Abstract

Phosphate glasses containing enough sodium to allow the fabrication of optical channel waveguides by ion exchange are photosensitive to intense ultraviolet irradiation from excimer lasers at 193 and 248nm. Permanent submicrometer-period volume index gratings with modulation amplitudes larger than 104 were obtained even after annealing the irradiated samples for 2h at 230°C. Ultraviolet–visible absorption changes were measured in the irradiated areas, as well as structural modifications observed by surface profiling. Comparative studies were carried out for glasses that were also codoped with erbium and ytterbium to provide high gain at wavelengths near 1.5μm. Finally, we demonstrate narrowband gratings with reflectivities larger than 80% in silver ion-exchanged channel waveguides made in these phosphate glass substrates.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Blaize, L. Bastard, C. Cassagnètes, and J. E. Broquin, 'Multiwavelength DFB waveguide laser arrays in Yb-Er codoped phosphate glass phosphate glass substrate,' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 516-518 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  20. P. Madasamy, 'Fabrication and characterization of erbium-doped waveguide amplifiers and lasers,' Ph.D. dissertation (University of Arizona, 2003).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. B. Malo, J. Albert, F. Bilodeau, T. Kitagawa, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, K. Hattori, Y. Hibino, and S. Gujrathi, 'Photosensitivity in phosphorus-doped silica glass and optical waveguides,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 394-396 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  23. K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and J. Albert, 'Bragg gratings fabricated in monomode photosensitive optical fiber by UV exposure through a phase mask,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1035-1037 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  24. D, P. Hand and P. St. J. Russell, 'Photoinduced refractive index changes in germanosilicate fibers,' Opt. Lett. 15, 102-104 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. J. E. Pemberton, L. Latifzadeh, J. P. Fletcher, and S. H. Risbud, 'Raman spectroscopy of calcium phosphate glasses with varying CaO modifier concentrations,' Chem. Mater. 3, 195-200 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  26. G. Le Saoût, P. Simon, F. Fayon, A. Blin, and Y. Vaills, 'Raman and infrared study of (PbO)x(P2O5)(1-X) glasses,' J. Raman Spectrosc. 33, 740-746 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  27. A. Yariv, Optical Electronics in Modern Communications, 5th ed. (Oxford U. Press, 1997), Chap. 12.
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  29. S. Yliniemi, J. Albert, Q. Wang, and S. Honkanen, 'UV-exposed Bragg gratings for laser applications in silver-sodium ion-exchanged phosphate glass waveguides,' Opt. Express 14, 2898-2903 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. D. F. Geraghty, D. Provenzano, M. M. Morrell, J. Ingenhoff, B. Drapp, S. Honkanen, A. Yariv, and N. Peyghambarian, 'Polarisation-independent Bragg gratings in ion-exchanged glass channel waveguides,' Electron. Lett. 36, 531-532 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  31. A. Brandenburg, 'Stress in ion-exchanged glass waveguides,' J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1580-1593 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  32. J. Albert and G. L. Yip, 'Stress-induced index change for K+−Na+ ion exchange in glass,' Electron. Lett. 23, 737-738 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  33. M. Verhaegen, J. L. Brebner, L. B. Allard, and J. Albert, 'Ion implantation-induced strong photosensitivity in high-purity fused silica: correlation of index changes with VUV color centers,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3084-3086 (1996).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (2)

2004 (3)

S. Pissadakis, A. Ikiades, P. Hua, A. K. Sheridan, and J. Wilkinson, 'Photosensitivity of ion-exchanged Er-doped phosphate glass using 248nm excimer laser radiation,' Opt. Express 12, 3131-3136 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. D. Patel, S. DiCarolis, P. Lum, S. Venkatesh, and J. N. Miller, 'A compact high-performance optical waveguide amplifier,' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2607-2609 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Qiu, L. Li, A. Schülzgen, V. L. Temyanko, T. Luo, S. Jiang, A. Mafi, J. V. Moloney, and N. Peyghambarian, 'Generation of 9.3W multimode and 4W single-mode output from 7-cm short fiber lasers,' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2592-2594 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

S. Blaize, L. Bastard, C. Cassagnètes, and J. E. Broquin, 'Multiwavelength DFB waveguide laser arrays in Yb-Er codoped phosphate glass phosphate glass substrate,' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 516-518 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Madasamy, S. Honkanen, D. F. Geraghty, and N. Peyghambarian, 'Single-mode tapered waveguide laser in Er-doped glass with multimode diode pumping,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1332-1334 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

P. Madasamy, G. Nunzi Conti, P. Pöyhönen, M. M. Morrell, D. F. Geraghty, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, 'Waveguide distributed Bragg reflector laser arrays in erbium-doped glass made by dry Ag film ion exchange,' Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 41, 1084-1086 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Le Saoût, P. Simon, F. Fayon, A. Blin, and Y. Vaills, 'Raman and infrared study of (PbO)x(P2O5)(1-X) glasses,' J. Raman Spectrosc. 33, 740-746 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

D. L. Veasey, D. S. Funk, P. M. Peters, N. A. Sanford, G. E. Obarski, N. Fontaine, M. Young, A. P. Peskin, W.-C. Liu, S. N. Houde-Walter, and J. S. Hayden, 'Yb/Eb-codoped and Yb-doped waveguide lasers in phosphate glass,' J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263-264, 369-381 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Geraghty, D. Provenzano, M. M. Morrell, J. Ingenhoff, B. Drapp, S. Honkanen, A. Yariv, and N. Peyghambarian, 'Polarisation-independent Bragg gratings in ion-exchanged glass channel waveguides,' Electron. Lett. 36, 531-532 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

D. L. Veasey, D. S. Funk, N. A. Sanford, and J. S. Hayden, 'Arrays of distributed-Bragg-reflector waveguide lasers at 1536nm in Yb/Er codoped phosphate glass,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 789-791 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Hwang, S. Jiang, T. Luo, J. Watson, S. Honkanen, Y. Hu, F. Smektala, J. Lucas, and N. Peyghambarian, 'Erbium-doped phosphate glass fibre amplifiers with gain per unit length of 2.1dB/cm,' Electron. Lett. 35, 1007-1009 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

Y. C. Yan, A. J. Faber, H. de Waal, P. G. Kik, and A. Polman, 'Erbium-doped phosphate glass waveguide on silicon with 4.1dB/cm gain at 1.535μm,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2922-2924 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Ohtsuki, S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, and N. Peyghambarian, 'Cooperative upconversion effects on the performance of Er+-doped phosphate glass waveguide amplifiers,' J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1838-1845 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

M. Verhaegen, J. L. Brebner, L. B. Allard, and J. Albert, 'Ion implantation-induced strong photosensitivity in high-purity fused silica: correlation of index changes with VUV color centers,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3084-3086 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

B. Malo, J. Albert, F. Bilodeau, T. Kitagawa, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, K. Hattori, Y. Hibino, and S. Gujrathi, 'Photosensitivity in phosphorus-doped silica glass and optical waveguides,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 394-396 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and J. Albert, 'Bragg gratings fabricated in monomode photosensitive optical fiber by UV exposure through a phase mask,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1035-1037 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. Bilodeau, B. Malo, J. Albert, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, Y. Hibino, M. Abe, and M. Kawachi, 'Photosensitization of optical fiber and silica-on-silicon/silica waveguides,' Opt. Lett. 18, 953-955 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (2)

J. E. Pemberton, L. Latifzadeh, J. P. Fletcher, and S. H. Risbud, 'Raman spectroscopy of calcium phosphate glasses with varying CaO modifier concentrations,' Chem. Mater. 3, 195-200 (1991).
[CrossRef]

P. Pöyhönen, S. Honkanen, A. Tervonen, and M. Tahkokorpi, 'Planar 1/8 splitter in glass by photoresist masked silver film ion exchange,' Electron. Lett. 27, 1319-1320 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (2)

D, P. Hand and P. St. J. Russell, 'Photoinduced refractive index changes in germanosilicate fibers,' Opt. Lett. 15, 102-104 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Tervonen, 'A general model for fabrication processes of channel waveguides by ion exchange,' J. Appl. Phys. 67, 2746-2752 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1987 (3)

S. Honkanen, A. Tervonen, H. von Bagh, A. Salin, and M. Leppihalme, 'Fabrication of ion-exchanged channel waveguides directly into integrated circuit mask plates,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 296-298 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. Tervonen, S. Honkanen, and M. Leppihalme, 'Control of ion-exchanged waveguide profiles with Ag thin-film sources,' J. Appl. Phys. 62, 759-763 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Albert and G. L. Yip, 'Stress-induced index change for K+−Na+ ion exchange in glass,' Electron. Lett. 23, 737-738 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

A. Brandenburg, 'Stress in ion-exchanged glass waveguides,' J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1580-1593 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Abe, M.

Albert, J.

S. Yliniemi, J. Albert, Q. Wang, and S. Honkanen, 'UV-exposed Bragg gratings for laser applications in silver-sodium ion-exchanged phosphate glass waveguides,' Opt. Express 14, 2898-2903 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Verhaegen, J. L. Brebner, L. B. Allard, and J. Albert, 'Ion implantation-induced strong photosensitivity in high-purity fused silica: correlation of index changes with VUV color centers,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3084-3086 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. Malo, J. Albert, F. Bilodeau, T. Kitagawa, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, K. Hattori, Y. Hibino, and S. Gujrathi, 'Photosensitivity in phosphorus-doped silica glass and optical waveguides,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 394-396 (1994).
[CrossRef]

F. Bilodeau, B. Malo, J. Albert, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, Y. Hibino, M. Abe, and M. Kawachi, 'Photosensitization of optical fiber and silica-on-silicon/silica waveguides,' Opt. Lett. 18, 953-955 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and J. Albert, 'Bragg gratings fabricated in monomode photosensitive optical fiber by UV exposure through a phase mask,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1035-1037 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Albert and G. L. Yip, 'Stress-induced index change for K+−Na+ ion exchange in glass,' Electron. Lett. 23, 737-738 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Albert, S. Yliniemi, S. Honkanen, A. Andreyuk, and A. Steele, 'UV-written Bragg gratings in silver ion-exchanged phosphate glass channel waveguides,' in Proceedings of the 2005 Topical Meeting on Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity and Poling, B.Eggleton, ed. (Sydney, Australia, 2005), pp. 402-404.

Allard, L. B.

M. Verhaegen, J. L. Brebner, L. B. Allard, and J. Albert, 'Ion implantation-induced strong photosensitivity in high-purity fused silica: correlation of index changes with VUV color centers,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3084-3086 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Andreyuk, A.

J. Albert, S. Yliniemi, S. Honkanen, A. Andreyuk, and A. Steele, 'UV-written Bragg gratings in silver ion-exchanged phosphate glass channel waveguides,' in Proceedings of the 2005 Topical Meeting on Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity and Poling, B.Eggleton, ed. (Sydney, Australia, 2005), pp. 402-404.

Barbier, D.

D. Barbier, J. M. Delavaux, A. Kevorkian, P. Gastaldo, and J. M. Jouanno, 'Yb/Er integrated optics amplifiers on phosphate glass in single and double pass configurations,' in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, 1995), paper PD-3.

Bastard, L.

S. Blaize, L. Bastard, C. Cassagnètes, and J. E. Broquin, 'Multiwavelength DFB waveguide laser arrays in Yb-Er codoped phosphate glass phosphate glass substrate,' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 516-518 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bilodeau, F.

B. Malo, J. Albert, F. Bilodeau, T. Kitagawa, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, K. Hattori, Y. Hibino, and S. Gujrathi, 'Photosensitivity in phosphorus-doped silica glass and optical waveguides,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 394-396 (1994).
[CrossRef]

F. Bilodeau, B. Malo, J. Albert, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, Y. Hibino, M. Abe, and M. Kawachi, 'Photosensitization of optical fiber and silica-on-silicon/silica waveguides,' Opt. Lett. 18, 953-955 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and J. Albert, 'Bragg gratings fabricated in monomode photosensitive optical fiber by UV exposure through a phase mask,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1035-1037 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Blaize, S.

S. Blaize, L. Bastard, C. Cassagnètes, and J. E. Broquin, 'Multiwavelength DFB waveguide laser arrays in Yb-Er codoped phosphate glass phosphate glass substrate,' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 516-518 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Blin, A.

G. Le Saoût, P. Simon, F. Fayon, A. Blin, and Y. Vaills, 'Raman and infrared study of (PbO)x(P2O5)(1-X) glasses,' J. Raman Spectrosc. 33, 740-746 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Brandenburg, A.

A. Brandenburg, 'Stress in ion-exchanged glass waveguides,' J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1580-1593 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Brebner, J. L.

M. Verhaegen, J. L. Brebner, L. B. Allard, and J. Albert, 'Ion implantation-induced strong photosensitivity in high-purity fused silica: correlation of index changes with VUV color centers,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3084-3086 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Broquin, J. E.

S. Blaize, L. Bastard, C. Cassagnètes, and J. E. Broquin, 'Multiwavelength DFB waveguide laser arrays in Yb-Er codoped phosphate glass phosphate glass substrate,' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 516-518 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cassagnètes, C.

S. Blaize, L. Bastard, C. Cassagnètes, and J. E. Broquin, 'Multiwavelength DFB waveguide laser arrays in Yb-Er codoped phosphate glass phosphate glass substrate,' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 516-518 (2003).
[CrossRef]

de Waal, H.

Y. C. Yan, A. J. Faber, H. de Waal, P. G. Kik, and A. Polman, 'Erbium-doped phosphate glass waveguide on silicon with 4.1dB/cm gain at 1.535μm,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2922-2924 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Delavaux, J. M.

D. Barbier, J. M. Delavaux, A. Kevorkian, P. Gastaldo, and J. M. Jouanno, 'Yb/Er integrated optics amplifiers on phosphate glass in single and double pass configurations,' in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, 1995), paper PD-3.

DiCarolis, S.

F. D. Patel, S. DiCarolis, P. Lum, S. Venkatesh, and J. N. Miller, 'A compact high-performance optical waveguide amplifier,' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2607-2609 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Drapp, B.

D. F. Geraghty, D. Provenzano, M. M. Morrell, J. Ingenhoff, B. Drapp, S. Honkanen, A. Yariv, and N. Peyghambarian, 'Polarisation-independent Bragg gratings in ion-exchanged glass channel waveguides,' Electron. Lett. 36, 531-532 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Faber, A. J.

Y. C. Yan, A. J. Faber, H. de Waal, P. G. Kik, and A. Polman, 'Erbium-doped phosphate glass waveguide on silicon with 4.1dB/cm gain at 1.535μm,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2922-2924 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fayon, F.

G. Le Saoût, P. Simon, F. Fayon, A. Blin, and Y. Vaills, 'Raman and infrared study of (PbO)x(P2O5)(1-X) glasses,' J. Raman Spectrosc. 33, 740-746 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fletcher, J. P.

J. E. Pemberton, L. Latifzadeh, J. P. Fletcher, and S. H. Risbud, 'Raman spectroscopy of calcium phosphate glasses with varying CaO modifier concentrations,' Chem. Mater. 3, 195-200 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Fontaine, N.

D. L. Veasey, D. S. Funk, P. M. Peters, N. A. Sanford, G. E. Obarski, N. Fontaine, M. Young, A. P. Peskin, W.-C. Liu, S. N. Houde-Walter, and J. S. Hayden, 'Yb/Eb-codoped and Yb-doped waveguide lasers in phosphate glass,' J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263-264, 369-381 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Funk, D. S.

D. L. Veasey, D. S. Funk, P. M. Peters, N. A. Sanford, G. E. Obarski, N. Fontaine, M. Young, A. P. Peskin, W.-C. Liu, S. N. Houde-Walter, and J. S. Hayden, 'Yb/Eb-codoped and Yb-doped waveguide lasers in phosphate glass,' J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263-264, 369-381 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Veasey, D. S. Funk, N. A. Sanford, and J. S. Hayden, 'Arrays of distributed-Bragg-reflector waveguide lasers at 1536nm in Yb/Er codoped phosphate glass,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 789-791 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gastaldo, P.

D. Barbier, J. M. Delavaux, A. Kevorkian, P. Gastaldo, and J. M. Jouanno, 'Yb/Er integrated optics amplifiers on phosphate glass in single and double pass configurations,' in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, 1995), paper PD-3.

Geraghty, D. F.

P. Madasamy, S. Honkanen, D. F. Geraghty, and N. Peyghambarian, 'Single-mode tapered waveguide laser in Er-doped glass with multimode diode pumping,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1332-1334 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Madasamy, G. Nunzi Conti, P. Pöyhönen, M. M. Morrell, D. F. Geraghty, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, 'Waveguide distributed Bragg reflector laser arrays in erbium-doped glass made by dry Ag film ion exchange,' Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 41, 1084-1086 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Geraghty, D. Provenzano, M. M. Morrell, J. Ingenhoff, B. Drapp, S. Honkanen, A. Yariv, and N. Peyghambarian, 'Polarisation-independent Bragg gratings in ion-exchanged glass channel waveguides,' Electron. Lett. 36, 531-532 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gujrathi, S.

B. Malo, J. Albert, F. Bilodeau, T. Kitagawa, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, K. Hattori, Y. Hibino, and S. Gujrathi, 'Photosensitivity in phosphorus-doped silica glass and optical waveguides,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 394-396 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hand, D P.

Hattori, K.

B. Malo, J. Albert, F. Bilodeau, T. Kitagawa, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, K. Hattori, Y. Hibino, and S. Gujrathi, 'Photosensitivity in phosphorus-doped silica glass and optical waveguides,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 394-396 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hayden, J. S.

D. L. Veasey, D. S. Funk, P. M. Peters, N. A. Sanford, G. E. Obarski, N. Fontaine, M. Young, A. P. Peskin, W.-C. Liu, S. N. Houde-Walter, and J. S. Hayden, 'Yb/Eb-codoped and Yb-doped waveguide lasers in phosphate glass,' J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263-264, 369-381 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Veasey, D. S. Funk, N. A. Sanford, and J. S. Hayden, 'Arrays of distributed-Bragg-reflector waveguide lasers at 1536nm in Yb/Er codoped phosphate glass,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 789-791 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hibino, Y.

B. Malo, J. Albert, F. Bilodeau, T. Kitagawa, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, K. Hattori, Y. Hibino, and S. Gujrathi, 'Photosensitivity in phosphorus-doped silica glass and optical waveguides,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 394-396 (1994).
[CrossRef]

F. Bilodeau, B. Malo, J. Albert, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, Y. Hibino, M. Abe, and M. Kawachi, 'Photosensitization of optical fiber and silica-on-silicon/silica waveguides,' Opt. Lett. 18, 953-955 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hill, K. O.

B. Malo, J. Albert, F. Bilodeau, T. Kitagawa, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, K. Hattori, Y. Hibino, and S. Gujrathi, 'Photosensitivity in phosphorus-doped silica glass and optical waveguides,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 394-396 (1994).
[CrossRef]

F. Bilodeau, B. Malo, J. Albert, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, Y. Hibino, M. Abe, and M. Kawachi, 'Photosensitization of optical fiber and silica-on-silicon/silica waveguides,' Opt. Lett. 18, 953-955 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and J. Albert, 'Bragg gratings fabricated in monomode photosensitive optical fiber by UV exposure through a phase mask,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1035-1037 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Honkanen, S.

S. Yliniemi, J. Albert, Q. Wang, and S. Honkanen, 'UV-exposed Bragg gratings for laser applications in silver-sodium ion-exchanged phosphate glass waveguides,' Opt. Express 14, 2898-2903 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Madasamy, S. Honkanen, D. F. Geraghty, and N. Peyghambarian, 'Single-mode tapered waveguide laser in Er-doped glass with multimode diode pumping,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1332-1334 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Madasamy, G. Nunzi Conti, P. Pöyhönen, M. M. Morrell, D. F. Geraghty, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, 'Waveguide distributed Bragg reflector laser arrays in erbium-doped glass made by dry Ag film ion exchange,' Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 41, 1084-1086 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Geraghty, D. Provenzano, M. M. Morrell, J. Ingenhoff, B. Drapp, S. Honkanen, A. Yariv, and N. Peyghambarian, 'Polarisation-independent Bragg gratings in ion-exchanged glass channel waveguides,' Electron. Lett. 36, 531-532 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Hwang, S. Jiang, T. Luo, J. Watson, S. Honkanen, Y. Hu, F. Smektala, J. Lucas, and N. Peyghambarian, 'Erbium-doped phosphate glass fibre amplifiers with gain per unit length of 2.1dB/cm,' Electron. Lett. 35, 1007-1009 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Ohtsuki, S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, and N. Peyghambarian, 'Cooperative upconversion effects on the performance of Er+-doped phosphate glass waveguide amplifiers,' J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1838-1845 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Pöyhönen, S. Honkanen, A. Tervonen, and M. Tahkokorpi, 'Planar 1/8 splitter in glass by photoresist masked silver film ion exchange,' Electron. Lett. 27, 1319-1320 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. Tervonen, S. Honkanen, and M. Leppihalme, 'Control of ion-exchanged waveguide profiles with Ag thin-film sources,' J. Appl. Phys. 62, 759-763 (1987).
[CrossRef]

S. Honkanen, A. Tervonen, H. von Bagh, A. Salin, and M. Leppihalme, 'Fabrication of ion-exchanged channel waveguides directly into integrated circuit mask plates,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 296-298 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Albert, S. Yliniemi, S. Honkanen, A. Andreyuk, and A. Steele, 'UV-written Bragg gratings in silver ion-exchanged phosphate glass channel waveguides,' in Proceedings of the 2005 Topical Meeting on Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity and Poling, B.Eggleton, ed. (Sydney, Australia, 2005), pp. 402-404.

Houde-Walter, S. N.

D. L. Veasey, D. S. Funk, P. M. Peters, N. A. Sanford, G. E. Obarski, N. Fontaine, M. Young, A. P. Peskin, W.-C. Liu, S. N. Houde-Walter, and J. S. Hayden, 'Yb/Eb-codoped and Yb-doped waveguide lasers in phosphate glass,' J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263-264, 369-381 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Y.

B. C. Hwang, S. Jiang, T. Luo, J. Watson, S. Honkanen, Y. Hu, F. Smektala, J. Lucas, and N. Peyghambarian, 'Erbium-doped phosphate glass fibre amplifiers with gain per unit length of 2.1dB/cm,' Electron. Lett. 35, 1007-1009 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hua, P.

Hwang, B. C.

B. C. Hwang, S. Jiang, T. Luo, J. Watson, S. Honkanen, Y. Hu, F. Smektala, J. Lucas, and N. Peyghambarian, 'Erbium-doped phosphate glass fibre amplifiers with gain per unit length of 2.1dB/cm,' Electron. Lett. 35, 1007-1009 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ikiades, A.

Ingenhoff, J.

D. F. Geraghty, D. Provenzano, M. M. Morrell, J. Ingenhoff, B. Drapp, S. Honkanen, A. Yariv, and N. Peyghambarian, 'Polarisation-independent Bragg gratings in ion-exchanged glass channel waveguides,' Electron. Lett. 36, 531-532 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, S.

T. Qiu, L. Li, A. Schülzgen, V. L. Temyanko, T. Luo, S. Jiang, A. Mafi, J. V. Moloney, and N. Peyghambarian, 'Generation of 9.3W multimode and 4W single-mode output from 7-cm short fiber lasers,' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2592-2594 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Hwang, S. Jiang, T. Luo, J. Watson, S. Honkanen, Y. Hu, F. Smektala, J. Lucas, and N. Peyghambarian, 'Erbium-doped phosphate glass fibre amplifiers with gain per unit length of 2.1dB/cm,' Electron. Lett. 35, 1007-1009 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, D. C.

B. Malo, J. Albert, F. Bilodeau, T. Kitagawa, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, K. Hattori, Y. Hibino, and S. Gujrathi, 'Photosensitivity in phosphorus-doped silica glass and optical waveguides,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 394-396 (1994).
[CrossRef]

F. Bilodeau, B. Malo, J. Albert, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, Y. Hibino, M. Abe, and M. Kawachi, 'Photosensitization of optical fiber and silica-on-silicon/silica waveguides,' Opt. Lett. 18, 953-955 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and J. Albert, 'Bragg gratings fabricated in monomode photosensitive optical fiber by UV exposure through a phase mask,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1035-1037 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jouanno, J. M.

D. Barbier, J. M. Delavaux, A. Kevorkian, P. Gastaldo, and J. M. Jouanno, 'Yb/Er integrated optics amplifiers on phosphate glass in single and double pass configurations,' in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, 1995), paper PD-3.

Kawachi, M.

Kevorkian, A.

D. Barbier, J. M. Delavaux, A. Kevorkian, P. Gastaldo, and J. M. Jouanno, 'Yb/Er integrated optics amplifiers on phosphate glass in single and double pass configurations,' in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, 1995), paper PD-3.

Kik, P. G.

Y. C. Yan, A. J. Faber, H. de Waal, P. G. Kik, and A. Polman, 'Erbium-doped phosphate glass waveguide on silicon with 4.1dB/cm gain at 1.535μm,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2922-2924 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kitagawa, T.

B. Malo, J. Albert, F. Bilodeau, T. Kitagawa, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, K. Hattori, Y. Hibino, and S. Gujrathi, 'Photosensitivity in phosphorus-doped silica glass and optical waveguides,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 394-396 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Latifzadeh, L.

J. E. Pemberton, L. Latifzadeh, J. P. Fletcher, and S. H. Risbud, 'Raman spectroscopy of calcium phosphate glasses with varying CaO modifier concentrations,' Chem. Mater. 3, 195-200 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Le Saoût, G.

G. Le Saoût, P. Simon, F. Fayon, A. Blin, and Y. Vaills, 'Raman and infrared study of (PbO)x(P2O5)(1-X) glasses,' J. Raman Spectrosc. 33, 740-746 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Leppihalme, M.

A. Tervonen, S. Honkanen, and M. Leppihalme, 'Control of ion-exchanged waveguide profiles with Ag thin-film sources,' J. Appl. Phys. 62, 759-763 (1987).
[CrossRef]

S. Honkanen, A. Tervonen, H. von Bagh, A. Salin, and M. Leppihalme, 'Fabrication of ion-exchanged channel waveguides directly into integrated circuit mask plates,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 296-298 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Li, L.

Liu, W.-C.

D. L. Veasey, D. S. Funk, P. M. Peters, N. A. Sanford, G. E. Obarski, N. Fontaine, M. Young, A. P. Peskin, W.-C. Liu, S. N. Houde-Walter, and J. S. Hayden, 'Yb/Eb-codoped and Yb-doped waveguide lasers in phosphate glass,' J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263-264, 369-381 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lucas, J.

B. C. Hwang, S. Jiang, T. Luo, J. Watson, S. Honkanen, Y. Hu, F. Smektala, J. Lucas, and N. Peyghambarian, 'Erbium-doped phosphate glass fibre amplifiers with gain per unit length of 2.1dB/cm,' Electron. Lett. 35, 1007-1009 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lum, P.

F. D. Patel, S. DiCarolis, P. Lum, S. Venkatesh, and J. N. Miller, 'A compact high-performance optical waveguide amplifier,' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2607-2609 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Luo, T.

T. Qiu, L. Li, A. Schülzgen, V. L. Temyanko, T. Luo, S. Jiang, A. Mafi, J. V. Moloney, and N. Peyghambarian, 'Generation of 9.3W multimode and 4W single-mode output from 7-cm short fiber lasers,' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2592-2594 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Hwang, S. Jiang, T. Luo, J. Watson, S. Honkanen, Y. Hu, F. Smektala, J. Lucas, and N. Peyghambarian, 'Erbium-doped phosphate glass fibre amplifiers with gain per unit length of 2.1dB/cm,' Electron. Lett. 35, 1007-1009 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Madasamy, P.

P. Madasamy, S. Honkanen, D. F. Geraghty, and N. Peyghambarian, 'Single-mode tapered waveguide laser in Er-doped glass with multimode diode pumping,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1332-1334 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Madasamy, G. Nunzi Conti, P. Pöyhönen, M. M. Morrell, D. F. Geraghty, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, 'Waveguide distributed Bragg reflector laser arrays in erbium-doped glass made by dry Ag film ion exchange,' Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 41, 1084-1086 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Madasamy, 'Fabrication and characterization of erbium-doped waveguide amplifiers and lasers,' Ph.D. dissertation (University of Arizona, 2003).

Mafi, A.

L. Li, A. Schülzgen, V. L. Temyanko, T. Qiu, M. M. Morrell, Q. Wang, A. Mafi, J. V. Moloney, and N. Peyghambarian, 'Short-length microstuctured phosphate glass fiber lasers with large mode areas,' Opt. Lett. 30, 1141-1143 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Qiu, L. Li, A. Schülzgen, V. L. Temyanko, T. Luo, S. Jiang, A. Mafi, J. V. Moloney, and N. Peyghambarian, 'Generation of 9.3W multimode and 4W single-mode output from 7-cm short fiber lasers,' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2592-2594 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Malo, B.

B. Malo, J. Albert, F. Bilodeau, T. Kitagawa, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, K. Hattori, Y. Hibino, and S. Gujrathi, 'Photosensitivity in phosphorus-doped silica glass and optical waveguides,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 394-396 (1994).
[CrossRef]

F. Bilodeau, B. Malo, J. Albert, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, Y. Hibino, M. Abe, and M. Kawachi, 'Photosensitization of optical fiber and silica-on-silicon/silica waveguides,' Opt. Lett. 18, 953-955 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and J. Albert, 'Bragg gratings fabricated in monomode photosensitive optical fiber by UV exposure through a phase mask,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1035-1037 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Miller, J. N.

F. D. Patel, S. DiCarolis, P. Lum, S. Venkatesh, and J. N. Miller, 'A compact high-performance optical waveguide amplifier,' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2607-2609 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Moloney, J. V.

Morrell, M. M.

L. Li, A. Schülzgen, V. L. Temyanko, T. Qiu, M. M. Morrell, Q. Wang, A. Mafi, J. V. Moloney, and N. Peyghambarian, 'Short-length microstuctured phosphate glass fiber lasers with large mode areas,' Opt. Lett. 30, 1141-1143 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Madasamy, G. Nunzi Conti, P. Pöyhönen, M. M. Morrell, D. F. Geraghty, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, 'Waveguide distributed Bragg reflector laser arrays in erbium-doped glass made by dry Ag film ion exchange,' Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 41, 1084-1086 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Geraghty, D. Provenzano, M. M. Morrell, J. Ingenhoff, B. Drapp, S. Honkanen, A. Yariv, and N. Peyghambarian, 'Polarisation-independent Bragg gratings in ion-exchanged glass channel waveguides,' Electron. Lett. 36, 531-532 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Najafi, S. I.

Nunzi Conti, G.

P. Madasamy, G. Nunzi Conti, P. Pöyhönen, M. M. Morrell, D. F. Geraghty, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, 'Waveguide distributed Bragg reflector laser arrays in erbium-doped glass made by dry Ag film ion exchange,' Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 41, 1084-1086 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Obarski, G. E.

D. L. Veasey, D. S. Funk, P. M. Peters, N. A. Sanford, G. E. Obarski, N. Fontaine, M. Young, A. P. Peskin, W.-C. Liu, S. N. Houde-Walter, and J. S. Hayden, 'Yb/Eb-codoped and Yb-doped waveguide lasers in phosphate glass,' J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263-264, 369-381 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ohtsuki, T.

Patel, F. D.

F. D. Patel, S. DiCarolis, P. Lum, S. Venkatesh, and J. N. Miller, 'A compact high-performance optical waveguide amplifier,' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2607-2609 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pemberton, J. E.

J. E. Pemberton, L. Latifzadeh, J. P. Fletcher, and S. H. Risbud, 'Raman spectroscopy of calcium phosphate glasses with varying CaO modifier concentrations,' Chem. Mater. 3, 195-200 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Peskin, A. P.

D. L. Veasey, D. S. Funk, P. M. Peters, N. A. Sanford, G. E. Obarski, N. Fontaine, M. Young, A. P. Peskin, W.-C. Liu, S. N. Houde-Walter, and J. S. Hayden, 'Yb/Eb-codoped and Yb-doped waveguide lasers in phosphate glass,' J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263-264, 369-381 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Peters, P. M.

D. L. Veasey, D. S. Funk, P. M. Peters, N. A. Sanford, G. E. Obarski, N. Fontaine, M. Young, A. P. Peskin, W.-C. Liu, S. N. Houde-Walter, and J. S. Hayden, 'Yb/Eb-codoped and Yb-doped waveguide lasers in phosphate glass,' J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263-264, 369-381 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Peyghambarian, N.

T. Qiu, S. Suzuki, A. Schülzgen, L. Li, A. Polynkin, V. Temyanko, J. V. Moloney, and N. Peyghambarian, 'Generation of watt-level single-longitudinal-mode output from cladding-pumped short fiber lasers,' Opt. Lett. 30, 2748-2750 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Li, A. Schülzgen, V. L. Temyanko, T. Qiu, M. M. Morrell, Q. Wang, A. Mafi, J. V. Moloney, and N. Peyghambarian, 'Short-length microstuctured phosphate glass fiber lasers with large mode areas,' Opt. Lett. 30, 1141-1143 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Qiu, L. Li, A. Schülzgen, V. L. Temyanko, T. Luo, S. Jiang, A. Mafi, J. V. Moloney, and N. Peyghambarian, 'Generation of 9.3W multimode and 4W single-mode output from 7-cm short fiber lasers,' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2592-2594 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Madasamy, S. Honkanen, D. F. Geraghty, and N. Peyghambarian, 'Single-mode tapered waveguide laser in Er-doped glass with multimode diode pumping,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1332-1334 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Madasamy, G. Nunzi Conti, P. Pöyhönen, M. M. Morrell, D. F. Geraghty, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, 'Waveguide distributed Bragg reflector laser arrays in erbium-doped glass made by dry Ag film ion exchange,' Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 41, 1084-1086 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Geraghty, D. Provenzano, M. M. Morrell, J. Ingenhoff, B. Drapp, S. Honkanen, A. Yariv, and N. Peyghambarian, 'Polarisation-independent Bragg gratings in ion-exchanged glass channel waveguides,' Electron. Lett. 36, 531-532 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Hwang, S. Jiang, T. Luo, J. Watson, S. Honkanen, Y. Hu, F. Smektala, J. Lucas, and N. Peyghambarian, 'Erbium-doped phosphate glass fibre amplifiers with gain per unit length of 2.1dB/cm,' Electron. Lett. 35, 1007-1009 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Ohtsuki, S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, and N. Peyghambarian, 'Cooperative upconversion effects on the performance of Er+-doped phosphate glass waveguide amplifiers,' J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1838-1845 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pissadakis, S.

Polman, A.

Y. C. Yan, A. J. Faber, H. de Waal, P. G. Kik, and A. Polman, 'Erbium-doped phosphate glass waveguide on silicon with 4.1dB/cm gain at 1.535μm,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2922-2924 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Polynkin, A.

Pöyhönen, P.

P. Madasamy, G. Nunzi Conti, P. Pöyhönen, M. M. Morrell, D. F. Geraghty, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, 'Waveguide distributed Bragg reflector laser arrays in erbium-doped glass made by dry Ag film ion exchange,' Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 41, 1084-1086 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Pöyhönen, S. Honkanen, A. Tervonen, and M. Tahkokorpi, 'Planar 1/8 splitter in glass by photoresist masked silver film ion exchange,' Electron. Lett. 27, 1319-1320 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Provenzano, D.

D. F. Geraghty, D. Provenzano, M. M. Morrell, J. Ingenhoff, B. Drapp, S. Honkanen, A. Yariv, and N. Peyghambarian, 'Polarisation-independent Bragg gratings in ion-exchanged glass channel waveguides,' Electron. Lett. 36, 531-532 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, T.

Risbud, S. H.

J. E. Pemberton, L. Latifzadeh, J. P. Fletcher, and S. H. Risbud, 'Raman spectroscopy of calcium phosphate glasses with varying CaO modifier concentrations,' Chem. Mater. 3, 195-200 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. St. J.

Salin, A.

S. Honkanen, A. Tervonen, H. von Bagh, A. Salin, and M. Leppihalme, 'Fabrication of ion-exchanged channel waveguides directly into integrated circuit mask plates,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 296-298 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Sanford, N. A.

D. L. Veasey, D. S. Funk, P. M. Peters, N. A. Sanford, G. E. Obarski, N. Fontaine, M. Young, A. P. Peskin, W.-C. Liu, S. N. Houde-Walter, and J. S. Hayden, 'Yb/Eb-codoped and Yb-doped waveguide lasers in phosphate glass,' J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263-264, 369-381 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Veasey, D. S. Funk, N. A. Sanford, and J. S. Hayden, 'Arrays of distributed-Bragg-reflector waveguide lasers at 1536nm in Yb/Er codoped phosphate glass,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 789-791 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schülzgen, A.

Sheridan, A. K.

Simon, P.

G. Le Saoût, P. Simon, F. Fayon, A. Blin, and Y. Vaills, 'Raman and infrared study of (PbO)x(P2O5)(1-X) glasses,' J. Raman Spectrosc. 33, 740-746 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Smektala, F.

B. C. Hwang, S. Jiang, T. Luo, J. Watson, S. Honkanen, Y. Hu, F. Smektala, J. Lucas, and N. Peyghambarian, 'Erbium-doped phosphate glass fibre amplifiers with gain per unit length of 2.1dB/cm,' Electron. Lett. 35, 1007-1009 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Steele, A.

J. Albert, S. Yliniemi, S. Honkanen, A. Andreyuk, and A. Steele, 'UV-written Bragg gratings in silver ion-exchanged phosphate glass channel waveguides,' in Proceedings of the 2005 Topical Meeting on Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity and Poling, B.Eggleton, ed. (Sydney, Australia, 2005), pp. 402-404.

Suzuki, S.

Tahkokorpi, M.

P. Pöyhönen, S. Honkanen, A. Tervonen, and M. Tahkokorpi, 'Planar 1/8 splitter in glass by photoresist masked silver film ion exchange,' Electron. Lett. 27, 1319-1320 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Temyanko, V.

Temyanko, V. L.

L. Li, A. Schülzgen, V. L. Temyanko, T. Qiu, M. M. Morrell, Q. Wang, A. Mafi, J. V. Moloney, and N. Peyghambarian, 'Short-length microstuctured phosphate glass fiber lasers with large mode areas,' Opt. Lett. 30, 1141-1143 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Qiu, L. Li, A. Schülzgen, V. L. Temyanko, T. Luo, S. Jiang, A. Mafi, J. V. Moloney, and N. Peyghambarian, 'Generation of 9.3W multimode and 4W single-mode output from 7-cm short fiber lasers,' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2592-2594 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tervonen, A.

P. Pöyhönen, S. Honkanen, A. Tervonen, and M. Tahkokorpi, 'Planar 1/8 splitter in glass by photoresist masked silver film ion exchange,' Electron. Lett. 27, 1319-1320 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. Tervonen, 'A general model for fabrication processes of channel waveguides by ion exchange,' J. Appl. Phys. 67, 2746-2752 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. Tervonen, S. Honkanen, and M. Leppihalme, 'Control of ion-exchanged waveguide profiles with Ag thin-film sources,' J. Appl. Phys. 62, 759-763 (1987).
[CrossRef]

S. Honkanen, A. Tervonen, H. von Bagh, A. Salin, and M. Leppihalme, 'Fabrication of ion-exchanged channel waveguides directly into integrated circuit mask plates,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 296-298 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Vaills, Y.

G. Le Saoût, P. Simon, F. Fayon, A. Blin, and Y. Vaills, 'Raman and infrared study of (PbO)x(P2O5)(1-X) glasses,' J. Raman Spectrosc. 33, 740-746 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Veasey, D. L.

D. L. Veasey, D. S. Funk, P. M. Peters, N. A. Sanford, G. E. Obarski, N. Fontaine, M. Young, A. P. Peskin, W.-C. Liu, S. N. Houde-Walter, and J. S. Hayden, 'Yb/Eb-codoped and Yb-doped waveguide lasers in phosphate glass,' J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263-264, 369-381 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Veasey, D. S. Funk, N. A. Sanford, and J. S. Hayden, 'Arrays of distributed-Bragg-reflector waveguide lasers at 1536nm in Yb/Er codoped phosphate glass,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 789-791 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Venkatesh, S.

F. D. Patel, S. DiCarolis, P. Lum, S. Venkatesh, and J. N. Miller, 'A compact high-performance optical waveguide amplifier,' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2607-2609 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Verhaegen, M.

M. Verhaegen, J. L. Brebner, L. B. Allard, and J. Albert, 'Ion implantation-induced strong photosensitivity in high-purity fused silica: correlation of index changes with VUV color centers,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3084-3086 (1996).
[CrossRef]

von Bagh, H.

S. Honkanen, A. Tervonen, H. von Bagh, A. Salin, and M. Leppihalme, 'Fabrication of ion-exchanged channel waveguides directly into integrated circuit mask plates,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 296-298 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q.

Watson, J.

B. C. Hwang, S. Jiang, T. Luo, J. Watson, S. Honkanen, Y. Hu, F. Smektala, J. Lucas, and N. Peyghambarian, 'Erbium-doped phosphate glass fibre amplifiers with gain per unit length of 2.1dB/cm,' Electron. Lett. 35, 1007-1009 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wilkinson, J.

Yan, Y. C.

Y. C. Yan, A. J. Faber, H. de Waal, P. G. Kik, and A. Polman, 'Erbium-doped phosphate glass waveguide on silicon with 4.1dB/cm gain at 1.535μm,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2922-2924 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

D. F. Geraghty, D. Provenzano, M. M. Morrell, J. Ingenhoff, B. Drapp, S. Honkanen, A. Yariv, and N. Peyghambarian, 'Polarisation-independent Bragg gratings in ion-exchanged glass channel waveguides,' Electron. Lett. 36, 531-532 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Yariv, Optical Electronics in Modern Communications, 5th ed. (Oxford U. Press, 1997), Chap. 12.

Yip, G. L.

J. Albert and G. L. Yip, 'Stress-induced index change for K+−Na+ ion exchange in glass,' Electron. Lett. 23, 737-738 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Yliniemi, S.

S. Yliniemi, J. Albert, Q. Wang, and S. Honkanen, 'UV-exposed Bragg gratings for laser applications in silver-sodium ion-exchanged phosphate glass waveguides,' Opt. Express 14, 2898-2903 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Albert, S. Yliniemi, S. Honkanen, A. Andreyuk, and A. Steele, 'UV-written Bragg gratings in silver ion-exchanged phosphate glass channel waveguides,' in Proceedings of the 2005 Topical Meeting on Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity and Poling, B.Eggleton, ed. (Sydney, Australia, 2005), pp. 402-404.

Young, M.

D. L. Veasey, D. S. Funk, P. M. Peters, N. A. Sanford, G. E. Obarski, N. Fontaine, M. Young, A. P. Peskin, W.-C. Liu, S. N. Houde-Walter, and J. S. Hayden, 'Yb/Eb-codoped and Yb-doped waveguide lasers in phosphate glass,' J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263-264, 369-381 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

Y. C. Yan, A. J. Faber, H. de Waal, P. G. Kik, and A. Polman, 'Erbium-doped phosphate glass waveguide on silicon with 4.1dB/cm gain at 1.535μm,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2922-2924 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Veasey, D. S. Funk, N. A. Sanford, and J. S. Hayden, 'Arrays of distributed-Bragg-reflector waveguide lasers at 1536nm in Yb/Er codoped phosphate glass,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 789-791 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Madasamy, S. Honkanen, D. F. Geraghty, and N. Peyghambarian, 'Single-mode tapered waveguide laser in Er-doped glass with multimode diode pumping,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1332-1334 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Honkanen, A. Tervonen, H. von Bagh, A. Salin, and M. Leppihalme, 'Fabrication of ion-exchanged channel waveguides directly into integrated circuit mask plates,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 296-298 (1987).
[CrossRef]

B. Malo, J. Albert, F. Bilodeau, T. Kitagawa, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, K. Hattori, Y. Hibino, and S. Gujrathi, 'Photosensitivity in phosphorus-doped silica glass and optical waveguides,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 394-396 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and J. Albert, 'Bragg gratings fabricated in monomode photosensitive optical fiber by UV exposure through a phase mask,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1035-1037 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Verhaegen, J. L. Brebner, L. B. Allard, and J. Albert, 'Ion implantation-induced strong photosensitivity in high-purity fused silica: correlation of index changes with VUV color centers,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3084-3086 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater. (1)

J. E. Pemberton, L. Latifzadeh, J. P. Fletcher, and S. H. Risbud, 'Raman spectroscopy of calcium phosphate glasses with varying CaO modifier concentrations,' Chem. Mater. 3, 195-200 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (4)

P. Pöyhönen, S. Honkanen, A. Tervonen, and M. Tahkokorpi, 'Planar 1/8 splitter in glass by photoresist masked silver film ion exchange,' Electron. Lett. 27, 1319-1320 (1991).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Hwang, S. Jiang, T. Luo, J. Watson, S. Honkanen, Y. Hu, F. Smektala, J. Lucas, and N. Peyghambarian, 'Erbium-doped phosphate glass fibre amplifiers with gain per unit length of 2.1dB/cm,' Electron. Lett. 35, 1007-1009 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Albert and G. L. Yip, 'Stress-induced index change for K+−Na+ ion exchange in glass,' Electron. Lett. 23, 737-738 (1987).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Geraghty, D. Provenzano, M. M. Morrell, J. Ingenhoff, B. Drapp, S. Honkanen, A. Yariv, and N. Peyghambarian, 'Polarisation-independent Bragg gratings in ion-exchanged glass channel waveguides,' Electron. Lett. 36, 531-532 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

S. Blaize, L. Bastard, C. Cassagnètes, and J. E. Broquin, 'Multiwavelength DFB waveguide laser arrays in Yb-Er codoped phosphate glass phosphate glass substrate,' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 516-518 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. D. Patel, S. DiCarolis, P. Lum, S. Venkatesh, and J. N. Miller, 'A compact high-performance optical waveguide amplifier,' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2607-2609 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Qiu, L. Li, A. Schülzgen, V. L. Temyanko, T. Luo, S. Jiang, A. Mafi, J. V. Moloney, and N. Peyghambarian, 'Generation of 9.3W multimode and 4W single-mode output from 7-cm short fiber lasers,' IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2592-2594 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

A. Tervonen, S. Honkanen, and M. Leppihalme, 'Control of ion-exchanged waveguide profiles with Ag thin-film sources,' J. Appl. Phys. 62, 759-763 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. Tervonen, 'A general model for fabrication processes of channel waveguides by ion exchange,' J. Appl. Phys. 67, 2746-2752 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

A. Brandenburg, 'Stress in ion-exchanged glass waveguides,' J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1580-1593 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

D. L. Veasey, D. S. Funk, P. M. Peters, N. A. Sanford, G. E. Obarski, N. Fontaine, M. Young, A. P. Peskin, W.-C. Liu, S. N. Houde-Walter, and J. S. Hayden, 'Yb/Eb-codoped and Yb-doped waveguide lasers in phosphate glass,' J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263-264, 369-381 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Raman Spectrosc. (1)

G. Le Saoût, P. Simon, F. Fayon, A. Blin, and Y. Vaills, 'Raman and infrared study of (PbO)x(P2O5)(1-X) glasses,' J. Raman Spectrosc. 33, 740-746 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) (1)

P. Madasamy, G. Nunzi Conti, P. Pöyhönen, M. M. Morrell, D. F. Geraghty, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, 'Waveguide distributed Bragg reflector laser arrays in erbium-doped glass made by dry Ag film ion exchange,' Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 41, 1084-1086 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Other (5)

http://www.npphotonics.com.

A. Yariv, Optical Electronics in Modern Communications, 5th ed. (Oxford U. Press, 1997), Chap. 12.

J. Albert, S. Yliniemi, S. Honkanen, A. Andreyuk, and A. Steele, 'UV-written Bragg gratings in silver ion-exchanged phosphate glass channel waveguides,' in Proceedings of the 2005 Topical Meeting on Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity and Poling, B.Eggleton, ed. (Sydney, Australia, 2005), pp. 402-404.

P. Madasamy, 'Fabrication and characterization of erbium-doped waveguide amplifiers and lasers,' Ph.D. dissertation (University of Arizona, 2003).

D. Barbier, J. M. Delavaux, A. Kevorkian, P. Gastaldo, and J. M. Jouanno, 'Yb/Er integrated optics amplifiers on phosphate glass in single and double pass configurations,' in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, 1995), paper PD-3.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

UV–Vis transmission spectra for passive IOG-1 (undoped, red solid curve) and active IOG-1-7 ( Er Yb codoped, blue dashed curve), and for ion-exchanged passive IOG-1 (magenta dash-dotted curve) glass substrates. The thickness of the substrates was 1.5 mm .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Weak Bragg grating written in situ at wavelength 248 nm to the ion-exchanged channel waveguide. (a) Reflectance and (b) transmittance spectrum.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Coloration caused by the UV exposure. Sample cross sections showing irradiated areas for different exposure times (from left to right): 0.9, 1.8, 3.6, 9, and 18 kJ cm 2 .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Change in absorbance ( 1 l log T i ) due to the UV irradiation and annealing for passive IOG-1 glass. Red solid curve refers to the induced absorbance in the UV-irradiated sample and blue dashed curve to the induced absorbance in the UV-irradiated and annealed sample.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Diffraction efficiency (blue squares) and the height of the surface swelling (red circles) as functions of the UV irradiation dose. The red and blue lines between the markers have been drawn for the eye.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Surface ridge measured by a Tencor P1 profilometer.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) AFM topography and (b) deflection images of a glass sample exposed to UV irradiation. Topography scale is 35 nm . Atomic force microscopy measurements were carried out on a multimode Nanoscope III atomic force microscope (Digital Instruments, Santa Barbara, Calif.) in the repulsive mode in air. A J scanner (maximal scan area of 120 m 2 ) and 200 m long soft cantilevers with integrated pyramidal silicon nitride tips (spring constant of 60 mN m ) were used. The imaging force was approximately 2 4 nN , and the scan rate was typically 0.5 Hz .

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Raman spectra measured for UV-irradiated (red solid curve) and non-UV-irradiated (blue dotted curve) areas of the sample. Raman measurements were performed using a single-grating monochromator (Jobin Yvon, focal length 640 mm ) equipped with a liquid-nitrogen-cooled CCD camera (Princeton Instruments) and a notch filter to remove the excitation wavelength. An air-cooled argon ion laser (Melles Griot) operating at 488 nm 100 mW was used as an excitation source. The spectral resolution of the instrument was 4 cm 1 . The accumulation time was 60 s .

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Change in absorbance ( 1 l log T i ) due to the UV irradiation and annealing for active IOG-1-7 glass. Red solid curve refers to the induced absorbance in the UV-irradiated sample, and blue dashed curve to the induced absorbance in the UV-irradiated and annealed sample.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(a) Reflectance and (b) transmittance for a channel waveguide grating in passive IOG-1 glass.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Transmittance for a channel waveguide grating in active IOG-1-7 glass. The ripple around 100% is due to the noise during the measurement.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Exposure Parameters

Equations (1)

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η = sin 2 [ 2 π d Δ n ( λ 0 cos θ B i ) ] ,

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