Abstract

We discuss coupling of ultrashort light pulses into waveguides by use of a prism waveguide coupler configuration. Theoretical analysis indicates that an extra loss induced by the short coherence times of ultrashort pulses, which has a strong effect on the reflected light and the optimum coupling condition, appears in the waveguide. Numerical simulations show that the reflectance strongly depends on the coherence times of ultrashort pulses. A method for realizing optimum coupling by compensating for the extra loss is proposed as well in this paper. A preliminary experiment of employing ultrashort pulses with different coherence times was carried out, and good agreement between theory and experiment was obtained.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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2003 (1)

H. Li, Z. Cao, H. Lu, and Q. Shen, "Free-space coupling of a light beam into a symmetrical metal-cladding optical waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2757-2759 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

Y. Jiang, Z. Cao, G. Chen, X. Dou, and Y. Chen, "Low voltage electro-optic polymer light modulator using attenuated total internal reflection," Opt. Laser Technol. 33, 417-420 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

1997 (1)

1994 (1)

1989 (1)

1988 (1)

1984 (1)

C. Liao and G. I. Stegeman, "Nonlinear prism coupler," Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 164-166 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

1974 (1)

1970 (2)

1969 (1)

P. K. Tien, R. Ulrich, and R. J. Martin, "Modes of propagating light waves in thin deposited semiconductor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 291-294 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Akhouayri, H.

Ashcroft, N. W.

N. W. Ashcroft and N. D. Mermin, Solid State Physics (Saunders College, New York, 1976), pp. 1-28.

Assanto, G.

Bahtiar, A.

Best, A.

Bubeck, C.

Cao, Z.

H. Li, Z. Cao, H. Lu, and Q. Shen, "Free-space coupling of a light beam into a symmetrical metal-cladding optical waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2757-2759 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jiang, Z. Cao, G. Chen, X. Dou, and Y. Chen, "Low voltage electro-optic polymer light modulator using attenuated total internal reflection," Opt. Laser Technol. 33, 417-420 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jiang, Z. Cao, Q. Shen, X. Dou, and Y. Chen, "Improved attenuated-total-reflection technique for measuring the electro-optic coefficients of nonlinear optical polymers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 805-808 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chen, G.

Y. Jiang, Z. Cao, G. Chen, X. Dou, and Y. Chen, "Low voltage electro-optic polymer light modulator using attenuated total internal reflection," Opt. Laser Technol. 33, 417-420 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J. M.

Chen, W. P.

Chen, Y.

Y. Jiang, Z. Cao, G. Chen, X. Dou, and Y. Chen, "Low voltage electro-optic polymer light modulator using attenuated total internal reflection," Opt. Laser Technol. 33, 417-420 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jiang, Z. Cao, Q. Shen, X. Dou, and Y. Chen, "Improved attenuated-total-reflection technique for measuring the electro-optic coefficients of nonlinear optical polymers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 805-808 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dou, X.

Y. Jiang, Z. Cao, G. Chen, X. Dou, and Y. Chen, "Low voltage electro-optic polymer light modulator using attenuated total internal reflection," Opt. Laser Technol. 33, 417-420 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jiang, Z. Cao, Q. Shen, X. Dou, and Y. Chen, "Improved attenuated-total-reflection technique for measuring the electro-optic coefficients of nonlinear optical polymers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 805-808 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Enoch, S.

Fitrilawati, F.

Fortenberry, R. M.

Goutev, N.

Herminghaus, S.

Hörhold, H.

Jiang, Y.

Y. Jiang, Z. Cao, G. Chen, X. Dou, and Y. Chen, "Low voltage electro-optic polymer light modulator using attenuated total internal reflection," Opt. Laser Technol. 33, 417-420 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jiang, Z. Cao, Q. Shen, X. Dou, and Y. Chen, "Improved attenuated-total-reflection technique for measuring the electro-optic coefficients of nonlinear optical polymers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 805-808 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Klopfleisch, M.

Kogelnik, H.

Koynov, K.

Li, H.

H. Li, Z. Cao, H. Lu, and Q. Shen, "Free-space coupling of a light beam into a symmetrical metal-cladding optical waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2757-2759 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liao, C.

C. Liao and G. I. Stegeman, "Nonlinear prism coupler," Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 164-166 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Lu, H.

H. Li, Z. Cao, H. Lu, and Q. Shen, "Free-space coupling of a light beam into a symmetrical metal-cladding optical waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2757-2759 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Martin, R. J.

P. K. Tien, R. Ulrich, and R. J. Martin, "Modes of propagating light waves in thin deposited semiconductor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 291-294 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Mermin, N. D.

N. W. Ashcroft and N. D. Mermin, Solid State Physics (Saunders College, New York, 1976), pp. 1-28.

Okamoto, T.

Schmidt, H. J.

Seaton, C. T.

Serafin, J.

Shen, Q.

H. Li, Z. Cao, H. Lu, and Q. Shen, "Free-space coupling of a light beam into a symmetrical metal-cladding optical waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2757-2759 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jiang, Z. Cao, Q. Shen, X. Dou, and Y. Chen, "Improved attenuated-total-reflection technique for measuring the electro-optic coefficients of nonlinear optical polymers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 805-808 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Spears, K. G.

Stegeman, G. I.

Tien, P. K.

P. K. Tien and R. Ulrich, "Theory of prism-film coupler and thin-film light guides," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 1325-1337 (1970).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Tien, R. Ulrich, and R. J. Martin, "Modes of propagating light waves in thin deposited semiconductor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 291-294 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Ulrich, R.

Weber, H. P.

Yamaguchi, I.

Yamamoto, M.

Zhu, X.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

P. K. Tien, R. Ulrich, and R. J. Martin, "Modes of propagating light waves in thin deposited semiconductor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 291-294 (1969).
[CrossRef]

C. Liao and G. I. Stegeman, "Nonlinear prism coupler," Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 164-166 (1984).
[CrossRef]

H. Li, Z. Cao, H. Lu, and Q. Shen, "Free-space coupling of a light beam into a symmetrical metal-cladding optical waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2757-2759 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (4)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (5)

Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

Y. Jiang, Z. Cao, G. Chen, X. Dou, and Y. Chen, "Low voltage electro-optic polymer light modulator using attenuated total internal reflection," Opt. Laser Technol. 33, 417-420 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (1)

N. W. Ashcroft and N. D. Mermin, Solid State Physics (Saunders College, New York, 1976), pp. 1-28.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram for the PWC.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Waveguide mode coupled to a semi-infinite medium n 1 through ϵ 2 , (b) two semi-infinite media n 1 and n 3 coupled through ϵ 2 , and (c) waves in a PWC.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Time delay between the A 3 wave and the A 3 wave in the coupling range between x n 1 and x n .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

ATR spectra with respect to different time widths of incident pulses.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Spectra of reflected pulses calculated from the new amplitude reflection coefficient (solid curves) and from the conventional one (dashed curves). Dotted curves, the spectra of incident pulses.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Experiment arrangement.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Spectra of two reflected pulses.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Time Delays for Different Guided Modes a

Equations (25)

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n 1 > n 3 > n 4 ,
r ( ω ) = r ( ω ) exp [ i ϕ ( ω ) ] = r 12 + r 234 exp ( 2 i κ 2 s ) 1 + r 12 r 234 exp ( 2 i κ 2 s ) ,
r 234 = r 23 + r 34 exp ( 2 i κ 3 d ) 1 + r 23 r 34 exp ( 2 i κ 3 d ) ,
r 321 = A 3 B 3 = r 32 + r 21 exp ( 2 i κ 2 s ) 1 + r 32 r 21 exp ( 2 i κ 2 s ) ,
t 31 = B 1 B 3 = ( 1 r 12 ) ( 1 r 23 ) exp ( i κ 2 s ) 1 + r 12 r 23 exp ( 2 i κ 2 s ) .
r 123 = B 1 A 1 = r 12 + r 23 exp ( 2 i κ 2 s ) 1 + r 12 r 23 exp ( 2 i κ 2 s ) ,
t 13 = A 3 A 1 = ( 1 + r 12 ) ( 1 + r 23 ) exp ( i κ 2 s ) 1 + r 12 r 23 exp ( 2 i κ 2 s ) .
A 3 = ( A 3 ) n 1 r 34 r 321 exp ( i 2 κ 3 d ) ,
A 3 = t 13 A 1 ,
( A 3 ) n = t 13 A 1 + ( A 3 ) n 1 r 34 r 321 exp ( i 2 κ 3 d ) ,
( A 3 ) 0 = t 13 A 1 ,
r 34 r 321 exp ( i 2 κ 3 d ) = α exp ( i 2 m π ) ,
exp ( i 2 κ 3 d ) = exp [ 2 i ω d ( n 3 2 N m 2 ) 1 2 c ] = exp ( i ω τ 0 ) ,
τ 1 = n 1 l sin θ c = l N m c ,
τ 2 = l v g = l [ N m c + ( n 3 2 N m 2 ) d c N m d eff ] ,
l = 2 d eff tan θ = 2 d eff N m ( n 3 2 N m 2 ) 1 2 ,
τ 2 τ 1 = 2 ( n 3 2 N m 2 ) 1 2 d c = τ 0 .
( A 3 ) n 2 = I 1 + I 2 + 2 I 1 I 2 γ ( τ 0 ) cos ( φ ) ,
( A 3 ) n 2 = [ I 1 + γ ( τ 0 ) I 2 ] 2 + [ 1 γ ( τ 0 ) 2 ] I 2 ,
( A 3 ) n = t 13 A 1 + γ ( τ 0 ) ( A 3 ) n 1 r 34 r 321 exp ( i 2 κ 3 d ) ,
( A 3 ) 0 = t 13 A 1 .
A 3 ( ω ) = t 13 ( ω ) A 1 ( ω ) { 1 + j = 1 γ ( j τ 0 ) [ r 34 r 321 exp ( i 2 κ 3 d ) ] j } .
B 1 ( ω ) = A 3 ( ω ) r 34 exp ( 2 i κ 3 d ) t 31 + r 123 A 1 ( ω ) ,
r ( ω ) = B 1 ( ω ) A 1 ( ω ) = t 31 t 13 r 34 exp ( 2 i κ 3 d ) { 1 + j = 1 γ ( j τ 0 ) [ r 34 r 321 exp ( i 2 κ 3 d ) ] j } + r 123 .
r = t 13 t 31 r 34 exp ( 2 i κ 3 d ) 1 r 34 r 321 exp ( 2 i κ 3 d ) + r 123 .

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