Abstract

Intense mid-infrared pulses tunable between 5 and 14μm with pulse energies of several microjoules were generated by difference-frequency mixing (DFM) in a GaSe crystal. Longer wavelengths (up to 18μm) were achieved by DFM in a CdSe crystal. The infrared pulses were then characterized using various techniques: The spectrum was measured using a Fourier-transform spectrometer, which was then modified to determine the interferometric second-order autocorrelation. The electric field spectral phase was measured using the same setup, thus leading to a full characterization of the mid-infrared pulses. The spectral phase was measured using the time-domain homodyne optical technique for spectral phase interferometry for direct electric field reconstruction, where spectral interferometry was replaced with time-domain interferometry. The measured pulse duration was 100fs, nearly transform limited.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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2005

2004

2003

2002

2001

2000

1999

C. Dorrer, "Influence of the calibration of the detector on spectral interferometry," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 1160-1168 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Kaindl, F. Eickemeyer, M. Woerner, and T. Elsaesser, "Broadband phase-matched difference frequency mixing of femtosecond pulses in GaSe: experiment and theory," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1060-1062 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Elsaesser and M. Woerner, "Femtosecond infrared spectroscopy of semiconductors and semiconductor nanostructures," Phys. Rep. 321, 253-305 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Fraser and K. C. Hall, "Interferometric nonlinear mixing in multipass femtosecond optical parametric amplification," Opt. Express 5, 21-27 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

C. Iaconis and I. A. Walmsley, "Spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction of ultrashort optical pulses," Opt. Lett. 23, 792-794 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. O. Okorogu, S. B. Mirov, W. Lee, D. I. Crouthamel, N. Jenkins, A. Yu. Dergachev, K. L. Vodopyanov, and V. V. Badikov, "Tunable middle infrared downconversion in GaSe and AgGaS2," Opt. Commun. 155, 307-313 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Vodopyanov, S. B. Mirov, V. G. Voevodin, and P. G. Schunemann, "Two-photon absorption in GaSe and CdGeAs2," Opt. Commun. 155, 47-50 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

O. Gauthier-Lafaye, P. Boucaud, F. H. Julien, S. Sauvage, J. M. Lourtioz, V. Thierry-Mieg, and R. Planel, "Long-wavelength (approximately=15.5 micron) unipolar semiconductor laser in GaAs quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3619-3621 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbugel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, "Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277-3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Richman, M. A. Krumbügel, and R. Trebino, "Temporal characterization of mid-IR free-electron-laser pulses by frequency-resolved optical gating," Opt. Lett. 22, 721-723 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, "Free-space electro-optics sampling of mid-infrared pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1285-1286 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

L. Lepetit, G. Chériaux, and M. Joffre, "Linear techniques of phase measurement by femtosecond spectral interferometry for applications in spectroscopy," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 2467-2474 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Richman, K. W. DeLong, and R. Trebino, "Generation and measurement of ultrashort pulses from the Stanford superconducting accelerator free-electron laser," in Proc. SPIE 2377, 136-147 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, "Quantum cascade laser," Science 264, 553-556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989

K. Naganuma, K. Mogi, and H. Yamada, "General method for ultrashort light pulse chirp measurement," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1225-1233 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1982

Alexandrou, A.

C. Ventalon, J. M. Fraser, M. H. Vos, A. Alexandrou, J. L. Martin, and M. Joffre, "Coherent vibrational climbing in carboxyhemoglobin," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101, 13216-13220 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Badikov, V. V.

A. O. Okorogu, S. B. Mirov, W. Lee, D. I. Crouthamel, N. Jenkins, A. Yu. Dergachev, K. L. Vodopyanov, and V. V. Badikov, "Tunable middle infrared downconversion in GaSe and AgGaS2," Opt. Commun. 155, 307-313 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Balachninaite, O.

Baltuska, A.

Beddard, T.

Belabas, N.

Bidault, O.

Boucaud, P.

O. Gauthier-Lafaye, P. Boucaud, F. H. Julien, S. Sauvage, J. M. Lourtioz, V. Thierry-Mieg, and R. Planel, "Long-wavelength (approximately=15.5 micron) unipolar semiconductor laser in GaAs quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3619-3621 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Brodschelm, A.

R. Huber, A. Brodschelm, F. Tauser, and A. Leitenstorfer, "Generation and field-resolved detection of femtosecond electromagnetic pulses tunable up to 41 THz," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3191-3193 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Brown, C. T. A.

Capasso, F.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, "Quantum cascade laser," Science 264, 553-556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, W. D.

Chériaux, G.

Cheung, I. W.

J. M. Fraser, I. W. Cheung, F. Legare, D. M. Villeneuve, J. P. Lifforman, M. Joffre, and P. B. Corkum, "High-energy sub-picosecond pulse generation from 3to20 µm," Appl. Phys. B 74, S153-S156 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cho, A. Y.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, "Quantum cascade laser," Science 264, 553-556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corkum, P. B.

J. M. Fraser, I. W. Cheung, F. Legare, D. M. Villeneuve, J. P. Lifforman, M. Joffre, and P. B. Corkum, "High-energy sub-picosecond pulse generation from 3to20 µm," Appl. Phys. B 74, S153-S156 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J.-P. Likforman, M. Mehendale, D. M. Villeneuve, M. Joffre, and P. B. Corkum, "Conversion of high-power 15 fs visible pulses to the mid-infrared," Opt. Lett. 26, 99-101 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Crouthamel, D. I.

A. O. Okorogu, S. B. Mirov, W. Lee, D. I. Crouthamel, N. Jenkins, A. Yu. Dergachev, K. L. Vodopyanov, and V. V. Badikov, "Tunable middle infrared downconversion in GaSe and AgGaS2," Opt. Commun. 155, 307-313 (1998).
[CrossRef]

de Haan, F.

de Haseth, J. A.

P. R. Griffiths and J. A. de Haseth, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry, Vol. 83 of Chemical Analysis (Wiley, 1986).

DeLong, K. W.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbugel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, "Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277-3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Richman, K. W. DeLong, and R. Trebino, "Generation and measurement of ultrashort pulses from the Stanford superconducting accelerator free-electron laser," in Proc. SPIE 2377, 136-147 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Demirdöven, N.

Dergachev, A. Yu.

A. O. Okorogu, S. B. Mirov, W. Lee, D. I. Crouthamel, N. Jenkins, A. Yu. Dergachev, K. L. Vodopyanov, and V. V. Badikov, "Tunable middle infrared downconversion in GaSe and AgGaS2," Opt. Commun. 155, 307-313 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dmitriev, V. G.

V. G. Dmitriev, G. G. Gurzadyan, and D. N. Nikogosyan, Handbook of Nonlinear Optical Crystals, Vol. 64 of Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer, 1999).

Dorrer, C.

Eickemeyer, F.

R. A. Kaindl, F. Eickemeyer, M. Woerner, and T. Elsaesser, "Broadband phase-matched difference frequency mixing of femtosecond pulses in GaSe: experiment and theory," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1060-1062 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Elsaesser, T.

K. Reimann, R. P. Smith, A. M. Weiner, T. Elsaesser, and M. Woerner, "Direct field-resolved detection of terahertz transients with amplitudes of megavolts per centimeter," Opt. Lett. 28, 471-473 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Kaindl, F. Eickemeyer, M. Woerner, and T. Elsaesser, "Broadband phase-matched difference frequency mixing of femtosecond pulses in GaSe: experiment and theory," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1060-1062 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Elsaesser and M. Woerner, "Femtosecond infrared spectroscopy of semiconductors and semiconductor nanostructures," Phys. Rep. 321, 253-305 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Reimann, T. Elsaesser, R. Hey, C.-W. Luo, K. Ploog, and M. Woerner, "Rabi flopping of intersubband transitions in GaAs/AlGaAs MQWs," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper QFD4.

Faist, J.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, "Quantum cascade laser," Science 264, 553-556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fittinghoff, D. N.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbugel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, "Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277-3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fossier, S.

Fraser, J. M.

C. Ventalon, J. M. Fraser, M. H. Vos, A. Alexandrou, J. L. Martin, and M. Joffre, "Coherent vibrational climbing in carboxyhemoglobin," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101, 13216-13220 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Ventalon, J. M. Fraser, and M. Joffre, "Time-domain interferometry for direct electric field reconstruction of mid-infrared femtosecond pulses," Opt. Lett. 28, 1826-1828 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Fraser, I. W. Cheung, F. Legare, D. M. Villeneuve, J. P. Lifforman, M. Joffre, and P. B. Corkum, "High-energy sub-picosecond pulse generation from 3to20 µm," Appl. Phys. B 74, S153-S156 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Fraser and K. C. Hall, "Interferometric nonlinear mixing in multipass femtosecond optical parametric amplification," Opt. Express 5, 21-27 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fuss, W.

L. Windhorn, J. S. Yeston, T. Witte, W. Fuss, M. Motzkus, D. Proch, K.-L. Kompa, and C. B. Moore, "Getting ahead of IVR: a demonstration of mid-infrared induced molecular dissociation on a sub-statistical time scale," J. Chem. Phys. 119, 641-645 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gauthier-Lafaye, O.

O. Gauthier-Lafaye, P. Boucaud, F. H. Julien, S. Sauvage, J. M. Lourtioz, V. Thierry-Mieg, and R. Planel, "Long-wavelength (approximately=15.5 micron) unipolar semiconductor laser in GaAs quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3619-3621 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Golonzka, O.

Griffiths, P. R.

P. R. Griffiths and J. A. de Haseth, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry, Vol. 83 of Chemical Analysis (Wiley, 1986).

Gurzadyan, G. G.

V. G. Dmitriev, G. G. Gurzadyan, and D. N. Nikogosyan, Handbook of Nonlinear Optical Crystals, Vol. 64 of Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer, 1999).

Hall, K. C.

Hamm, P.

Henningsen, J.

Herzog, R.

Hey, R.

K. Reimann, T. Elsaesser, R. Hey, C.-W. Luo, K. Ploog, and M. Woerner, "Rabi flopping of intersubband transitions in GaAs/AlGaAs MQWs," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper QFD4.

Huber, R.

R. Huber, A. Brodschelm, F. Tauser, and A. Leitenstorfer, "Generation and field-resolved detection of femtosecond electromagnetic pulses tunable up to 41 THz," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3191-3193 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hutchinson, A. L.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, "Quantum cascade laser," Science 264, 553-556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iaconis, C.

Ina, H.

Isaenko, L.

Jenkins, N.

A. O. Okorogu, S. B. Mirov, W. Lee, D. I. Crouthamel, N. Jenkins, A. Yu. Dergachev, K. L. Vodopyanov, and V. V. Badikov, "Tunable middle infrared downconversion in GaSe and AgGaS2," Opt. Commun. 155, 307-313 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Joffre, M.

K. J. Kubarych, M. Joffre, A. Moore, N. Belabas, and D. M. Jonas, "Mid-infrared electric field characterization using a visible charge-coupled-device-based spectrometer," Opt. Lett. 30, 1228-1230 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Ventalon, J. M. Fraser, M. H. Vos, A. Alexandrou, J. L. Martin, and M. Joffre, "Coherent vibrational climbing in carboxyhemoglobin," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101, 13216-13220 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Ventalon, J. M. Fraser, and M. Joffre, "Time-domain interferometry for direct electric field reconstruction of mid-infrared femtosecond pulses," Opt. Lett. 28, 1826-1828 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Monmayrant, M. Joffre, T. Oksenhendler, R. Herzog, D. Kaplan, and P. Tournois, "Time-domain interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction by use of an acousto-optic programmable filter and a two-photon detector," Opt. Lett. 28, 278-280 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Fraser, I. W. Cheung, F. Legare, D. M. Villeneuve, J. P. Lifforman, M. Joffre, and P. B. Corkum, "High-energy sub-picosecond pulse generation from 3to20 µm," Appl. Phys. B 74, S153-S156 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J.-P. Likforman, M. Mehendale, D. M. Villeneuve, M. Joffre, and P. B. Corkum, "Conversion of high-power 15 fs visible pulses to the mid-infrared," Opt. Lett. 26, 99-101 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Lepetit, G. Chériaux, and M. Joffre, "Linear techniques of phase measurement by femtosecond spectral interferometry for applications in spectroscopy," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 2467-2474 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jonas, D. M.

Julien, F. H.

O. Gauthier-Lafaye, P. Boucaud, F. H. Julien, S. Sauvage, J. M. Lourtioz, V. Thierry-Mieg, and R. Planel, "Long-wavelength (approximately=15.5 micron) unipolar semiconductor laser in GaAs quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3619-3621 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kaindl, R. A.

Kane, D. J.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbugel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, "Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277-3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kaplan, D.

Khalil, M.

Kobayashi, S.

Kompa, K.-L.

L. Windhorn, J. S. Yeston, T. Witte, W. Fuss, M. Motzkus, D. Proch, K.-L. Kompa, and C. B. Moore, "Getting ahead of IVR: a demonstration of mid-infrared induced molecular dissociation on a sub-statistical time scale," J. Chem. Phys. 119, 641-645 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kosik, E. M.

Krumbugel, M. A.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbugel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, "Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277-3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Krumbügel, M. A.

Kubarych, K. J.

Lee, W.

A. O. Okorogu, S. B. Mirov, W. Lee, D. I. Crouthamel, N. Jenkins, A. Yu. Dergachev, K. L. Vodopyanov, and V. V. Badikov, "Tunable middle infrared downconversion in GaSe and AgGaS2," Opt. Commun. 155, 307-313 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Legare, F.

J. M. Fraser, I. W. Cheung, F. Legare, D. M. Villeneuve, J. P. Lifforman, M. Joffre, and P. B. Corkum, "High-energy sub-picosecond pulse generation from 3to20 µm," Appl. Phys. B 74, S153-S156 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Leitenstorfer, A.

R. Huber, A. Brodschelm, F. Tauser, and A. Leitenstorfer, "Generation and field-resolved detection of femtosecond electromagnetic pulses tunable up to 41 THz," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3191-3193 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lepetit, L.

Lifforman, J. P.

J. M. Fraser, I. W. Cheung, F. Legare, D. M. Villeneuve, J. P. Lifforman, M. Joffre, and P. B. Corkum, "High-energy sub-picosecond pulse generation from 3to20 µm," Appl. Phys. B 74, S153-S156 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Likforman, J.-P.

Liu, H.

H. Liu, "New quantum devices," Physica E (Amsterdam) 8, 170-173 (2000).

Lobanov, S.

Londero, P.

Lourtioz, J. M.

O. Gauthier-Lafaye, P. Boucaud, F. H. Julien, S. Sauvage, J. M. Lourtioz, V. Thierry-Mieg, and R. Planel, "Long-wavelength (approximately=15.5 micron) unipolar semiconductor laser in GaAs quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3619-3621 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Loza-Alvarez, P.

Luo, C.-W.

K. Reimann, T. Elsaesser, R. Hey, C.-W. Luo, K. Ploog, and M. Woerner, "Rabi flopping of intersubband transitions in GaAs/AlGaAs MQWs," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper QFD4.

Mangin, J.

Martin, J. L.

C. Ventalon, J. M. Fraser, M. H. Vos, A. Alexandrou, J. L. Martin, and M. Joffre, "Coherent vibrational climbing in carboxyhemoglobin," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101, 13216-13220 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mehendale, M.

Mirov, S. B.

A. O. Okorogu, S. B. Mirov, W. Lee, D. I. Crouthamel, N. Jenkins, A. Yu. Dergachev, K. L. Vodopyanov, and V. V. Badikov, "Tunable middle infrared downconversion in GaSe and AgGaS2," Opt. Commun. 155, 307-313 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Vodopyanov, S. B. Mirov, V. G. Voevodin, and P. G. Schunemann, "Two-photon absorption in GaSe and CdGeAs2," Opt. Commun. 155, 47-50 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mogi, K.

K. Naganuma, K. Mogi, and H. Yamada, "General method for ultrashort light pulse chirp measurement," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1225-1233 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Monmayrant, A.

Moore, A.

Moore, C. B.

L. Windhorn, J. S. Yeston, T. Witte, W. Fuss, M. Motzkus, D. Proch, K.-L. Kompa, and C. B. Moore, "Getting ahead of IVR: a demonstration of mid-infrared induced molecular dissociation on a sub-statistical time scale," J. Chem. Phys. 119, 641-645 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Motzkus, M.

L. Windhorn, J. S. Yeston, T. Witte, W. Fuss, M. Motzkus, D. Proch, K.-L. Kompa, and C. B. Moore, "Getting ahead of IVR: a demonstration of mid-infrared induced molecular dissociation on a sub-statistical time scale," J. Chem. Phys. 119, 641-645 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Naganuma, K.

K. Naganuma, K. Mogi, and H. Yamada, "General method for ultrashort light pulse chirp measurement," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1225-1233 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Nikogosyan, D. N.

V. G. Dmitriev, G. G. Gurzadyan, and D. N. Nikogosyan, Handbook of Nonlinear Optical Crystals, Vol. 64 of Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer, 1999).

Okorogu, A. O.

A. O. Okorogu, S. B. Mirov, W. Lee, D. I. Crouthamel, N. Jenkins, A. Yu. Dergachev, K. L. Vodopyanov, and V. V. Badikov, "Tunable middle infrared downconversion in GaSe and AgGaS2," Opt. Commun. 155, 307-313 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Oksenhendler, T.

Petrov, P.

Petrov, V.

Planel, R.

O. Gauthier-Lafaye, P. Boucaud, F. H. Julien, S. Sauvage, J. M. Lourtioz, V. Thierry-Mieg, and R. Planel, "Long-wavelength (approximately=15.5 micron) unipolar semiconductor laser in GaAs quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3619-3621 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ploog, K.

K. Reimann, T. Elsaesser, R. Hey, C.-W. Luo, K. Ploog, and M. Woerner, "Rabi flopping of intersubband transitions in GaAs/AlGaAs MQWs," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper QFD4.

Proch, D.

L. Windhorn, J. S. Yeston, T. Witte, W. Fuss, M. Motzkus, D. Proch, K.-L. Kompa, and C. B. Moore, "Getting ahead of IVR: a demonstration of mid-infrared induced molecular dissociation on a sub-statistical time scale," J. Chem. Phys. 119, 641-645 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pshenichnikov, M. S.

Reid, D. T.

Reimann, K.

Richman, B. A.

B. A. Richman, M. A. Krumbügel, and R. Trebino, "Temporal characterization of mid-IR free-electron-laser pulses by frequency-resolved optical gating," Opt. Lett. 22, 721-723 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbugel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, "Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277-3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Richman, K. W. DeLong, and R. Trebino, "Generation and measurement of ultrashort pulses from the Stanford superconducting accelerator free-electron laser," in Proc. SPIE 2377, 136-147 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rotermund, F.

Salaun, S.

Sauvage, S.

O. Gauthier-Lafaye, P. Boucaud, F. H. Julien, S. Sauvage, J. M. Lourtioz, V. Thierry-Mieg, and R. Planel, "Long-wavelength (approximately=15.5 micron) unipolar semiconductor laser in GaAs quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3619-3621 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schunemann, P. G.

K. L. Vodopyanov, S. B. Mirov, V. G. Voevodin, and P. G. Schunemann, "Two-photon absorption in GaSe and CdGeAs2," Opt. Commun. 155, 47-50 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sibbett, W.

Sirtori, C.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, "Quantum cascade laser," Science 264, 553-556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sirutkaitis, V.

Sivco, D. L.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, "Quantum cascade laser," Science 264, 553-556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Slekys, G.

Smith, A. V.

SNLO Nonlinear Optics Code, available from A. V. Smith, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1423, http:/www.sandia.gov/imrl/XWEB1128/snloftp.htm.

Smith, R. P.

Stenger, J.

Sweetser, J. N.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbugel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, "Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277-3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Takeda, M.

Tauser, F.

R. Huber, A. Brodschelm, F. Tauser, and A. Leitenstorfer, "Generation and field-resolved detection of femtosecond electromagnetic pulses tunable up to 41 THz," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3191-3193 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Thenot, I.

Thierry-Mieg, V.

O. Gauthier-Lafaye, P. Boucaud, F. H. Julien, S. Sauvage, J. M. Lourtioz, V. Thierry-Mieg, and R. Planel, "Long-wavelength (approximately=15.5 micron) unipolar semiconductor laser in GaAs quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3619-3621 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tokmakoff, A.

Tournois, P.

Trebino, R.

B. A. Richman, M. A. Krumbügel, and R. Trebino, "Temporal characterization of mid-IR free-electron-laser pulses by frequency-resolved optical gating," Opt. Lett. 22, 721-723 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbugel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, "Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277-3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Richman, K. W. DeLong, and R. Trebino, "Generation and measurement of ultrashort pulses from the Stanford superconducting accelerator free-electron laser," in Proc. SPIE 2377, 136-147 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ventalon, C.

C. Ventalon, J. M. Fraser, M. H. Vos, A. Alexandrou, J. L. Martin, and M. Joffre, "Coherent vibrational climbing in carboxyhemoglobin," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101, 13216-13220 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Ventalon, J. M. Fraser, and M. Joffre, "Time-domain interferometry for direct electric field reconstruction of mid-infrared femtosecond pulses," Opt. Lett. 28, 1826-1828 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Villeneuve, D. M.

J. M. Fraser, I. W. Cheung, F. Legare, D. M. Villeneuve, J. P. Lifforman, M. Joffre, and P. B. Corkum, "High-energy sub-picosecond pulse generation from 3to20 µm," Appl. Phys. B 74, S153-S156 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J.-P. Likforman, M. Mehendale, D. M. Villeneuve, M. Joffre, and P. B. Corkum, "Conversion of high-power 15 fs visible pulses to the mid-infrared," Opt. Lett. 26, 99-101 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vodopyanov, K. L.

A. O. Okorogu, S. B. Mirov, W. Lee, D. I. Crouthamel, N. Jenkins, A. Yu. Dergachev, K. L. Vodopyanov, and V. V. Badikov, "Tunable middle infrared downconversion in GaSe and AgGaS2," Opt. Commun. 155, 307-313 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Vodopyanov, S. B. Mirov, V. G. Voevodin, and P. G. Schunemann, "Two-photon absorption in GaSe and CdGeAs2," Opt. Commun. 155, 47-50 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Voevodin, V. G.

K. L. Vodopyanov, S. B. Mirov, V. G. Voevodin, and P. G. Schunemann, "Two-photon absorption in GaSe and CdGeAs2," Opt. Commun. 155, 47-50 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vos, M. H.

C. Ventalon, J. M. Fraser, M. H. Vos, A. Alexandrou, J. L. Martin, and M. Joffre, "Coherent vibrational climbing in carboxyhemoglobin," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101, 13216-13220 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walmsley, I. A.

Weiner, A. M.

Wiersma, D. A.

Windhorn, L.

L. Windhorn, J. S. Yeston, T. Witte, W. Fuss, M. Motzkus, D. Proch, K.-L. Kompa, and C. B. Moore, "Getting ahead of IVR: a demonstration of mid-infrared induced molecular dissociation on a sub-statistical time scale," J. Chem. Phys. 119, 641-645 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Witte, T.

L. Windhorn, J. S. Yeston, T. Witte, W. Fuss, M. Motzkus, D. Proch, K.-L. Kompa, and C. B. Moore, "Getting ahead of IVR: a demonstration of mid-infrared induced molecular dissociation on a sub-statistical time scale," J. Chem. Phys. 119, 641-645 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Woerner, M.

K. Reimann, R. P. Smith, A. M. Weiner, T. Elsaesser, and M. Woerner, "Direct field-resolved detection of terahertz transients with amplitudes of megavolts per centimeter," Opt. Lett. 28, 471-473 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Kaindl, M. Wurm, K. Reimann, P. Hamm, A. M. Weiner, and M. Woerner, "Generation, shaping, and characterization of intense femtosecond pulses tunable from 3to20 µm," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 2086-2094 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Kaindl, F. Eickemeyer, M. Woerner, and T. Elsaesser, "Broadband phase-matched difference frequency mixing of femtosecond pulses in GaSe: experiment and theory," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1060-1062 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Elsaesser and M. Woerner, "Femtosecond infrared spectroscopy of semiconductors and semiconductor nanostructures," Phys. Rep. 321, 253-305 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Reimann, T. Elsaesser, R. Hey, C.-W. Luo, K. Ploog, and M. Woerner, "Rabi flopping of intersubband transitions in GaAs/AlGaAs MQWs," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper QFD4.

Wu, Q.

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, "Free-space electro-optics sampling of mid-infrared pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1285-1286 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wurm, M.

Yamada, H.

K. Naganuma, K. Mogi, and H. Yamada, "General method for ultrashort light pulse chirp measurement," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1225-1233 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Yelisseyev, A.

Yeremenko, S.

Yeston, J. S.

L. Windhorn, J. S. Yeston, T. Witte, W. Fuss, M. Motzkus, D. Proch, K.-L. Kompa, and C. B. Moore, "Getting ahead of IVR: a demonstration of mid-infrared induced molecular dissociation on a sub-statistical time scale," J. Chem. Phys. 119, 641-645 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.-C.

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, "Free-space electro-optics sampling of mid-infrared pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1285-1286 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zondy, J. J.

Appl. Phys. B

J. M. Fraser, I. W. Cheung, F. Legare, D. M. Villeneuve, J. P. Lifforman, M. Joffre, and P. B. Corkum, "High-energy sub-picosecond pulse generation from 3to20 µm," Appl. Phys. B 74, S153-S156 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

O. Gauthier-Lafaye, P. Boucaud, F. H. Julien, S. Sauvage, J. M. Lourtioz, V. Thierry-Mieg, and R. Planel, "Long-wavelength (approximately=15.5 micron) unipolar semiconductor laser in GaAs quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3619-3621 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Kaindl, F. Eickemeyer, M. Woerner, and T. Elsaesser, "Broadband phase-matched difference frequency mixing of femtosecond pulses in GaSe: experiment and theory," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1060-1062 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, "Free-space electro-optics sampling of mid-infrared pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1285-1286 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Huber, A. Brodschelm, F. Tauser, and A. Leitenstorfer, "Generation and field-resolved detection of femtosecond electromagnetic pulses tunable up to 41 THz," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3191-3193 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

K. Naganuma, K. Mogi, and H. Yamada, "General method for ultrashort light pulse chirp measurement," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1225-1233 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys.

L. Windhorn, J. S. Yeston, T. Witte, W. Fuss, M. Motzkus, D. Proch, K.-L. Kompa, and C. B. Moore, "Getting ahead of IVR: a demonstration of mid-infrared induced molecular dissociation on a sub-statistical time scale," J. Chem. Phys. 119, 641-645 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Commun.

K. L. Vodopyanov, S. B. Mirov, V. G. Voevodin, and P. G. Schunemann, "Two-photon absorption in GaSe and CdGeAs2," Opt. Commun. 155, 47-50 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. O. Okorogu, S. B. Mirov, W. Lee, D. I. Crouthamel, N. Jenkins, A. Yu. Dergachev, K. L. Vodopyanov, and V. V. Badikov, "Tunable middle infrared downconversion in GaSe and AgGaS2," Opt. Commun. 155, 307-313 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

C. Dorrer, P. Londero, and I. A. Walmsley, "Homodyne detection in spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction," Opt. Lett. 26, 1510-1512 (2001).
[CrossRef]

N. Demirdöven, M. Khalil, O. Golonzka, and A. Tokmakoff, "Dispersion compensation with optical materials for compression of intense sub-100-fs mid-infrared pulses," Opt. Lett. 27, 433-435 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Dorrer, E. M. Kosik, and I. A. Walmsley, "Direct space-time characterization of the electric fields of ultrashort optical pulses," Opt. Lett. 27, 548-550 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Yeremenko, A. Baltuska, F. de Haan, M. S. Pshenichnikov, and D. A. Wiersma, "Frequency-resolved pump-probe characterization of femtosecond infrared pulses," Opt. Lett. 27, 1171-1173 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Monmayrant, M. Joffre, T. Oksenhendler, R. Herzog, D. Kaplan, and P. Tournois, "Time-domain interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction by use of an acousto-optic programmable filter and a two-photon detector," Opt. Lett. 28, 278-280 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Reimann, R. P. Smith, A. M. Weiner, T. Elsaesser, and M. Woerner, "Direct field-resolved detection of terahertz transients with amplitudes of megavolts per centimeter," Opt. Lett. 28, 471-473 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Ventalon, J. M. Fraser, and M. Joffre, "Time-domain interferometry for direct electric field reconstruction of mid-infrared femtosecond pulses," Opt. Lett. 28, 1826-1828 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. J. Kubarych, M. Joffre, A. Moore, N. Belabas, and D. M. Jonas, "Mid-infrared electric field characterization using a visible charge-coupled-device-based spectrometer," Opt. Lett. 30, 1228-1230 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-P. Likforman, M. Mehendale, D. M. Villeneuve, M. Joffre, and P. B. Corkum, "Conversion of high-power 15 fs visible pulses to the mid-infrared," Opt. Lett. 26, 99-101 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Reid, P. Loza-Alvarez, C. T. A. Brown, T. Beddard, and W. Sibbett, "Amplitude and phase measurement of mid-infrared femtosecond pulses by using cross-correlation frequency-resolved optical gating," Opt. Lett. 25, 1478-1480 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Hamm, R. A. Kaindl, and J. Stenger, "Noise suppression in femtosecond mid-infrared light sources," Opt. Lett. 25, 1798-1800 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Richman, M. A. Krumbügel, and R. Trebino, "Temporal characterization of mid-IR free-electron-laser pulses by frequency-resolved optical gating," Opt. Lett. 22, 721-723 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Iaconis and I. A. Walmsley, "Spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction of ultrashort optical pulses," Opt. Lett. 23, 792-794 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rep.

T. Elsaesser and M. Woerner, "Femtosecond infrared spectroscopy of semiconductors and semiconductor nanostructures," Phys. Rep. 321, 253-305 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Physica E (Amsterdam)

H. Liu, "New quantum devices," Physica E (Amsterdam) 8, 170-173 (2000).

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.

C. Ventalon, J. M. Fraser, M. H. Vos, A. Alexandrou, J. L. Martin, and M. Joffre, "Coherent vibrational climbing in carboxyhemoglobin," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101, 13216-13220 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE

B. A. Richman, K. W. DeLong, and R. Trebino, "Generation and measurement of ultrashort pulses from the Stanford superconducting accelerator free-electron laser," in Proc. SPIE 2377, 136-147 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbugel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, "Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277-3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Science

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, "Quantum cascade laser," Science 264, 553-556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

V. G. Dmitriev, G. G. Gurzadyan, and D. N. Nikogosyan, Handbook of Nonlinear Optical Crystals, Vol. 64 of Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer, 1999).

K. Reimann, T. Elsaesser, R. Hey, C.-W. Luo, K. Ploog, and M. Woerner, "Rabi flopping of intersubband transitions in GaAs/AlGaAs MQWs," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper QFD4.

SNLO Nonlinear Optics Code, available from A. V. Smith, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1423, http:/www.sandia.gov/imrl/XWEB1128/snloftp.htm.

P. R. Griffiths and J. A. de Haseth, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry, Vol. 83 of Chemical Analysis (Wiley, 1986).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Transmission of 1.5 μ m near-IR pulses through a GaSe crystal (thickness of 0.5 or 1 mm ) as a function of incident intensity. Solid curves are fits to the model described in the text.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Energy of IR pulses generated in a 0.5 mm thick GaSe nonlinear crystal using a type II phase matching as a function of their central frequency. The solid line corresponds to a constant quantum yield of 25% for the DFM process.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spectrum of IR pulses generated through DFM in a CdSe nonlinear crystal.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) First-order autocorrelation function of the IR electric field recorded with the homemade FT spectrometer described in the text. (b) FT of (a), i.e., power spectrum of the IR pulses. The solid curve corresponds to a Gaussian function characterized by a width equal to 4.8 THz FWHM.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Second-order autocorrelation function of the IR electric field whose spectrum is shown in Fig. 4b. The ratio slightly smaller than 8 between the maximum value and the background results from interferometer imperfections, i.e., unequal intensity in the two arms or a slight noncollinear alignment at the crystal. (b) FT of (a). This signal shows five distinct components centered at frequencies 0, ± ω , and ± 2 ω . The inverse FT transform of the component centered at frequency 0 yields the intensity autocorrelation, from which the pulse duration can be extracted assuming a Gaussian pulse shape. For the pulse used in this experiment, we measure a pulse duration of 100 fs FWHM, thus corresponding to a nearly FT-limited pulse (the pulse spectral width is equal to 4.8 THz FWHM, as shown in Fig. 4).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Time-domain HOT SPIDER setup. The setup is based on the second-order autocorrelator described in the text to which we add a third path (shown in the gray box) containing a mechanical chopper and two 13 mm thick Ca F 2 windows. The beam incidence angle on these windows is close to Brewster angle, resulting in a total effective thickness of 34 mm . The four beam splitters (BS) used in the setup are ZnSe windows with antireflection coatings on the backside.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a), (c), (e) Differential signal, obtained by subtracting from the measured S T ( 2 ) ( τ ) the data measured when the stretched beam is blocked, recorded for three different values (a) T A , (c) T B , and (e) T C of time delay T. (b), (d), (f) Signal S T ( 2 ) ( τ ) recorded when the stretched beam is blocked for time delays (b) T A , (d) T B , and (f) T C .

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Signals Δ S T A ( 2 ) ( τ ) and Δ S T B ( 2 ) ( τ ) (see text).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Spectral amplitude (top) and phase (bottom) of signal Δ S T , 2 ω ( 2 ) ( ω ) for time delays T A and T B .

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(a) Complex representation (temporal intensity and phase) of the first-order correlation function between the short pulse E ( t ) and the stretched pulse E S ( t ) , obtained after apodization and spectral filtering (see text for detail). The phase corresponds to the temporal phase of the stretched pulse. (b) Residual of the temporal phase after the linear term is subtracted (solid gray curve) compared with a second-order polynomial fit (black dashed curve).

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Complete characterization of a nearly FT-limited pulse. (a) Spectral phase and intensity. The spectral intensity (squares) is measured with the FT spectrometer described in the text. The spectral phase (triangles) is measured with time-domain HOT SPIDER. (The solid curve is included as a guide for the eye.) (b) Temporal intensity and phase, computed with the signals shown in (a).

Equations (7)

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S T ( 2 ) ( τ ) = + E ( t τ ) + E ( t T ) + E S ( t ) 4 d t .
S T , 2 ω ( 2 ) ( τ ) = + E * 2 ( t τ ) [ E 2 ( t T ) + 2 E ( t T ) E S ( t ) + E S 2 ( t ) ] d t .
Δ S T , 2 ω ( 2 ) ( τ ) = 2 + E * 2 ( t τ ) E ( t T ) E S ( t ) d t .
Δ S T , 2 ω ( 2 ) ( ω ) = 2 E h * ( ω ) E [ ω ω S ( T ) ] exp { i [ ω ω S ( T ) ] T }reco .
Δ φ ( ω ) = φ [ ω ω S ( T B ) ] φ [ ω ω S ( T A ) ] + ( T B T A ) ω .
Δ S T , 0 ( 2 ) ( τ ) = 4 + E ( t τ ) 2 [ E * ( t T ) E S ( t ) + E ( t T ) E S * ( t ) ] d t .
Δ φ ( ω ) Δ ω d φ d ω ( ω ω 0 ) + ( T B T A ) ω ,

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