Abstract

We have studied two-beam-coupling processes related to the generation of optical axis gratings in liquid crystals (LCs) due to the electromagnetic torque acting on the orientation of LCs in superimposed laser beams with spatially modulated polarization. Such gratings result in efficient coupling between the laser beams controlled by the frequency shift introduced between the beams at infrasound frequencies. Larger than 80% efficiency of energy transfer from a pump to a signal beam is reported at power density levels of the laser beams at 110kWcm2. The distinction between pump and signal beams is relative, since the sign of the frequency shift rather than the power ratio between the beams determines the direction of energy transfer. The experiments were performed for radiation at a 1.06μm wavelength; high optical nonlinearity and low absorption make LCs suitable for use in visible and near-IR spectra, particularly in high-power laser systems. We have characterized the main fundamental features of the process of recording dynamic orientation gratings, plotting the gain spectra for several LCs and verifying the good quality of the amplified signal beam even for a strongly distorted pump. The obtained results set the groundwork for a variety of novel opportunities and applications that include combining high-power laser beams and wavelength division multiplexing at an ultranarrow interval of frequencies of the order of 1100Hz.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. N. V. Tabiryan, B. Ya. Zel'dovich, and A. V. Sukhov, "The orientational optical nonlinearity of liquid crystals," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 136, 1-139 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. J. Eichler, P. Günter, and D. W. Pohl, Laser-Induced Dynamic Gratings (Springer-Verlag, 1986).
  3. B. Ya. Zel'dovich, N. F. Pilipetsky, and A. V. Shkunov, Principles of Phase Conjugation, Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer, 1985).
  4. B. Ya. Zel'dovich and N. V. Tabiryan, "Induced light scattering in the mesophase of a nematic liquid crystal (NLC)," JETP Lett. 30, 478-482 (1979).
  5. B. Ya. Zel'dovich, S. K. Merzlikin, N. F. Pilipetskii, A. V. Sukhov, and N. V. Tabiryan, "Observation of orientational stimulated light scattering in the mesophase of a nematic liquid crystal," Sov. Phys. Dokl. 28, 1038-1039 (1983).
  6. B. Ya. Zel'dovich, S. K. Merzlikin, N. F. Pilipetsky, and A. V. Sukhov, "Observation of stimulated forward orientational light scattering in a planar nematic liquid crystal," JETP Lett. 41, 514-521 (1985).
  7. B. Ya. Zel'dovich, A. V. Sukhov, and N. V. Tabiryan, "Theory and experiment on stimulated scattering of light in nematics," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 143, 7-15 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  8. I. V. Goosev, B. Ya. Zel'dovich, V. A. Krivoschekov, and V. N. Sadovskii, "Steady-state stimulated scattering by a grating nonlinearity in a planar nematic liquid crystal," JETP Lett. 55, 178-183 (1992).
  9. I. V. Goosev, V. A. Krivoschekov, and B. Ya. Zel'dovich, "Steady-state stimulated scattering by a grating nonlinearity in a planar nematic liquid crystal," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 222-223, 97-100 (1992).
  10. I. C. Khoo, Y. Liang, and H. Li, "Observation of stimulated orientational scattering and cross-polarized self-starting phase conjugation in a nematic liquid-crystal film," Opt. Lett. 20, 130-132 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. I. C. Khoo and Y. Liang, "Stimulated orientational and thermal scatterings self-starting optical phase conjugation with nematic liquid crystals," Phys. Rev. E 62, 6722-6733 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  12. N. V. Tabiryan, A. V. Sukhov, and B. Ya. Zel'dovich, "High-efficiency energy transfer due to stimulated orientational scattering of light in nematic liquid crystals," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 1203-1205 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  13. I. C. Khoo and J. Ding, "All-optical cw laser polarization conversion at 1.55 μm by two-beam coupling in nematic liquid crystal films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2496-2498 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  14. I. C. Khoo and A. Diaz, "Nonlinear dynamics in laser polarization conversion by stimulated scattering in nematic liquid crystal films," Phys. Rev. E 68, 042701-1-042701-4 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  15. I. C. Khoo, "Supraoptical nonlinearity of liquid crystals," Opt. Photonics News 14, 25 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  16. H. Sarkissian, C. C. Tsai, B. Ya. Zeldovich, and N. V. Tabiryan, "Beam combining using orientational stimulated scattering in liquid crystals," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 2628-2634 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  17. N. B. Baranova, I. V. Goosev, V. A. Krivoschekov, and B. Ya. Zel'dovich, "Distortionless propagation of ordinary wave through inhomogeneous nematic (theory and experiment)," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 210, 155-164 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  18. N. V. Tabiryan, V. A. Grozhik, I. C. Khoo, S. R. Nersisyan, and S. V. Serak, "All-optical liquid crystal spatial light modulators," Proc. SPIE 5162, 58-63 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2003 (3)

N. V. Tabiryan, V. A. Grozhik, I. C. Khoo, S. R. Nersisyan, and S. V. Serak, "All-optical liquid crystal spatial light modulators," Proc. SPIE 5162, 58-63 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo and A. Diaz, "Nonlinear dynamics in laser polarization conversion by stimulated scattering in nematic liquid crystal films," Phys. Rev. E 68, 042701-1-042701-4 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo, "Supraoptical nonlinearity of liquid crystals," Opt. Photonics News 14, 25 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

I. C. Khoo and J. Ding, "All-optical cw laser polarization conversion at 1.55 μm by two-beam coupling in nematic liquid crystal films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2496-2498 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

I. C. Khoo and Y. Liang, "Stimulated orientational and thermal scatterings self-starting optical phase conjugation with nematic liquid crystals," Phys. Rev. E 62, 6722-6733 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1992 (3)

N. B. Baranova, I. V. Goosev, V. A. Krivoschekov, and B. Ya. Zel'dovich, "Distortionless propagation of ordinary wave through inhomogeneous nematic (theory and experiment)," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 210, 155-164 (1992).
[CrossRef]

I. V. Goosev, B. Ya. Zel'dovich, V. A. Krivoschekov, and V. N. Sadovskii, "Steady-state stimulated scattering by a grating nonlinearity in a planar nematic liquid crystal," JETP Lett. 55, 178-183 (1992).

I. V. Goosev, V. A. Krivoschekov, and B. Ya. Zel'dovich, "Steady-state stimulated scattering by a grating nonlinearity in a planar nematic liquid crystal," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 222-223, 97-100 (1992).

1987 (1)

B. Ya. Zel'dovich, A. V. Sukhov, and N. V. Tabiryan, "Theory and experiment on stimulated scattering of light in nematics," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 143, 7-15 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

N. V. Tabiryan, B. Ya. Zel'dovich, and A. V. Sukhov, "The orientational optical nonlinearity of liquid crystals," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 136, 1-139 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

B. Ya. Zel'dovich, S. K. Merzlikin, N. F. Pilipetsky, and A. V. Sukhov, "Observation of stimulated forward orientational light scattering in a planar nematic liquid crystal," JETP Lett. 41, 514-521 (1985).

1983 (1)

B. Ya. Zel'dovich, S. K. Merzlikin, N. F. Pilipetskii, A. V. Sukhov, and N. V. Tabiryan, "Observation of orientational stimulated light scattering in the mesophase of a nematic liquid crystal," Sov. Phys. Dokl. 28, 1038-1039 (1983).

1979 (1)

B. Ya. Zel'dovich and N. V. Tabiryan, "Induced light scattering in the mesophase of a nematic liquid crystal (NLC)," JETP Lett. 30, 478-482 (1979).

Baranova, N. B.

N. B. Baranova, I. V. Goosev, V. A. Krivoschekov, and B. Ya. Zel'dovich, "Distortionless propagation of ordinary wave through inhomogeneous nematic (theory and experiment)," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 210, 155-164 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Diaz, A.

I. C. Khoo and A. Diaz, "Nonlinear dynamics in laser polarization conversion by stimulated scattering in nematic liquid crystal films," Phys. Rev. E 68, 042701-1-042701-4 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ding, J.

I. C. Khoo and J. Ding, "All-optical cw laser polarization conversion at 1.55 μm by two-beam coupling in nematic liquid crystal films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2496-2498 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Eichler, H. J.

H. J. Eichler, P. Günter, and D. W. Pohl, Laser-Induced Dynamic Gratings (Springer-Verlag, 1986).

Goosev, I. V.

I. V. Goosev, V. A. Krivoschekov, and B. Ya. Zel'dovich, "Steady-state stimulated scattering by a grating nonlinearity in a planar nematic liquid crystal," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 222-223, 97-100 (1992).

N. B. Baranova, I. V. Goosev, V. A. Krivoschekov, and B. Ya. Zel'dovich, "Distortionless propagation of ordinary wave through inhomogeneous nematic (theory and experiment)," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 210, 155-164 (1992).
[CrossRef]

I. V. Goosev, B. Ya. Zel'dovich, V. A. Krivoschekov, and V. N. Sadovskii, "Steady-state stimulated scattering by a grating nonlinearity in a planar nematic liquid crystal," JETP Lett. 55, 178-183 (1992).

Grozhik, V. A.

N. V. Tabiryan, V. A. Grozhik, I. C. Khoo, S. R. Nersisyan, and S. V. Serak, "All-optical liquid crystal spatial light modulators," Proc. SPIE 5162, 58-63 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Günter, P.

H. J. Eichler, P. Günter, and D. W. Pohl, Laser-Induced Dynamic Gratings (Springer-Verlag, 1986).

Khoo, I. C.

N. V. Tabiryan, V. A. Grozhik, I. C. Khoo, S. R. Nersisyan, and S. V. Serak, "All-optical liquid crystal spatial light modulators," Proc. SPIE 5162, 58-63 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo, "Supraoptical nonlinearity of liquid crystals," Opt. Photonics News 14, 25 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo and A. Diaz, "Nonlinear dynamics in laser polarization conversion by stimulated scattering in nematic liquid crystal films," Phys. Rev. E 68, 042701-1-042701-4 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo and J. Ding, "All-optical cw laser polarization conversion at 1.55 μm by two-beam coupling in nematic liquid crystal films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2496-2498 (2002).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo and Y. Liang, "Stimulated orientational and thermal scatterings self-starting optical phase conjugation with nematic liquid crystals," Phys. Rev. E 62, 6722-6733 (2000).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo, Y. Liang, and H. Li, "Observation of stimulated orientational scattering and cross-polarized self-starting phase conjugation in a nematic liquid-crystal film," Opt. Lett. 20, 130-132 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krivoschekov, V. A.

N. B. Baranova, I. V. Goosev, V. A. Krivoschekov, and B. Ya. Zel'dovich, "Distortionless propagation of ordinary wave through inhomogeneous nematic (theory and experiment)," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 210, 155-164 (1992).
[CrossRef]

I. V. Goosev, B. Ya. Zel'dovich, V. A. Krivoschekov, and V. N. Sadovskii, "Steady-state stimulated scattering by a grating nonlinearity in a planar nematic liquid crystal," JETP Lett. 55, 178-183 (1992).

I. V. Goosev, V. A. Krivoschekov, and B. Ya. Zel'dovich, "Steady-state stimulated scattering by a grating nonlinearity in a planar nematic liquid crystal," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 222-223, 97-100 (1992).

Li, H.

Liang, Y.

I. C. Khoo and Y. Liang, "Stimulated orientational and thermal scatterings self-starting optical phase conjugation with nematic liquid crystals," Phys. Rev. E 62, 6722-6733 (2000).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo, Y. Liang, and H. Li, "Observation of stimulated orientational scattering and cross-polarized self-starting phase conjugation in a nematic liquid-crystal film," Opt. Lett. 20, 130-132 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Merzlikin, S. K.

B. Ya. Zel'dovich, S. K. Merzlikin, N. F. Pilipetsky, and A. V. Sukhov, "Observation of stimulated forward orientational light scattering in a planar nematic liquid crystal," JETP Lett. 41, 514-521 (1985).

B. Ya. Zel'dovich, S. K. Merzlikin, N. F. Pilipetskii, A. V. Sukhov, and N. V. Tabiryan, "Observation of orientational stimulated light scattering in the mesophase of a nematic liquid crystal," Sov. Phys. Dokl. 28, 1038-1039 (1983).

Nersisyan, S. R.

N. V. Tabiryan, V. A. Grozhik, I. C. Khoo, S. R. Nersisyan, and S. V. Serak, "All-optical liquid crystal spatial light modulators," Proc. SPIE 5162, 58-63 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pilipetskii, N. F.

B. Ya. Zel'dovich, S. K. Merzlikin, N. F. Pilipetskii, A. V. Sukhov, and N. V. Tabiryan, "Observation of orientational stimulated light scattering in the mesophase of a nematic liquid crystal," Sov. Phys. Dokl. 28, 1038-1039 (1983).

Pilipetsky, N. F.

B. Ya. Zel'dovich, S. K. Merzlikin, N. F. Pilipetsky, and A. V. Sukhov, "Observation of stimulated forward orientational light scattering in a planar nematic liquid crystal," JETP Lett. 41, 514-521 (1985).

B. Ya. Zel'dovich, N. F. Pilipetsky, and A. V. Shkunov, Principles of Phase Conjugation, Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer, 1985).

Pohl, D. W.

H. J. Eichler, P. Günter, and D. W. Pohl, Laser-Induced Dynamic Gratings (Springer-Verlag, 1986).

Sadovskii, V. N.

I. V. Goosev, B. Ya. Zel'dovich, V. A. Krivoschekov, and V. N. Sadovskii, "Steady-state stimulated scattering by a grating nonlinearity in a planar nematic liquid crystal," JETP Lett. 55, 178-183 (1992).

Sarkissian, H.

Serak, S. V.

N. V. Tabiryan, V. A. Grozhik, I. C. Khoo, S. R. Nersisyan, and S. V. Serak, "All-optical liquid crystal spatial light modulators," Proc. SPIE 5162, 58-63 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shkunov, A. V.

B. Ya. Zel'dovich, N. F. Pilipetsky, and A. V. Shkunov, Principles of Phase Conjugation, Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer, 1985).

Sukhov, A. V.

N. V. Tabiryan, A. V. Sukhov, and B. Ya. Zel'dovich, "High-efficiency energy transfer due to stimulated orientational scattering of light in nematic liquid crystals," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 1203-1205 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. Ya. Zel'dovich, A. V. Sukhov, and N. V. Tabiryan, "Theory and experiment on stimulated scattering of light in nematics," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 143, 7-15 (1987).
[CrossRef]

N. V. Tabiryan, B. Ya. Zel'dovich, and A. V. Sukhov, "The orientational optical nonlinearity of liquid crystals," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 136, 1-139 (1986).
[CrossRef]

B. Ya. Zel'dovich, S. K. Merzlikin, N. F. Pilipetsky, and A. V. Sukhov, "Observation of stimulated forward orientational light scattering in a planar nematic liquid crystal," JETP Lett. 41, 514-521 (1985).

B. Ya. Zel'dovich, S. K. Merzlikin, N. F. Pilipetskii, A. V. Sukhov, and N. V. Tabiryan, "Observation of orientational stimulated light scattering in the mesophase of a nematic liquid crystal," Sov. Phys. Dokl. 28, 1038-1039 (1983).

Tabiryan, N. V.

H. Sarkissian, C. C. Tsai, B. Ya. Zeldovich, and N. V. Tabiryan, "Beam combining using orientational stimulated scattering in liquid crystals," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 2628-2634 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. V. Tabiryan, V. A. Grozhik, I. C. Khoo, S. R. Nersisyan, and S. V. Serak, "All-optical liquid crystal spatial light modulators," Proc. SPIE 5162, 58-63 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. V. Tabiryan, A. V. Sukhov, and B. Ya. Zel'dovich, "High-efficiency energy transfer due to stimulated orientational scattering of light in nematic liquid crystals," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 1203-1205 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. Ya. Zel'dovich, A. V. Sukhov, and N. V. Tabiryan, "Theory and experiment on stimulated scattering of light in nematics," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 143, 7-15 (1987).
[CrossRef]

N. V. Tabiryan, B. Ya. Zel'dovich, and A. V. Sukhov, "The orientational optical nonlinearity of liquid crystals," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 136, 1-139 (1986).
[CrossRef]

B. Ya. Zel'dovich, S. K. Merzlikin, N. F. Pilipetskii, A. V. Sukhov, and N. V. Tabiryan, "Observation of orientational stimulated light scattering in the mesophase of a nematic liquid crystal," Sov. Phys. Dokl. 28, 1038-1039 (1983).

B. Ya. Zel'dovich and N. V. Tabiryan, "Induced light scattering in the mesophase of a nematic liquid crystal (NLC)," JETP Lett. 30, 478-482 (1979).

Tsai, C. C.

Zeldovich, B. Ya.

Zel'dovich, B. Ya.

N. V. Tabiryan, A. V. Sukhov, and B. Ya. Zel'dovich, "High-efficiency energy transfer due to stimulated orientational scattering of light in nematic liquid crystals," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 1203-1205 (2001).
[CrossRef]

I. V. Goosev, V. A. Krivoschekov, and B. Ya. Zel'dovich, "Steady-state stimulated scattering by a grating nonlinearity in a planar nematic liquid crystal," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 222-223, 97-100 (1992).

I. V. Goosev, B. Ya. Zel'dovich, V. A. Krivoschekov, and V. N. Sadovskii, "Steady-state stimulated scattering by a grating nonlinearity in a planar nematic liquid crystal," JETP Lett. 55, 178-183 (1992).

N. B. Baranova, I. V. Goosev, V. A. Krivoschekov, and B. Ya. Zel'dovich, "Distortionless propagation of ordinary wave through inhomogeneous nematic (theory and experiment)," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 210, 155-164 (1992).
[CrossRef]

B. Ya. Zel'dovich, A. V. Sukhov, and N. V. Tabiryan, "Theory and experiment on stimulated scattering of light in nematics," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 143, 7-15 (1987).
[CrossRef]

N. V. Tabiryan, B. Ya. Zel'dovich, and A. V. Sukhov, "The orientational optical nonlinearity of liquid crystals," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 136, 1-139 (1986).
[CrossRef]

B. Ya. Zel'dovich, S. K. Merzlikin, N. F. Pilipetsky, and A. V. Sukhov, "Observation of stimulated forward orientational light scattering in a planar nematic liquid crystal," JETP Lett. 41, 514-521 (1985).

B. Ya. Zel'dovich, S. K. Merzlikin, N. F. Pilipetskii, A. V. Sukhov, and N. V. Tabiryan, "Observation of orientational stimulated light scattering in the mesophase of a nematic liquid crystal," Sov. Phys. Dokl. 28, 1038-1039 (1983).

B. Ya. Zel'dovich and N. V. Tabiryan, "Induced light scattering in the mesophase of a nematic liquid crystal (NLC)," JETP Lett. 30, 478-482 (1979).

B. Ya. Zel'dovich, N. F. Pilipetsky, and A. V. Shkunov, Principles of Phase Conjugation, Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer, 1985).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

I. C. Khoo and J. Ding, "All-optical cw laser polarization conversion at 1.55 μm by two-beam coupling in nematic liquid crystal films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2496-2498 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

JETP Lett. (3)

B. Ya. Zel'dovich and N. V. Tabiryan, "Induced light scattering in the mesophase of a nematic liquid crystal (NLC)," JETP Lett. 30, 478-482 (1979).

B. Ya. Zel'dovich, S. K. Merzlikin, N. F. Pilipetsky, and A. V. Sukhov, "Observation of stimulated forward orientational light scattering in a planar nematic liquid crystal," JETP Lett. 41, 514-521 (1985).

I. V. Goosev, B. Ya. Zel'dovich, V. A. Krivoschekov, and V. N. Sadovskii, "Steady-state stimulated scattering by a grating nonlinearity in a planar nematic liquid crystal," JETP Lett. 55, 178-183 (1992).

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (4)

I. V. Goosev, V. A. Krivoschekov, and B. Ya. Zel'dovich, "Steady-state stimulated scattering by a grating nonlinearity in a planar nematic liquid crystal," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 222-223, 97-100 (1992).

B. Ya. Zel'dovich, A. V. Sukhov, and N. V. Tabiryan, "Theory and experiment on stimulated scattering of light in nematics," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 143, 7-15 (1987).
[CrossRef]

N. V. Tabiryan, B. Ya. Zel'dovich, and A. V. Sukhov, "The orientational optical nonlinearity of liquid crystals," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 136, 1-139 (1986).
[CrossRef]

N. B. Baranova, I. V. Goosev, V. A. Krivoschekov, and B. Ya. Zel'dovich, "Distortionless propagation of ordinary wave through inhomogeneous nematic (theory and experiment)," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 210, 155-164 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Photonics News (1)

I. C. Khoo, "Supraoptical nonlinearity of liquid crystals," Opt. Photonics News 14, 25 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (2)

I. C. Khoo and Y. Liang, "Stimulated orientational and thermal scatterings self-starting optical phase conjugation with nematic liquid crystals," Phys. Rev. E 62, 6722-6733 (2000).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo and A. Diaz, "Nonlinear dynamics in laser polarization conversion by stimulated scattering in nematic liquid crystal films," Phys. Rev. E 68, 042701-1-042701-4 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

N. V. Tabiryan, V. A. Grozhik, I. C. Khoo, S. R. Nersisyan, and S. V. Serak, "All-optical liquid crystal spatial light modulators," Proc. SPIE 5162, 58-63 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sov. Phys. Dokl. (1)

B. Ya. Zel'dovich, S. K. Merzlikin, N. F. Pilipetskii, A. V. Sukhov, and N. V. Tabiryan, "Observation of orientational stimulated light scattering in the mesophase of a nematic liquid crystal," Sov. Phys. Dokl. 28, 1038-1039 (1983).

Other (2)

H. J. Eichler, P. Günter, and D. W. Pohl, Laser-Induced Dynamic Gratings (Springer-Verlag, 1986).

B. Ya. Zel'dovich, N. F. Pilipetsky, and A. V. Shkunov, Principles of Phase Conjugation, Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer, 1985).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic representation of the basic process of generation of optical axis gratings in LCs. The polarization of the pump beam E P is along the optical axis of the LC n 0 ; polarization of the signal beam E S is perpendicular to n 0 and its frequency is shifted by Ω with respect to the frequency of the pump beam ω; E A is the amplitude of the amplified beam that coincides with the polarization of the signal beam.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Schematic of the experimental setup for realization and study of generation of optical axis gratings in LCs: PBS1–PBS3, polarizing beam-splitter cubes; FSM, piezoactuator-mounted frequency-shifting mirror; λ IR 2 , half-wave plates; M IR , mirror; PM1 and PM2, powermeters. (b) Time dependence of a mirror displacement in a Doppler frequency shifter.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Amplification factor as a function of frequency shift for different power levels of the input pump beam.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Output power of the signal beam as a function of frequency shift for NLCs MLC 6204, MDA 1444, and E7, commercially available from Merck.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Signal beam profile at different values of the frequency shift Ω. Photographs correspond to P P = 140 mW ( I P 1 kW cm 2 ) .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Demonstration of the beam cleanup in the process of energy transfer. The pump and signal beam profiles are shown, correspondingly, in the left and right columns (a) and (b) in the absence of the NLC cell, (c) and (d) in the presence of the cell prior to triggering the energy-transfer process, (e) and (f) after the energy transfer takes place due to introducing the frequency shift between the beams.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Demonstration of the dependence of the direction of energy transfer on the sign of the frequency shift Ω. The beams are unblocked at the time moment t = 10 s : Ω = 0 for 10 s < t < 20 s ; Ω = 9 Hz for 20 s < t < 30 s ; Ω = 9 Hz for 30 s < t < 40 s ; Ω = 0 for t > 40 s .

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Switching the direction of energy transfer between e and o beams in conditions of different initial power ratios between input beams: (a) P o ( Ω = 0 ) P e ( Ω = 0 ) ; (b) P e ( Ω = 0 ) P o ( Ω = 0 ) ; (c) P e ( Ω = 0 ) = P o ( Ω = 0 ) ; (d) P e ( Ω = 0 ) P o ( Ω = 0 ) in the higher power regime when the power of the initially weak signal beam becomes higher than the output power of the pump beam in the regime of energy transfer. The beams are unblocked at t = 10 s with no frequency shift between them.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Output power of the signal ( P S ) and pump ( P P ) laser beams as a function of the pump beam power at the input of the NLC cell with the energy-transfer regime activated ( Ω = Ω opt , ) and not activated ( Ω = 0 ) .

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Efficiency of energy transfer P S ( Ω = Ω opt ) P P ( Ω = 0 ) as a function of the input power of the pump beam.

Equations (2)

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I S ( z = L ) = I S ( 0 ) exp ( G I P L ) , G = G max 2 Ω Ω 2 + Γ 2 ,
Γ = K γ ( 2 π λ ) 2 ( n e n o ) 2 , G max = n λ 2 π c K ,

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