Abstract

We experimentally demonstrate a comparatively low-loss negative-index metamaterial with the magnitude of the real part of the index comparable with the imaginary part. Over 40% transmission is achieved in the negative-index region by structural adjustment of the impedance matching between the metamaterial and the air–substrate claddings. This structure has the potential of achieving high transmission and small loss in the negative-index region.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. B. Pendry, "Negative refraction makes a perfect lens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966-3969 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction," Science 292, 77-79 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. N. C. Panoiu and R. M. Osgood, "Numerical investigation of negative refractive index metamaterials at infrared and optical frequencies," Opt. Commun. 233, 331-337 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. N. C. Panoiu and R. M. Osgood, "Influence of the dispersive properties of metals on the transmission characteristics of left-handed materials," Phys. Rev. E 68, 016611 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials," Science 303, 1494-1496 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz," Science 306, 1351-1353 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S. Zhang, W. Fan, A. Frauenglass, B. Minhas, K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Demonstration of mid-infrared resonant magnetic nanostructures exhibiting a negative permeability," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 037402 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. O. Moser, B. D. F. Casse, O. Wilhelmi, and B. T. Saw, "Terahertz response of a microfabricated rod-split-ring-resonator electromagnetic metamaterial," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 063901 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. N. Katsarakis, G. Konstantinidis, A. Kostopoulos, R. S. Penciu, T. F. Gundogdu, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic response of split-ring resonators in the far-infrared frequency regime," Opt. Lett. 30, 1348-1350 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. X. Chen, S. H. Zaidi, S. R. J. Brueck, and D. J. Devine, "Interferometric lithography of sub-micrometer sparse hole arrays for field-emission display applications," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14, 3339-3349 (1996).
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    [CrossRef]
  18. S. O'Brien and J. B. Pendry, "Magnetic activity at infrared frequencies in structured metallic photonic crystals," J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 14, 6383-6394 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, "Low frequency plasmons in thin-wire structures," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 10, 4785-4809 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

H. O. Moser, B. D. F. Casse, O. Wilhelmi, and B. T. Saw, "Terahertz response of a microfabricated rod-split-ring-resonator electromagnetic metamaterial," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 063901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Demonstration of near-infrared negative-index materials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Katsarakis, G. Konstantinidis, A. Kostopoulos, R. S. Penciu, T. F. Gundogdu, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic response of split-ring resonators in the far-infrared frequency regime," Opt. Lett. 30, 1348-1350 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, K. J. Malloy, S. Brueck, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, "Near-infrared double negative metamaterials," Opt. Express 13, 4922-4930 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials," Science 303, 1494-1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz," Science 306, 1351-1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, A. Frauenglass, B. Minhas, K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Demonstration of mid-infrared resonant magnetic nanostructures exhibiting a negative permeability," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 037402 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

N. C. Panoiu and R. M. Osgood, "Numerical investigation of negative refractive index metamaterials at infrared and optical frequencies," Opt. Commun. 233, 331-337 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. C. Panoiu and R. M. Osgood, "Influence of the dispersive properties of metals on the transmission characteristics of left-handed materials," Phys. Rev. E 68, 016611 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Markos and C. M. Soukoulis, "Transmission properties and effective electromagnetic parameters of double negative metamaterials," Opt. Express 11, 649-661 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

B. K. Minhas, W. Fan, K. Agi, S. R. J. Brueck, and K. J. Malloy, "Metallic inductive and capacitive grids: theory and experiment," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 1352-1359 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients," Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. O'Brien and J. B. Pendry, "Magnetic activity at infrared frequencies in structured metallic photonic crystals," J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 14, 6383-6394 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction," Science 292, 77-79 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

J. B. Pendry, "Negative refraction makes a perfect lens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966-3969 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, "Low frequency plasmons in thin-wire structures," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 10, 4785-4809 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

X. Chen, S. H. Zaidi, S. R. J. Brueck, and D. J. Devine, "Interferometric lithography of sub-micrometer sparse hole arrays for field-emission display applications," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14, 3339-3349 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1983

1981

Agi, K.

Alexander, R. W.

Basov, D. N.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials," Science 303, 1494-1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bell, R. J.

Bell, R. R.

Bell, S. E.

Brueck, S.

Brueck, S. R. J.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Demonstration of near-infrared negative-index materials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, A. Frauenglass, B. Minhas, K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Demonstration of mid-infrared resonant magnetic nanostructures exhibiting a negative permeability," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 037402 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. K. Minhas, W. Fan, K. Agi, S. R. J. Brueck, and K. J. Malloy, "Metallic inductive and capacitive grids: theory and experiment," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 1352-1359 (2002).
[CrossRef]

X. Chen, S. H. Zaidi, S. R. J. Brueck, and D. J. Devine, "Interferometric lithography of sub-micrometer sparse hole arrays for field-emission display applications," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14, 3339-3349 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cai, W.

V. M. Shalaev, W. Cai, U. Chettiar, H. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and A. V. Kildishev, "Negative index of refraction in optical metamaterials," http://arxiv.org/ftp/physics/papers/0504/0504091.pdf.

Casse, B. D. F.

H. O. Moser, B. D. F. Casse, O. Wilhelmi, and B. T. Saw, "Terahertz response of a microfabricated rod-split-ring-resonator electromagnetic metamaterial," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 063901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, X.

X. Chen, S. H. Zaidi, S. R. J. Brueck, and D. J. Devine, "Interferometric lithography of sub-micrometer sparse hole arrays for field-emission display applications," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14, 3339-3349 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chettiar, U.

V. M. Shalaev, W. Cai, U. Chettiar, H. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and A. V. Kildishev, "Negative index of refraction in optical metamaterials," http://arxiv.org/ftp/physics/papers/0504/0504091.pdf.

Devine, D. J.

X. Chen, S. H. Zaidi, S. R. J. Brueck, and D. J. Devine, "Interferometric lithography of sub-micrometer sparse hole arrays for field-emission display applications," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14, 3339-3349 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Drachev, V. P.

V. M. Shalaev, W. Cai, U. Chettiar, H. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and A. V. Kildishev, "Negative index of refraction in optical metamaterials," http://arxiv.org/ftp/physics/papers/0504/0504091.pdf.

Economou, E. N.

Enkrich, C.

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz," Science 306, 1351-1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, W.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Demonstration of near-infrared negative-index materials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, K. J. Malloy, S. Brueck, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, "Near-infrared double negative metamaterials," Opt. Express 13, 4922-4930 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, A. Frauenglass, B. Minhas, K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Demonstration of mid-infrared resonant magnetic nanostructures exhibiting a negative permeability," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 037402 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. K. Minhas, W. Fan, K. Agi, S. R. J. Brueck, and K. J. Malloy, "Metallic inductive and capacitive grids: theory and experiment," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 1352-1359 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fang, N.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials," Science 303, 1494-1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frauenglass, A.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, A. Frauenglass, B. Minhas, K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Demonstration of mid-infrared resonant magnetic nanostructures exhibiting a negative permeability," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 037402 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gaylord, T. K.

Gundogdu, T. F.

Holden, A. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, "Low frequency plasmons in thin-wire structures," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 10, 4785-4809 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kafesaki, M.

Katsarakis, N.

Kildishev, A. V.

V. M. Shalaev, W. Cai, U. Chettiar, H. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and A. V. Kildishev, "Negative index of refraction in optical metamaterials," http://arxiv.org/ftp/physics/papers/0504/0504091.pdf.

Konstantinidis, G.

Koschny, T.

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz," Science 306, 1351-1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koschny, Th.

Kostopoulos, A.

Linden, S.

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz," Science 306, 1351-1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Long, L. L.

Malloy, K. J.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, K. J. Malloy, S. Brueck, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, "Near-infrared double negative metamaterials," Opt. Express 13, 4922-4930 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Demonstration of near-infrared negative-index materials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, A. Frauenglass, B. Minhas, K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Demonstration of mid-infrared resonant magnetic nanostructures exhibiting a negative permeability," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 037402 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. K. Minhas, W. Fan, K. Agi, S. R. J. Brueck, and K. J. Malloy, "Metallic inductive and capacitive grids: theory and experiment," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 1352-1359 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Markos, P.

P. Markos and C. M. Soukoulis, "Transmission properties and effective electromagnetic parameters of double negative metamaterials," Opt. Express 11, 649-661 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients," Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Minhas, B.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, A. Frauenglass, B. Minhas, K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Demonstration of mid-infrared resonant magnetic nanostructures exhibiting a negative permeability," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 037402 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Minhas, B. K.

Moharam, M. G.

Moser, H. O.

H. O. Moser, B. D. F. Casse, O. Wilhelmi, and B. T. Saw, "Terahertz response of a microfabricated rod-split-ring-resonator electromagnetic metamaterial," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 063901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O'Brien, S.

S. O'Brien and J. B. Pendry, "Magnetic activity at infrared frequencies in structured metallic photonic crystals," J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 14, 6383-6394 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ordal, M. A.

Osgood, R. M.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Demonstration of near-infrared negative-index materials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, K. J. Malloy, S. Brueck, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, "Near-infrared double negative metamaterials," Opt. Express 13, 4922-4930 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. C. Panoiu and R. M. Osgood, "Influence of the dispersive properties of metals on the transmission characteristics of left-handed materials," Phys. Rev. E 68, 016611 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. C. Panoiu and R. M. Osgood, "Numerical investigation of negative refractive index metamaterials at infrared and optical frequencies," Opt. Commun. 233, 331-337 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Padilla, W. J.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials," Science 303, 1494-1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Panoiu, N. C.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, K. J. Malloy, S. Brueck, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, "Near-infrared double negative metamaterials," Opt. Express 13, 4922-4930 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Demonstration of near-infrared negative-index materials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. C. Panoiu and R. M. Osgood, "Numerical investigation of negative refractive index metamaterials at infrared and optical frequencies," Opt. Commun. 233, 331-337 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. C. Panoiu and R. M. Osgood, "Influence of the dispersive properties of metals on the transmission characteristics of left-handed materials," Phys. Rev. E 68, 016611 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Penciu, R. S.

Pendry, J. B.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials," Science 303, 1494-1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. O'Brien and J. B. Pendry, "Magnetic activity at infrared frequencies in structured metallic photonic crystals," J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 14, 6383-6394 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, "Negative refraction makes a perfect lens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966-3969 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, "Low frequency plasmons in thin-wire structures," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 10, 4785-4809 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Robbins, D. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, "Low frequency plasmons in thin-wire structures," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 10, 4785-4809 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sarychev, A. K.

V. M. Shalaev, W. Cai, U. Chettiar, H. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and A. V. Kildishev, "Negative index of refraction in optical metamaterials," http://arxiv.org/ftp/physics/papers/0504/0504091.pdf.

Saw, B. T.

H. O. Moser, B. D. F. Casse, O. Wilhelmi, and B. T. Saw, "Terahertz response of a microfabricated rod-split-ring-resonator electromagnetic metamaterial," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 063901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schultz, S.

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients," Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction," Science 292, 77-79 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shalaev, V. M.

V. M. Shalaev, W. Cai, U. Chettiar, H. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and A. V. Kildishev, "Negative index of refraction in optical metamaterials," http://arxiv.org/ftp/physics/papers/0504/0504091.pdf.

Shelby, R. A.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction," Science 292, 77-79 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. R.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials," Science 303, 1494-1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction," Science 292, 77-79 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients," Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Soukoulis, C. M.

N. Katsarakis, G. Konstantinidis, A. Kostopoulos, R. S. Penciu, T. F. Gundogdu, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic response of split-ring resonators in the far-infrared frequency regime," Opt. Lett. 30, 1348-1350 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz," Science 306, 1351-1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Markos and C. M. Soukoulis, "Transmission properties and effective electromagnetic parameters of double negative metamaterials," Opt. Express 11, 649-661 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients," Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stewart, W. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, "Low frequency plasmons in thin-wire structures," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 10, 4785-4809 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vier, D. C.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials," Science 303, 1494-1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ward, C. A.

Wegener, M.

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz," Science 306, 1351-1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilhelmi, O.

H. O. Moser, B. D. F. Casse, O. Wilhelmi, and B. T. Saw, "Terahertz response of a microfabricated rod-split-ring-resonator electromagnetic metamaterial," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 063901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yen, T. J.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials," Science 303, 1494-1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yuan, H.

V. M. Shalaev, W. Cai, U. Chettiar, H. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and A. V. Kildishev, "Negative index of refraction in optical metamaterials," http://arxiv.org/ftp/physics/papers/0504/0504091.pdf.

Zaidi, S. H.

X. Chen, S. H. Zaidi, S. R. J. Brueck, and D. J. Devine, "Interferometric lithography of sub-micrometer sparse hole arrays for field-emission display applications," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14, 3339-3349 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, S.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Demonstration of near-infrared negative-index materials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef]

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Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. B

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Phys. Rev. E

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S. Zhang, W. Fan, A. Frauenglass, B. Minhas, K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Demonstration of mid-infrared resonant magnetic nanostructures exhibiting a negative permeability," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 037402 (2004).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic top view of the negative-index metamaterial. The thickness of the three layers of Au, Al 2 O 3 , and Au are 30, 75, and 30 nm . The Al 2 O 3 has a NIR index of 1.62. The substrate is BK7 glass with an index of 1.5. (b) Top view of the metamaterial structure. The long and short axes of the elliptical holes are a and b, respectively. TM (TE) is defined as the direction of the electric field along the short (long) axis.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SEM pictures of samples A (top) and B (bottom). The pitch of both samples is 787 nm in both directions. The axes of holes for sample A are a = 540 nm , b = 380 nm ; for sample B, a = 470 nm and b = 420 nm .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a), (b) Measured normal incidence transmission spectra for both TM (electric field parallel to the short axis of the ellipses) and TM (electric field parallel to the long elliptical axis) for samples A and B. (c), (d) RCWA-modeled TM transmission for samples A and B. The black, light gray, and dark gray curves represent scattering-loss parameters of one, two, and three times that of bulk gold. In all the figures, the black vertical arrows point to the surface plasma wave peaks for the TM polarization, and the region between the dashed lines is the expected negative-index region.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a), (b) Real and imaginary parts of the effective refractive index for samples A and B. (c), (d) A NIM quality factor, Re ( n eff ) Im ( n eff ) , for samples A and B. For both figures, the black and gray curves represent scattering frequencies one and three times that of bulk gold, respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(top) Real (with symbols) and imaginary parts (curves) of the impedance for samples A, B, and C. Sample C has the same geometric parameters as shown in Ref. [10]. (bottom) The calculated reflectance at a single interface between air and metamaterials.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Calculated effective permeability with black curves for the real parts and gray curves for imaginary parts. (a), (b) Permeability of samples A and B with scattering losses one times that of bulk gold. (c), (d) Permeability of samples A and B with scattering losses three times that of bulk gold.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Calculated effective permittivity with black curves for the real parts and gray curves for imaginary parts. (a), (b) Permittivity of samples A and B with scattering losses one times that of bulk gold. (c), (d) Permittivity of samples A and B with scattering losses three times that of bulk gold.

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