Y. Tang, W. S. Man, and H. Y. Tam, "Stimulated soliton pulse formation and its mechanism in a passively mode-locked fibre soliton laser," Opt. Commun. 165, 189-194 (1999).
  17. I. N. Duling III, "Subpicosecond all-fiber erbium laser," Electron. Lett. 27, 544-545 (1991).
  18. D. J. Richardson, R. I. Laming, D. N. Payne, V. J. Matsas, and M. W. Phillips, "Self-starting, passively mode-locked erbium fiber laser based on the amplifying Sagnac switch," Electron. Lett. 27, 542-544 (1991).
  19. M. L. Dennis and I. N. Duling III, "High repetition rate figure eight laser with extracavity feedback," Electron. Lett. 28, 1894-1896 (1992).
  20. F. X. Kärtner and U. Keller, "Stabilization of solitonlike pulses with a slow saturable absorber," Opt. Lett. 20, 16-18 (1995).
  21. B. Collings, S. Tsuda, S. Cundiff, J. N. Kutz, M. Koch, W. Knox, and K. Bergman, "Short cavity erbium/ytterbium fiber lasers mode-locked with a saturable Bragg reflector," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1065-1075 (1997).
  22. S. Tsuda, W. H. Knox, E. A. DeSouza, W. J. Jan, and J. E. Cunningham, "Low-loss intracavity AlAs/AlGaAs saturable Bragg reflector for femtosecond mode locking in solid-state lasers," Opt. Lett. 20, 1406-1408 (1995).
  23. F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, and U. Keller, "Solitary pulse stabilization and shortening in actively mode-locked lasers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 486-496 (1995).
  24. H. A. Haus, "A theory of forced mode locking," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11, 323-330 (1975).
  25. T. Kolokolnikov, T. Erneux, N. Joly, and S. Bielawski, "The Q-switching instability in passively mode-locked lasers," Physica D, submitted for publication.
  26. M.Abramowitz and I.A.Stegun, eds., Handbook of Mathematical Functions (National Bureau of Standards, Washington, D.C., 1964).
  27. J. M. Soto-Crespo, M. Grapinet, P. Grelu, and N. Akhmediev, "Bifurcations and multiple-period soliton pulsations in a passively mode-locked fiber laser," Phys. Rev. E 70, 066612 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  28. P. G. Drazin, Nonlinear Systems (Cambridge u. Press, 1992).
  29. W. Magnus, Hill's Equation (Wiley, 1966).
  30. M. I. Weinstein, "Modulational stability of ground states of the nonlinear Schrödinger equations," SIAM J. Appl. Math. 16, 472-491 (1985).

2004 (1)

J. M. Soto-Crespo, M. Grapinet, P. Grelu, and N. Akhmediev, "Bifurcations and multiple-period soliton pulsations in a passively mode-locked fiber laser," Phys. Rev. E 70, 066612 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

J. J. O'Neil, J. N. Kutz, and B. Sandstede, "Theory and simulation of the dynamics and stability of actively mode-locked lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1412-1419 (2002).

2000 (1)

H. A. Haus, "Mode-locking of lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 1173-1185 (2000).

1999 (2)

D. Y. Tang, W. S. Man, and H. Y. Tam, "Stimulated soliton pulse formation and its mechanism in a passively mode-locked fibre soliton laser," Opt. Commun. 165, 189-194 (1999).

C. Hönninger, P. Paschotta, F. Morier-Genoud, M. Moser, and U. Keller, "Q-switching stability limits of continuous-wave passive mode locking," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 45-56 (1999).

1998 (2)

1997 (1)

B. Collings, S. Tsuda, S. Cundiff, J. N. Kutz, M. Koch, W. Knox, and K. Bergman, "Short cavity erbium/ytterbium fiber lasers mode-locked with a saturable Bragg reflector," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1065-1075 (1997).

1996 (1)

H. A. Haus and W. S. Wong, "Solitons in optical communications," Rev. Mod. Phys. 68, 423-444 (1996).

1995 (4)

1994 (1)

H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, and K. Tamura, "Additive-pulse mode-locking in fiber lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 200-208 (1994).

1993 (1)

M. E. Fermann, M. J. Andrejco, Y. Silverberg, and M. L. Stock, "Passive mode locking by using nonlinear polarization evolution in a polarizing-maintaining erbium-doped fiber laser," Opt. Lett. 29, 447-449 (1993).

1992 (2)

K. Tamura, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, "Self-starting additive pulse mode-locked erbium fiber ring laser," Electron. Lett. 28, 2226-2228 (1992).

M. L. Dennis and I. N. Duling III, "High repetition rate figure eight laser with extracavity feedback," Electron. Lett. 28, 1894-1896 (1992).

1991 (2)

I. N. Duling III, "Subpicosecond all-fiber erbium laser," Electron. Lett. 27, 544-545 (1991).

D. J. Richardson, R. I. Laming, D. N. Payne, V. J. Matsas, and M. W. Phillips, "Self-starting, passively mode-locked erbium fiber laser based on the amplifying Sagnac switch," Electron. Lett. 27, 542-544 (1991).

1986 (1)

G. L. Eesley, "Generation of nonequilibrium electron and lattice temperature in copper by picosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. B 33, 2144-2151 (1986).

1985 (1)

M. I. Weinstein, "Modulational stability of ground states of the nonlinear Schrödinger equations," SIAM J. Appl. Math. 16, 472-491 (1985).

1976 (1)

H. A. Haus, "Parameter ranges for CW passive mode locking," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 12, 169-176 (1976).

1975 (1)

H. A. Haus, "A theory of forced mode locking," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11, 323-330 (1975).

Akhmediev, N.

J. M. Soto-Crespo, M. Grapinet, P. Grelu, and N. Akhmediev, "Bifurcations and multiple-period soliton pulsations in a passively mode-locked fiber laser," Phys. Rev. E 70, 066612 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Andrejco, M. J.

M. E. Fermann, M. J. Andrejco, Y. Silverberg, and M. L. Stock, "Passive mode locking by using nonlinear polarization evolution in a polarizing-maintaining erbium-doped fiber laser," Opt. Lett. 29, 447-449 (1993).

Bergman, K.

B. Collings, S. Tsuda, S. Cundiff, J. N. Kutz, M. Koch, W. Knox, and K. Bergman, "Short cavity erbium/ytterbium fiber lasers mode-locked with a saturable Bragg reflector," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1065-1075 (1997).

Bielawski, S.

T. Kolokolnikov, T. Erneux, N. Joly, and S. Bielawski, "The Q-switching instability in passively mode-locked lasers," Physica D, submitted for publication.

Brakenhoff, G. J.

Brovelli, L.

F. X. Kärtner, L. Brovelli, D. Kopf, M. Kamp, I. Calasso, and U. Keller, "Control of solid state laser dynamics of semiconductor devices," Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 34, 2024-2036 (1995).

Calasso, I.

F. X. Kärtner, L. Brovelli, D. Kopf, M. Kamp, I. Calasso, and U. Keller, "Control of solid state laser dynamics of semiconductor devices," Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 34, 2024-2036 (1995).

Collings, B.

B. Collings, S. Tsuda, S. Cundiff, J. N. Kutz, M. Koch, W. Knox, and K. Bergman, "Short cavity erbium/ytterbium fiber lasers mode-locked with a saturable Bragg reflector," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1065-1075 (1997).

Cundiff, S.

B. Collings, S. Tsuda, S. Cundiff, J. N. Kutz, M. Koch, W. Knox, and K. Bergman, "Short cavity erbium/ytterbium fiber lasers mode-locked with a saturable Bragg reflector," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1065-1075 (1997).

Cunningham, J. E.

da Silva, L.

L. da Silva, M. Perry, M. Feit, and B. Stuart, "The short-pulse laser: a safe, painless surgical tool," Sci. Technol. Rev. September 1995, pp. 29-31.

Dennis, M. L.

M. L. Dennis and I. N. Duling III, "High repetition rate figure eight laser with extracavity feedback," Electron. Lett. 28, 1894-1896 (1992).

DeSouza, E. A.

Drazin, P. G.

P. G. Drazin, Nonlinear Systems (Cambridge u. Press, 1992).

Duling, I. N.

M. L. Dennis and I. N. Duling III, "High repetition rate figure eight laser with extracavity feedback," Electron. Lett. 28, 1894-1896 (1992).

I. N. Duling III, "Subpicosecond all-fiber erbium laser," Electron. Lett. 27, 544-545 (1991).

Eesley, G. L.

G. L. Eesley, "Generation of nonequilibrium electron and lattice temperature in copper by picosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. B 33, 2144-2151 (1986).

Erneux, T.

T. Kolokolnikov, T. Erneux, N. Joly, and S. Bielawski, "The Q-switching instability in passively mode-locked lasers," Physica D, submitted for publication.

Feit, M.

L. da Silva, M. Perry, M. Feit, and B. Stuart, "The short-pulse laser: a safe, painless surgical tool," Sci. Technol. Rev. September 1995, pp. 29-31.

Fermann, M. E.

M. E. Fermann, M. J. Andrejco, Y. Silverberg, and M. L. Stock, "Passive mode locking by using nonlinear polarization evolution in a polarizing-maintaining erbium-doped fiber laser," Opt. Lett. 29, 447-449 (1993).

Grapinet, M.

J. M. Soto-Crespo, M. Grapinet, P. Grelu, and N. Akhmediev, "Bifurcations and multiple-period soliton pulsations in a passively mode-locked fiber laser," Phys. Rev. E 70, 066612 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Grelu, P.

J. M. Soto-Crespo, M. Grapinet, P. Grelu, and N. Akhmediev, "Bifurcations and multiple-period soliton pulsations in a passively mode-locked fiber laser," Phys. Rev. E 70, 066612 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Haus, H. A.

H. A. Haus, "Mode-locking of lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 1173-1185 (2000).

H. A. Haus and W. S. Wong, "Solitons in optical communications," Rev. Mod. Phys. 68, 423-444 (1996).

H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, and K. Tamura, "Additive-pulse mode-locking in fiber lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 200-208 (1994).

K. Tamura, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, "Self-starting additive pulse mode-locked erbium fiber ring laser," Electron. Lett. 28, 2226-2228 (1992).

H. A. Haus, "Parameter ranges for CW passive mode locking," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 12, 169-176 (1976).

H. A. Haus, "A theory of forced mode locking," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11, 323-330 (1975).

Hönninger, C.

C. Hönninger, P. Paschotta, F. Morier-Genoud, M. Moser, and U. Keller, "Q-switching stability limits of continuous-wave passive mode locking," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 45-56 (1999).

Hopkins, J.-M.

J.-M. Hopkins and W. Sibbett, "Utrashort-pulse lasers: big payoffs in a flash," Sci. Am. September 2000, pp. 73-79.

Ippen, E. P.

H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, and K. Tamura, "Additive-pulse mode-locking in fiber lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 200-208 (1994).

K. Tamura, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, "Self-starting additive pulse mode-locked erbium fiber ring laser," Electron. Lett. 28, 2226-2228 (1992).

Jan, W. J.

Joly, N.

T. Kolokolnikov, T. Erneux, N. Joly, and S. Bielawski, "The Q-switching instability in passively mode-locked lasers," Physica D, submitted for publication.

Kamp, M.

F. X. Kärtner, L. Brovelli, D. Kopf, M. Kamp, I. Calasso, and U. Keller, "Control of solid state laser dynamics of semiconductor devices," Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 34, 2024-2036 (1995).

Kärtner, F. X.

Keller, U.

C. Hönninger, P. Paschotta, F. Morier-Genoud, M. Moser, and U. Keller, "Q-switching stability limits of continuous-wave passive mode locking," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 45-56 (1999).

F. X. Kärtner and U. Keller, "Stabilization of solitonlike pulses with a slow saturable absorber," Opt. Lett. 20, 16-18 (1995).

F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, and U. Keller, "Solitary pulse stabilization and shortening in actively mode-locked lasers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 486-496 (1995).

F. X. Kärtner, L. Brovelli, D. Kopf, M. Kamp, I. Calasso, and U. Keller, "Control of solid state laser dynamics of semiconductor devices," Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 34, 2024-2036 (1995).

Klimov, V. I.

Knox, W.

B. Collings, S. Tsuda, S. Cundiff, J. N. Kutz, M. Koch, W. Knox, and K. Bergman, "Short cavity erbium/ytterbium fiber lasers mode-locked with a saturable Bragg reflector," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1065-1075 (1997).

Knox, W. H.

Koch, M.

B. Collings, S. Tsuda, S. Cundiff, J. N. Kutz, M. Koch, W. Knox, and K. Bergman, "Short cavity erbium/ytterbium fiber lasers mode-locked with a saturable Bragg reflector," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1065-1075 (1997).

Kolokolnikov, T.

T. Kolokolnikov, T. Erneux, N. Joly, and S. Bielawski, "The Q-switching instability in passively mode-locked lasers," Physica D, submitted for publication.

Kopf, D.

F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, and U. Keller, "Solitary pulse stabilization and shortening in actively mode-locked lasers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 486-496 (1995).

F. X. Kärtner, L. Brovelli, D. Kopf, M. Kamp, I. Calasso, and U. Keller, "Control of solid state laser dynamics of semiconductor devices," Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 34, 2024-2036 (1995).

Kutz, J. N.

J. J. O'Neil, J. N. Kutz, and B. Sandstede, "Theory and simulation of the dynamics and stability of actively mode-locked lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1412-1419 (2002).

B. Collings, S. Tsuda, S. Cundiff, J. N. Kutz, M. Koch, W. Knox, and K. Bergman, "Short cavity erbium/ytterbium fiber lasers mode-locked with a saturable Bragg reflector," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1065-1075 (1997).

Laming, R. I.

D. J. Richardson, R. I. Laming, D. N. Payne, V. J. Matsas, and M. W. Phillips, "Self-starting, passively mode-locked erbium fiber laser based on the amplifying Sagnac switch," Electron. Lett. 27, 542-544 (1991).

Magnus, W.

W. Magnus, Hill's Equation (Wiley, 1966).

Man, W. S.

D. Y. Tang, W. S. Man, and H. Y. Tam, "Stimulated soliton pulse formation and its mechanism in a passively mode-locked fibre soliton laser," Opt. Commun. 165, 189-194 (1999).

Matsas, V. J.

D. J. Richardson, R. I. Laming, D. N. Payne, V. J. Matsas, and M. W. Phillips, "Self-starting, passively mode-locked erbium fiber laser based on the amplifying Sagnac switch," Electron. Lett. 27, 542-544 (1991).

McBranch, D. W.

Morier-Genoud, F.

C. Hönninger, P. Paschotta, F. Morier-Genoud, M. Moser, and U. Keller, "Q-switching stability limits of continuous-wave passive mode locking," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 45-56 (1999).

Moser, M.

C. Hönninger, P. Paschotta, F. Morier-Genoud, M. Moser, and U. Keller, "Q-switching stability limits of continuous-wave passive mode locking," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 45-56 (1999).

Mourou, G. A.

G. A. Mourou and D. Umdstader, "Extreme light," Sci. Am. June 2002, pp. 63-68.

Müller, M.

O'Neil, J. J.

J. J. O'Neil, J. N. Kutz, and B. Sandstede, "Theory and simulation of the dynamics and stability of actively mode-locked lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1412-1419 (2002).

Paschotta, P.

C. Hönninger, P. Paschotta, F. Morier-Genoud, M. Moser, and U. Keller, "Q-switching stability limits of continuous-wave passive mode locking," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 45-56 (1999).

Payne, D. N.

D. J. Richardson, R. I. Laming, D. N. Payne, V. J. Matsas, and M. W. Phillips, "Self-starting, passively mode-locked erbium fiber laser based on the amplifying Sagnac switch," Electron. Lett. 27, 542-544 (1991).

Perry, M.

L. da Silva, M. Perry, M. Feit, and B. Stuart, "The short-pulse laser: a safe, painless surgical tool," Sci. Technol. Rev. September 1995, pp. 29-31.

Phillips, M. W.

D. J. Richardson, R. I. Laming, D. N. Payne, V. J. Matsas, and M. W. Phillips, "Self-starting, passively mode-locked erbium fiber laser based on the amplifying Sagnac switch," Electron. Lett. 27, 542-544 (1991).

Richardson, D. J.

D. J. Richardson, R. I. Laming, D. N. Payne, V. J. Matsas, and M. W. Phillips, "Self-starting, passively mode-locked erbium fiber laser based on the amplifying Sagnac switch," Electron. Lett. 27, 542-544 (1991).

Sandstede, B.

J. J. O'Neil, J. N. Kutz, and B. Sandstede, "Theory and simulation of the dynamics and stability of actively mode-locked lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1412-1419 (2002).

Sibbett, W.

J.-M. Hopkins and W. Sibbett, "Utrashort-pulse lasers: big payoffs in a flash," Sci. Am. September 2000, pp. 73-79.

Silverberg, Y.

M. E. Fermann, M. J. Andrejco, Y. Silverberg, and M. L. Stock, "Passive mode locking by using nonlinear polarization evolution in a polarizing-maintaining erbium-doped fiber laser," Opt. Lett. 29, 447-449 (1993).

Soto-Crespo, J. M.

J. M. Soto-Crespo, M. Grapinet, P. Grelu, and N. Akhmediev, "Bifurcations and multiple-period soliton pulsations in a passively mode-locked fiber laser," Phys. Rev. E 70, 066612 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Squier, J. A.

Stock, M. L.

M. E. Fermann, M. J. Andrejco, Y. Silverberg, and M. L. Stock, "Passive mode locking by using nonlinear polarization evolution in a polarizing-maintaining erbium-doped fiber laser," Opt. Lett. 29, 447-449 (1993).

Stuart, B.

L. da Silva, M. Perry, M. Feit, and B. Stuart, "The short-pulse laser: a safe, painless surgical tool," Sci. Technol. Rev. September 1995, pp. 29-31.

Tam, H. Y.

D. Y. Tang, W. S. Man, and H. Y. Tam, "Stimulated soliton pulse formation and its mechanism in a passively mode-locked fibre soliton laser," Opt. Commun. 165, 189-194 (1999).

Tamura, K.

H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, and K. Tamura, "Additive-pulse mode-locking in fiber lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 200-208 (1994).

K. Tamura, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, "Self-starting additive pulse mode-locked erbium fiber ring laser," Electron. Lett. 28, 2226-2228 (1992).

Tang, D. Y.

D. Y. Tang, W. S. Man, and H. Y. Tam, "Stimulated soliton pulse formation and its mechanism in a passively mode-locked fibre soliton laser," Opt. Commun. 165, 189-194 (1999).

Tsuda, S.

B. Collings, S. Tsuda, S. Cundiff, J. N. Kutz, M. Koch, W. Knox, and K. Bergman, "Short cavity erbium/ytterbium fiber lasers mode-locked with a saturable Bragg reflector," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1065-1075 (1997).

S. Tsuda, W. H. Knox, E. A. DeSouza, W. J. Jan, and J. E. Cunningham, "Low-loss intracavity AlAs/AlGaAs saturable Bragg reflector for femtosecond mode locking in solid-state lasers," Opt. Lett. 20, 1406-1408 (1995).

Umdstader, D.

G. A. Mourou and D. Umdstader, "Extreme light," Sci. Am. June 2002, pp. 63-68.

Weinstein, M. I.

M. I. Weinstein, "Modulational stability of ground states of the nonlinear Schrödinger equations," SIAM J. Appl. Math. 16, 472-491 (1985).

Wilson, K. R.

Wong, W. S.

H. A. Haus and W. S. Wong, "Solitons in optical communications," Rev. Mod. Phys. 68, 423-444 (1996).

Electron. Lett. (4)

K. Tamura, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, "Self-starting additive pulse mode-locked erbium fiber ring laser," Electron. Lett. 28, 2226-2228 (1992).

I. N. Duling III, "Subpicosecond all-fiber erbium laser," Electron. Lett. 27, 544-545 (1991).

D. J. Richardson, R. I. Laming, D. N. Payne, V. J. Matsas, and M. W. Phillips, "Self-starting, passively mode-locked erbium fiber laser based on the amplifying Sagnac switch," Electron. Lett. 27, 542-544 (1991).

M. L. Dennis and I. N. Duling III, "High repetition rate figure eight laser with extracavity feedback," Electron. Lett. 28, 1894-1896 (1992).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (4)

H. A. Haus, "A theory of forced mode locking," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11, 323-330 (1975).

H. A. Haus, "Parameter ranges for CW passive mode locking," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 12, 169-176 (1976).

H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, and K. Tamura, "Additive-pulse mode-locking in fiber lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 200-208 (1994).

J. J. O'Neil, J. N. Kutz, and B. Sandstede, "Theory and simulation of the dynamics and stability of actively mode-locked lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1412-1419 (2002).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

H. A. Haus, "Mode-locking of lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 1173-1185 (2000).

B. Collings, S. Tsuda, S. Cundiff, J. N. Kutz, M. Koch, W. Knox, and K. Bergman, "Short cavity erbium/ytterbium fiber lasers mode-locked with a saturable Bragg reflector," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1065-1075 (1997).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, and U. Keller, "Solitary pulse stabilization and shortening in actively mode-locked lasers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 486-496 (1995).

C. Hönninger, P. Paschotta, F. Morier-Genoud, M. Moser, and U. Keller, "Q-switching stability limits of continuous-wave passive mode locking," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 45-56 (1999).

Opt. Commun. (1)

D. Y. Tang, W. S. Man, and H. Y. Tam, "Stimulated soliton pulse formation and its mechanism in a passively mode-locked fibre soliton laser," Opt. Commun. 165, 189-194 (1999).

Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) (1)

F. X. Kärtner, L. Brovelli, D. Kopf, M. Kamp, I. Calasso, and U. Keller, "Control of solid state laser dynamics of semiconductor devices," Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 34, 2024-2036 (1995).

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

G. L. Eesley, "Generation of nonequilibrium electron and lattice temperature in copper by picosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. B 33, 2144-2151 (1986).

Phys. Rev. E (1)

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[CrossRef]

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