Abstract

We investigate ultrashort-pulse interactions based on cascaded second-harmonic generation and difference-frequency generation and propose their use for frequency-resolved optical gating (FROG) at telecom wavelengths in a waveguide configuration. We show how a χ(2)χ(2) FROG device could allow the efficient characterization of ultrashort pulses, with time resolutions well beyond the limits normally imposed by walk-off effects on single-step χ(2) FROG devices.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  24. A. Kwok, L. Jusinski, M. A. Krumbügel, J. N. Sweetser, D. N. Fittinghoff, and R. Trebino, "Frequency-resolved optical gating using cascaded second-order nonlinearities," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 271-277 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  25. M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, "Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation: tuning and tolerances," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631-2654 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  33. K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, and R. Trebino, "Practical issues in ultrashort-laser-pulse measurement using frequency-resolved optical gating," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1253-1264 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
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2005

P. A. Lacourt, M. Hanna, and J. M. Dudley, "Broadband and ultrasensitive pulse characterization using frequency-resolved optical gating via four-wave mixing in a semiconductor optical amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 157-159 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Prawiharjo, K. Gallo, B. C. Thomsen, M. A. F. Roelens, P. J. Almeida, N. G. R. Broderick, and D. J. Richardson, "Frequency resolved optical gating in a quasi-phase-matched LiNbO3," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 849-851 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

2003

2002

2000

S. Yeremenko, A. Baltuska, M. Pshenichnikov, and D. Wiersma, "The criterion of pulse reconstruction quality based on Wigner representation," Appl. Phys. B 70, S109-S117 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Imeshev, M. A. Arbore, M. M. Fejer, A. Galvanauskas, M. Fermann, and D. Harter, "Ultrashort-pulse second-harmonic generation with longitudinally nonuniform quasi-phase-matching gratings: pulse compression and shaping," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 304-318 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Lee, B. Patel, Y. J. Zhu, C. Scahill, D. Watley, M. Jones, G. Pettitt, C. Fludger, B. Shaw, A. Hadjifotiou, and D. Way, "4×40 Gbit/s RZ ETDM transmission over 520 km of NDSF at 120 and 160 km span lengths with Raman pre-amplification," Electron. Lett. 36, 734-736 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

J. M. Dudley, L. P. Barry, J. D. Harvey, M. D. Thomson, B. C. Thomsen, P. G. Bollond, and R. Leonhardt, "Complete characterization of ultrashort pulse sources at 1550 nm," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 441-450 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Linden, J. Kuhl, and H. Giessen, "Amplitude and phase characterization of weak blue ultrashort pulses by downconversion," Opt. Lett. 24, 569-571 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Chou, I. Brener, M. Fejer, E. Chaban, and S. Christman, "1.5-µm-band wavelength conversion based on cascaded second-order nonlinearity in LiNbO3 waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 653-655 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Gallo and G. Assanto, "Analysis of lithium niobate all-optical wavelength shifters for the third spectral window," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 741-753 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

A. Kwok, L. Jusinski, M. A. Krumbügel, J. N. Sweetser, D. N. Fittinghoff, and R. Trebino, "Frequency-resolved optical gating using cascaded second-order nonlinearities," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 271-277 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Kane, "Real-time measurement of ultrashort laser pulses using principal component generalized projections," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 278-284 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Linden, H. Giessen, and J. Kuhl, "XFROG--a new method for amplitude and phase characterization of weak ultrashort pulses," Phys. Status Solidi B 206, 119-124 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Kawanishi, "Ultrahigh-speed optical time-division-multiplexed transmission technology based on optical signal processing," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 2064-2079 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Thomson, J. M. Dudley, L. P. Barry, and J. D. Harvey, "Complete pulse characterization using cross-phase modulation in optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 23, 1582-1584 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, and B. A. Richman, "Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277-3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. P. Barry, J. M. Dudley, P. G. Bollond, J. D. Harvey, and R. Leonhardt, "Simultaneous measurement of optical fibre nonlinearity and dispersion using frequency resolved optical gating," Electron. Lett. 33, 707-708 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Jundt, "Temperature-dependent Sellmeier equation for the index of refraction, ne, in congruent lithium niobate," Opt. Lett. 22, 1553-1555 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

G. I. Stegeman, D. J. Hagan, and L. Torner, "Chi(2) cascading phenomena and their applications to all-optical signal processing, mode-locking, pulse compression and solitons," Opt. Quantum Electron. 28, 1691-1740 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, and R. Trebino, "Practical issues in ultrashort-laser-pulse measurement using frequency-resolved optical gating," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1253-1264 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. J. B. Yoo, "Wavelength conversion technologies for WDM network applications," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 955-966 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. P. Barry, J. M. Dudley, P. G. Bollond, J. D. Harvey, and R. Leonhardt, "Complete characterisation of pulse propagation in optical fibres using frequency-resolved optical gating," Electron. Lett. 32, 2339-2340 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

1993

C. Q. Xu, H. Okayama, K. Shinozaki, K. Watanabe, and M. Kawahara, "Wavelength conversions ∼1.5 µm by difference frequency generation in periodically domain-inverted LiNbO3 channel waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1170-1172 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, "Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation: tuning and tolerances," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631-2654 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 3rd ed. (Academic, 2001).

Almat-Roldán, I.

Almeida, P. J.

J. Prawiharjo, K. Gallo, B. C. Thomsen, M. A. F. Roelens, P. J. Almeida, N. G. R. Broderick, and D. J. Richardson, "Frequency resolved optical gating in a quasi-phase-matched LiNbO3," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 849-851 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Arbore, M. A.

Artigas, D.

Assanto, G.

Baltuska, A.

S. Yeremenko, A. Baltuska, M. Pshenichnikov, and D. Wiersma, "The criterion of pulse reconstruction quality based on Wigner representation," Appl. Phys. B 70, S109-S117 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Barry, L. P.

L. P. Barry, S. D. Burgo, B. C. Thomsen, R. T. Watts, D. A. Reid, and J. D. Harvey, "Optimization of optical data transmitters for 40-Gb/s lightwave systems using frequency resolved optical gating," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 971-973 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Dudley, L. P. Barry, J. D. Harvey, M. D. Thomson, B. C. Thomsen, P. G. Bollond, and R. Leonhardt, "Complete characterization of ultrashort pulse sources at 1550 nm," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 441-450 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Thomson, J. M. Dudley, L. P. Barry, and J. D. Harvey, "Complete pulse characterization using cross-phase modulation in optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 23, 1582-1584 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. P. Barry, J. M. Dudley, P. G. Bollond, J. D. Harvey, and R. Leonhardt, "Simultaneous measurement of optical fibre nonlinearity and dispersion using frequency resolved optical gating," Electron. Lett. 33, 707-708 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. P. Barry, J. M. Dudley, P. G. Bollond, J. D. Harvey, and R. Leonhardt, "Complete characterisation of pulse propagation in optical fibres using frequency-resolved optical gating," Electron. Lett. 32, 2339-2340 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bollond, P. G.

J. M. Dudley, L. P. Barry, J. D. Harvey, M. D. Thomson, B. C. Thomsen, P. G. Bollond, and R. Leonhardt, "Complete characterization of ultrashort pulse sources at 1550 nm," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 441-450 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. P. Barry, J. M. Dudley, P. G. Bollond, J. D. Harvey, and R. Leonhardt, "Simultaneous measurement of optical fibre nonlinearity and dispersion using frequency resolved optical gating," Electron. Lett. 33, 707-708 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. P. Barry, J. M. Dudley, P. G. Bollond, J. D. Harvey, and R. Leonhardt, "Complete characterisation of pulse propagation in optical fibres using frequency-resolved optical gating," Electron. Lett. 32, 2339-2340 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Brener, I.

M. Chou, I. Brener, M. Fejer, E. Chaban, and S. Christman, "1.5-µm-band wavelength conversion based on cascaded second-order nonlinearity in LiNbO3 waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 653-655 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Broderick, N. G.

J. Prawiharjo, K. Gallo, B. C. Thomsen, M. A. F. Roelens, P. J. Almeida, N. G. R. Broderick, and D. J. Richardson, "Frequency resolved optical gating in a quasi-phase-matched LiNbO3," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 849-851 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Burgo, S. D.

L. P. Barry, S. D. Burgo, B. C. Thomsen, R. T. Watts, D. A. Reid, and J. D. Harvey, "Optimization of optical data transmitters for 40-Gb/s lightwave systems using frequency resolved optical gating," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 971-973 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Byer, R. L.

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, "Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation: tuning and tolerances," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631-2654 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Chaban, E.

M. Chou, I. Brener, M. Fejer, E. Chaban, and S. Christman, "1.5-µm-band wavelength conversion based on cascaded second-order nonlinearity in LiNbO3 waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 653-655 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chou, M.

M. Chou, I. Brener, M. Fejer, E. Chaban, and S. Christman, "1.5-µm-band wavelength conversion based on cascaded second-order nonlinearity in LiNbO3 waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 653-655 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Christman, S.

M. Chou, I. Brener, M. Fejer, E. Chaban, and S. Christman, "1.5-µm-band wavelength conversion based on cascaded second-order nonlinearity in LiNbO3 waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 653-655 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, L.

L. Cohen, Time-Frequency Analysis (Prentice Hall, 1995).

Cormack, I. G.

DeLong, K. W.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, and B. A. Richman, "Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277-3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, and R. Trebino, "Practical issues in ultrashort-laser-pulse measurement using frequency-resolved optical gating," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1253-1264 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. W. DeLong, R. Trebino, and W. E. White, "Simultaneous recovery of two ultrashort laser pulses from a single spectrogram," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 2463-2466 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dudley, J. M.

P. A. Lacourt, M. Hanna, and J. M. Dudley, "Broadband and ultrasensitive pulse characterization using frequency-resolved optical gating via four-wave mixing in a semiconductor optical amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 157-159 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Lacourt, J. M. Dudley, J. M. Merolla, H. Porte, J. P. Goedgebuer, and W. T. Rhodes, "Milliwatt-peak-power pulse characterization at 1.55 µm by wavelength-conversion frequency-resolved optical gating," Opt. Lett. 27, 863-865 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Dudley, L. P. Barry, J. D. Harvey, M. D. Thomson, B. C. Thomsen, P. G. Bollond, and R. Leonhardt, "Complete characterization of ultrashort pulse sources at 1550 nm," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 441-450 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Thomson, J. M. Dudley, L. P. Barry, and J. D. Harvey, "Complete pulse characterization using cross-phase modulation in optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 23, 1582-1584 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. P. Barry, J. M. Dudley, P. G. Bollond, J. D. Harvey, and R. Leonhardt, "Simultaneous measurement of optical fibre nonlinearity and dispersion using frequency resolved optical gating," Electron. Lett. 33, 707-708 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. P. Barry, J. M. Dudley, P. G. Bollond, J. D. Harvey, and R. Leonhardt, "Complete characterisation of pulse propagation in optical fibres using frequency-resolved optical gating," Electron. Lett. 32, 2339-2340 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fejer, M.

M. Chou, I. Brener, M. Fejer, E. Chaban, and S. Christman, "1.5-µm-band wavelength conversion based on cascaded second-order nonlinearity in LiNbO3 waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 653-655 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fejer, M. M.

Fermann, M.

Fittinghoff, D. N.

A. Kwok, L. Jusinski, M. A. Krumbügel, J. N. Sweetser, D. N. Fittinghoff, and R. Trebino, "Frequency-resolved optical gating using cascaded second-order nonlinearities," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 271-277 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, and B. A. Richman, "Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277-3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, and R. Trebino, "Practical issues in ultrashort-laser-pulse measurement using frequency-resolved optical gating," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1253-1264 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fludger, C.

W. S. Lee, B. Patel, Y. J. Zhu, C. Scahill, D. Watley, M. Jones, G. Pettitt, C. Fludger, B. Shaw, A. Hadjifotiou, and D. Way, "4×40 Gbit/s RZ ETDM transmission over 520 km of NDSF at 120 and 160 km span lengths with Raman pre-amplification," Electron. Lett. 36, 734-736 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fujimura, M.

Gallo, K.

J. Prawiharjo, K. Gallo, B. C. Thomsen, M. A. F. Roelens, P. J. Almeida, N. G. R. Broderick, and D. J. Richardson, "Frequency resolved optical gating in a quasi-phase-matched LiNbO3," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 849-851 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Gallo and G. Assanto, "Analysis of lithium niobate all-optical wavelength shifters for the third spectral window," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 741-753 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Galvanauskas, A.

Giessen, H.

S. Linden, J. Kuhl, and H. Giessen, "Amplitude and phase characterization of weak blue ultrashort pulses by downconversion," Opt. Lett. 24, 569-571 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Linden, H. Giessen, and J. Kuhl, "XFROG--a new method for amplitude and phase characterization of weak ultrashort pulses," Phys. Status Solidi B 206, 119-124 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Goedgebuer, J. P.

Gualda, E. J.

Hadjifotiou, A.

W. S. Lee, B. Patel, Y. J. Zhu, C. Scahill, D. Watley, M. Jones, G. Pettitt, C. Fludger, B. Shaw, A. Hadjifotiou, and D. Way, "4×40 Gbit/s RZ ETDM transmission over 520 km of NDSF at 120 and 160 km span lengths with Raman pre-amplification," Electron. Lett. 36, 734-736 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hagan, D. J.

G. I. Stegeman, D. J. Hagan, and L. Torner, "Chi(2) cascading phenomena and their applications to all-optical signal processing, mode-locking, pulse compression and solitons," Opt. Quantum Electron. 28, 1691-1740 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hanna, M.

P. A. Lacourt, M. Hanna, and J. M. Dudley, "Broadband and ultrasensitive pulse characterization using frequency-resolved optical gating via four-wave mixing in a semiconductor optical amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 157-159 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Harter, D.

Harvey, J. D.

L. P. Barry, S. D. Burgo, B. C. Thomsen, R. T. Watts, D. A. Reid, and J. D. Harvey, "Optimization of optical data transmitters for 40-Gb/s lightwave systems using frequency resolved optical gating," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 971-973 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Dudley, L. P. Barry, J. D. Harvey, M. D. Thomson, B. C. Thomsen, P. G. Bollond, and R. Leonhardt, "Complete characterization of ultrashort pulse sources at 1550 nm," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 441-450 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Thomson, J. M. Dudley, L. P. Barry, and J. D. Harvey, "Complete pulse characterization using cross-phase modulation in optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 23, 1582-1584 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. P. Barry, J. M. Dudley, P. G. Bollond, J. D. Harvey, and R. Leonhardt, "Simultaneous measurement of optical fibre nonlinearity and dispersion using frequency resolved optical gating," Electron. Lett. 33, 707-708 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. P. Barry, J. M. Dudley, P. G. Bollond, J. D. Harvey, and R. Leonhardt, "Complete characterisation of pulse propagation in optical fibres using frequency-resolved optical gating," Electron. Lett. 32, 2339-2340 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J.

Imeshev, G.

Jones, M.

W. S. Lee, B. Patel, Y. J. Zhu, C. Scahill, D. Watley, M. Jones, G. Pettitt, C. Fludger, B. Shaw, A. Hadjifotiou, and D. Way, "4×40 Gbit/s RZ ETDM transmission over 520 km of NDSF at 120 and 160 km span lengths with Raman pre-amplification," Electron. Lett. 36, 734-736 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jundt, D.

Jundt, D. H.

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, "Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation: tuning and tolerances," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631-2654 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Jusinski, L.

A. Kwok, L. Jusinski, M. A. Krumbügel, J. N. Sweetser, D. N. Fittinghoff, and R. Trebino, "Frequency-resolved optical gating using cascaded second-order nonlinearities," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 271-277 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kane, D. J.

D. J. Kane, "Real-time measurement of ultrashort laser pulses using principal component generalized projections," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 278-284 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kawahara, M.

C. Q. Xu, H. Okayama, K. Shinozaki, K. Watanabe, and M. Kawahara, "Wavelength conversions ∼1.5 µm by difference frequency generation in periodically domain-inverted LiNbO3 channel waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1170-1172 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kawanishi, S.

S. Kawanishi, "Ultrahigh-speed optical time-division-multiplexed transmission technology based on optical signal processing," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 2064-2079 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kimmel, M.

Krumbügel, M. A.

A. Kwok, L. Jusinski, M. A. Krumbügel, J. N. Sweetser, D. N. Fittinghoff, and R. Trebino, "Frequency-resolved optical gating using cascaded second-order nonlinearities," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 271-277 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, and B. A. Richman, "Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277-3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kuhl, J.

S. Linden, J. Kuhl, and H. Giessen, "Amplitude and phase characterization of weak blue ultrashort pulses by downconversion," Opt. Lett. 24, 569-571 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Linden, H. Giessen, and J. Kuhl, "XFROG--a new method for amplitude and phase characterization of weak ultrashort pulses," Phys. Status Solidi B 206, 119-124 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kurz, J. R.

Kwok, A.

A. Kwok, L. Jusinski, M. A. Krumbügel, J. N. Sweetser, D. N. Fittinghoff, and R. Trebino, "Frequency-resolved optical gating using cascaded second-order nonlinearities," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 271-277 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lacourt, P. A.

P. A. Lacourt, M. Hanna, and J. M. Dudley, "Broadband and ultrasensitive pulse characterization using frequency-resolved optical gating via four-wave mixing in a semiconductor optical amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 157-159 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Lacourt, J. M. Dudley, J. M. Merolla, H. Porte, J. P. Goedgebuer, and W. T. Rhodes, "Milliwatt-peak-power pulse characterization at 1.55 µm by wavelength-conversion frequency-resolved optical gating," Opt. Lett. 27, 863-865 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Langrock, C.

Lee, W. S.

W. S. Lee, B. Patel, Y. J. Zhu, C. Scahill, D. Watley, M. Jones, G. Pettitt, C. Fludger, B. Shaw, A. Hadjifotiou, and D. Way, "4×40 Gbit/s RZ ETDM transmission over 520 km of NDSF at 120 and 160 km span lengths with Raman pre-amplification," Electron. Lett. 36, 734-736 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Leonhardt, R.

J. M. Dudley, L. P. Barry, J. D. Harvey, M. D. Thomson, B. C. Thomsen, P. G. Bollond, and R. Leonhardt, "Complete characterization of ultrashort pulse sources at 1550 nm," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 441-450 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. P. Barry, J. M. Dudley, P. G. Bollond, J. D. Harvey, and R. Leonhardt, "Simultaneous measurement of optical fibre nonlinearity and dispersion using frequency resolved optical gating," Electron. Lett. 33, 707-708 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. P. Barry, J. M. Dudley, P. G. Bollond, J. D. Harvey, and R. Leonhardt, "Complete characterisation of pulse propagation in optical fibres using frequency-resolved optical gating," Electron. Lett. 32, 2339-2340 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Linden, S.

S. Linden, J. Kuhl, and H. Giessen, "Amplitude and phase characterization of weak blue ultrashort pulses by downconversion," Opt. Lett. 24, 569-571 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Linden, H. Giessen, and J. Kuhl, "XFROG--a new method for amplitude and phase characterization of weak ultrashort pulses," Phys. Status Solidi B 206, 119-124 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Link, S.

Loza-Alvarez, P.

Magel, G. A.

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, "Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation: tuning and tolerances," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631-2654 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Merolla, J. M.

Okayama, H.

C. Q. Xu, H. Okayama, K. Shinozaki, K. Watanabe, and M. Kawahara, "Wavelength conversions ∼1.5 µm by difference frequency generation in periodically domain-inverted LiNbO3 channel waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1170-1172 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Parameswaran, K. R.

Patel, B.

W. S. Lee, B. Patel, Y. J. Zhu, C. Scahill, D. Watley, M. Jones, G. Pettitt, C. Fludger, B. Shaw, A. Hadjifotiou, and D. Way, "4×40 Gbit/s RZ ETDM transmission over 520 km of NDSF at 120 and 160 km span lengths with Raman pre-amplification," Electron. Lett. 36, 734-736 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pettitt, G.

W. S. Lee, B. Patel, Y. J. Zhu, C. Scahill, D. Watley, M. Jones, G. Pettitt, C. Fludger, B. Shaw, A. Hadjifotiou, and D. Way, "4×40 Gbit/s RZ ETDM transmission over 520 km of NDSF at 120 and 160 km span lengths with Raman pre-amplification," Electron. Lett. 36, 734-736 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Porte, H.

Prawiharjo, J.

J. Prawiharjo, K. Gallo, B. C. Thomsen, M. A. F. Roelens, P. J. Almeida, N. G. R. Broderick, and D. J. Richardson, "Frequency resolved optical gating in a quasi-phase-matched LiNbO3," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 849-851 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pshenichnikov, M.

S. Yeremenko, A. Baltuska, M. Pshenichnikov, and D. Wiersma, "The criterion of pulse reconstruction quality based on Wigner representation," Appl. Phys. B 70, S109-S117 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Reid, D. A.

L. P. Barry, S. D. Burgo, B. C. Thomsen, R. T. Watts, D. A. Reid, and J. D. Harvey, "Optimization of optical data transmitters for 40-Gb/s lightwave systems using frequency resolved optical gating," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 971-973 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rhodes, W. T.

Richardson, D. J.

J. Prawiharjo, K. Gallo, B. C. Thomsen, M. A. F. Roelens, P. J. Almeida, N. G. R. Broderick, and D. J. Richardson, "Frequency resolved optical gating in a quasi-phase-matched LiNbO3," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 849-851 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Richman, B. A.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, and B. A. Richman, "Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277-3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Roelens, M. A.

J. Prawiharjo, K. Gallo, B. C. Thomsen, M. A. F. Roelens, P. J. Almeida, N. G. R. Broderick, and D. J. Richardson, "Frequency resolved optical gating in a quasi-phase-matched LiNbO3," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 849-851 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Roussev, R. V.

Route, R. K.

Scahill, C.

W. S. Lee, B. Patel, Y. J. Zhu, C. Scahill, D. Watley, M. Jones, G. Pettitt, C. Fludger, B. Shaw, A. Hadjifotiou, and D. Way, "4×40 Gbit/s RZ ETDM transmission over 520 km of NDSF at 120 and 160 km span lengths with Raman pre-amplification," Electron. Lett. 36, 734-736 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schober, A. M.

Seifert, B.

Shaw, B.

W. S. Lee, B. Patel, Y. J. Zhu, C. Scahill, D. Watley, M. Jones, G. Pettitt, C. Fludger, B. Shaw, A. Hadjifotiou, and D. Way, "4×40 Gbit/s RZ ETDM transmission over 520 km of NDSF at 120 and 160 km span lengths with Raman pre-amplification," Electron. Lett. 36, 734-736 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shinozaki, K.

C. Q. Xu, H. Okayama, K. Shinozaki, K. Watanabe, and M. Kawahara, "Wavelength conversions ∼1.5 µm by difference frequency generation in periodically domain-inverted LiNbO3 channel waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1170-1172 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Shreenath, A. P.

Stegeman, G. I.

G. I. Stegeman, D. J. Hagan, and L. Torner, "Chi(2) cascading phenomena and their applications to all-optical signal processing, mode-locking, pulse compression and solitons," Opt. Quantum Electron. 28, 1691-1740 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Stolz, H.

Sweetser, J. N.

A. Kwok, L. Jusinski, M. A. Krumbügel, J. N. Sweetser, D. N. Fittinghoff, and R. Trebino, "Frequency-resolved optical gating using cascaded second-order nonlinearities," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 271-277 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, and B. A. Richman, "Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277-3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tasche, M.

Thomsen, B. C.

J. Prawiharjo, K. Gallo, B. C. Thomsen, M. A. F. Roelens, P. J. Almeida, N. G. R. Broderick, and D. J. Richardson, "Frequency resolved optical gating in a quasi-phase-matched LiNbO3," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 849-851 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. P. Barry, S. D. Burgo, B. C. Thomsen, R. T. Watts, D. A. Reid, and J. D. Harvey, "Optimization of optical data transmitters for 40-Gb/s lightwave systems using frequency resolved optical gating," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 971-973 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Dudley, L. P. Barry, J. D. Harvey, M. D. Thomson, B. C. Thomsen, P. G. Bollond, and R. Leonhardt, "Complete characterization of ultrashort pulse sources at 1550 nm," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 441-450 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Thomson, M. D.

J. M. Dudley, L. P. Barry, J. D. Harvey, M. D. Thomson, B. C. Thomsen, P. G. Bollond, and R. Leonhardt, "Complete characterization of ultrashort pulse sources at 1550 nm," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 441-450 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Thomson, J. M. Dudley, L. P. Barry, and J. D. Harvey, "Complete pulse characterization using cross-phase modulation in optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 23, 1582-1584 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Torner, L.

G. I. Stegeman, D. J. Hagan, and L. Torner, "Chi(2) cascading phenomena and their applications to all-optical signal processing, mode-locking, pulse compression and solitons," Opt. Quantum Electron. 28, 1691-1740 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Trebino, R.

J. Y. Zhang, A. P. Shreenath, M. Kimmel, E. Zeek, R. Trebino, and S. Link, "Measurement of the intensity and phase of attojoule femtosecond light pulses using optical-parametric-amplification cross-correlation frequency-resolved optical gating," Opt. Express 11, 601-609 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kwok, L. Jusinski, M. A. Krumbügel, J. N. Sweetser, D. N. Fittinghoff, and R. Trebino, "Frequency-resolved optical gating using cascaded second-order nonlinearities," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 271-277 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, and B. A. Richman, "Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277-3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, and R. Trebino, "Practical issues in ultrashort-laser-pulse measurement using frequency-resolved optical gating," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1253-1264 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. W. DeLong, R. Trebino, and W. E. White, "Simultaneous recovery of two ultrashort laser pulses from a single spectrogram," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 2463-2466 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, K.

C. Q. Xu, H. Okayama, K. Shinozaki, K. Watanabe, and M. Kawahara, "Wavelength conversions ∼1.5 µm by difference frequency generation in periodically domain-inverted LiNbO3 channel waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1170-1172 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Watley, D.

W. S. Lee, B. Patel, Y. J. Zhu, C. Scahill, D. Watley, M. Jones, G. Pettitt, C. Fludger, B. Shaw, A. Hadjifotiou, and D. Way, "4×40 Gbit/s RZ ETDM transmission over 520 km of NDSF at 120 and 160 km span lengths with Raman pre-amplification," Electron. Lett. 36, 734-736 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Watts, R. T.

L. P. Barry, S. D. Burgo, B. C. Thomsen, R. T. Watts, D. A. Reid, and J. D. Harvey, "Optimization of optical data transmitters for 40-Gb/s lightwave systems using frequency resolved optical gating," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 971-973 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Way, D.

W. S. Lee, B. Patel, Y. J. Zhu, C. Scahill, D. Watley, M. Jones, G. Pettitt, C. Fludger, B. Shaw, A. Hadjifotiou, and D. Way, "4×40 Gbit/s RZ ETDM transmission over 520 km of NDSF at 120 and 160 km span lengths with Raman pre-amplification," Electron. Lett. 36, 734-736 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Weiner, A. M.

White, W. E.

Wiersma, D.

S. Yeremenko, A. Baltuska, M. Pshenichnikov, and D. Wiersma, "The criterion of pulse reconstruction quality based on Wigner representation," Appl. Phys. B 70, S109-S117 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Xu, C. Q.

C. Q. Xu, H. Okayama, K. Shinozaki, K. Watanabe, and M. Kawahara, "Wavelength conversions ∼1.5 µm by difference frequency generation in periodically domain-inverted LiNbO3 channel waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1170-1172 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yang, S. D.

Yeremenko, S.

S. Yeremenko, A. Baltuska, M. Pshenichnikov, and D. Wiersma, "The criterion of pulse reconstruction quality based on Wigner representation," Appl. Phys. B 70, S109-S117 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yoo, S. J.

S. J. B. Yoo, "Wavelength conversion technologies for WDM network applications," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 955-966 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zeek, E.

Zhang, J. Y.

Zhu, Y. J.

W. S. Lee, B. Patel, Y. J. Zhu, C. Scahill, D. Watley, M. Jones, G. Pettitt, C. Fludger, B. Shaw, A. Hadjifotiou, and D. Way, "4×40 Gbit/s RZ ETDM transmission over 520 km of NDSF at 120 and 160 km span lengths with Raman pre-amplification," Electron. Lett. 36, 734-736 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B

S. Yeremenko, A. Baltuska, M. Pshenichnikov, and D. Wiersma, "The criterion of pulse reconstruction quality based on Wigner representation," Appl. Phys. B 70, S109-S117 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

C. Q. Xu, H. Okayama, K. Shinozaki, K. Watanabe, and M. Kawahara, "Wavelength conversions ∼1.5 µm by difference frequency generation in periodically domain-inverted LiNbO3 channel waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1170-1172 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

W. S. Lee, B. Patel, Y. J. Zhu, C. Scahill, D. Watley, M. Jones, G. Pettitt, C. Fludger, B. Shaw, A. Hadjifotiou, and D. Way, "4×40 Gbit/s RZ ETDM transmission over 520 km of NDSF at 120 and 160 km span lengths with Raman pre-amplification," Electron. Lett. 36, 734-736 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. P. Barry, J. M. Dudley, P. G. Bollond, J. D. Harvey, and R. Leonhardt, "Complete characterisation of pulse propagation in optical fibres using frequency-resolved optical gating," Electron. Lett. 32, 2339-2340 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. P. Barry, J. M. Dudley, P. G. Bollond, J. D. Harvey, and R. Leonhardt, "Simultaneous measurement of optical fibre nonlinearity and dispersion using frequency resolved optical gating," Electron. Lett. 33, 707-708 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

S. Kawanishi, "Ultrahigh-speed optical time-division-multiplexed transmission technology based on optical signal processing," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 2064-2079 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Dudley, L. P. Barry, J. D. Harvey, M. D. Thomson, B. C. Thomsen, P. G. Bollond, and R. Leonhardt, "Complete characterization of ultrashort pulse sources at 1550 nm," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 441-450 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, "Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation: tuning and tolerances," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631-2654 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, and R. Trebino, "Practical issues in ultrashort-laser-pulse measurement using frequency-resolved optical gating," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1253-1264 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

D. J. Kane, "Real-time measurement of ultrashort laser pulses using principal component generalized projections," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 278-284 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Kwok, L. Jusinski, M. A. Krumbügel, J. N. Sweetser, D. N. Fittinghoff, and R. Trebino, "Frequency-resolved optical gating using cascaded second-order nonlinearities," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 271-277 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

M. Chou, I. Brener, M. Fejer, E. Chaban, and S. Christman, "1.5-µm-band wavelength conversion based on cascaded second-order nonlinearity in LiNbO3 waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 653-655 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. P. Barry, S. D. Burgo, B. C. Thomsen, R. T. Watts, D. A. Reid, and J. D. Harvey, "Optimization of optical data transmitters for 40-Gb/s lightwave systems using frequency resolved optical gating," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 971-973 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Lacourt, M. Hanna, and J. M. Dudley, "Broadband and ultrasensitive pulse characterization using frequency-resolved optical gating via four-wave mixing in a semiconductor optical amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 157-159 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Prawiharjo, K. Gallo, B. C. Thomsen, M. A. F. Roelens, P. J. Almeida, N. G. R. Broderick, and D. J. Richardson, "Frequency resolved optical gating in a quasi-phase-matched LiNbO3," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 849-851 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

S. J. B. Yoo, "Wavelength conversion technologies for WDM network applications," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 955-966 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Quantum Electron.

G. I. Stegeman, D. J. Hagan, and L. Torner, "Chi(2) cascading phenomena and their applications to all-optical signal processing, mode-locking, pulse compression and solitons," Opt. Quantum Electron. 28, 1691-1740 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi B

S. Linden, H. Giessen, and J. Kuhl, "XFROG--a new method for amplitude and phase characterization of weak ultrashort pulses," Phys. Status Solidi B 206, 119-124 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, and B. A. Richman, "Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277-3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 3rd ed. (Academic, 2001).

L. Cohen, Time-Frequency Analysis (Prentice Hall, 1995).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Illustration of the quadratic cascading device for the FROG technique with a sketch of the input test and pump pulses, at ω T and ω P , respectively, and of the output pulse at ω O .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Cascaded [Eq. (12), solid curve] and DFG [Eq. (9), dashed curve] transfer functions. Compare with Fig. 3 in Ref. [21].

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Results of the numerical simulation of the ultrashort-pulse SHG–DFG cascaded interaction. The figure shows the propagation of the pump (P), test (T), SH of pump (SH), and output (O) pulses. We used transform-limited Gaussian pulses of widths 1 ps for the input test and pump pulses, with peak powers of 1 and 50 mW, respectively. The device had a normalized efficiency of η nor = 70 % ( W cm 2 ) 1 . The wavelengths of the signal and pump pulses are λ S = 1.536 μ m and λ S = 1.540 μ m , respectively. The QPM period was chosen such that the SHG interaction was quasi phase matched, whereas the DFG interaction had a negligible phase mismatch.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Calculated widths (FWHM) of the SH (circles, left ordinates) and the output pulses (squares, right ordinates) in Fig. 3.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Results of the numerical simulation of the ultrashort-pulse SHG–DFG cascaded interaction. The figure shows the propagation of the pump (P), test (T), SH of pump (SH), and output (O) pulses. We used transform-limited Gaussian pulses of widths 1 ps for the input test and pump pulses, with peak powers of 1 mW and 1W, respectively. The device had a normalized efficiency of η nor = 70 % ( W cm 2 ) 1 . The wavelengths of the signal and pump pulses are λ S = 1.536 μ m and λ S = 1.540 μ m , respectively. The QPM period was chosen such that the SHG interaction was quasi phase matched, whereas the DFG interaction had a negligible phase mismatch.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Top row: generated and interpolated spectrograms. Bottom row: the retrieved intensity and chirp of the test pulses (circles) overlayed with the input for the simulations (solid curves). Various test pulses were used: (a) a transform-limited Gaussian, (b) a linearly chirped Gaussian, (c) a Gaussian with cubic spectral phase, and (d) a self-phase-modulated Gaussian pulse. We used a peak power of 1 mW for all the test pulses, a 1 ps Gaussian pulse with a 50 mW peak power for the pump pulse. The device has a length of 5 L w with a normalized efficiency of η nor = 70 % ( W cm 2 ) 1 . The SHG interaction was exactly phase matched, whereas the DFG interaction had a negligible phase mismatch.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Spectrograms of TL Gaussian test and pump pulses at different normalized propagation lengths (top row) and their retrieved gate pulses (circles) overlayed with the effective SH pulses (solid curves), calculated from Eq. (11). The input conditions are the same as in Fig. 6a.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Widths of the retrieved gate pulse (circles, dashed curve) and of the SH pulse (squares, solid curve) as a function of the propagation length, for the case considered in Fig. 7.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Wigner trace error as a function of pulse width for TL Gaussian (circles, solid curve) and for SPM Gaussian (squares, dashed curve) test pulses.

Equations (21)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

A ̂ SH ( L , Ω ) = i γ 0 L d ζ exp [ i Δ k SHG ( Ω , Ω ) ζ ] A ̂ P ( Ω ) A ̂ P ( Ω Ω ) d Ω ,
Δ k SHG ( Ω , Ω ) = Δ k 0 SHG + δ ν SHG Ω + O ( Ω 2 , Ω 2 ) ,
A ̂ SH ( L , Ω ) = D SHG ( Ω ) [ A ̂ P ( Ω ) A ̂ P ( Ω ) ] ,
D SHG ( Ω ) = i γ 0 L exp [ i ( Δ k 0 SHG + δ ν SHG Ω ) ζ ] d ζ
A ̂ O ( L , Ω ) = i γ 0 L d z exp [ i Δ k DFG ( Ω , Ω ) z ] A ̂ P ( Ω ) A ̂ T * ( Ω Ω ) d Ω .
Δ k DFG ( Ω , Ω ) = Δ k 0 DFG + δ ν T , O Ω + δ ν P , T Ω + O ( Ω 2 , Ω 2 ) ,
A ̂ O ( L , Ω ) = A ̂ P ( L , Ω ) A ̂ T * ( Ω )
A ̂ P ( L , Ω ) = G DFG ( Ω ) A ̂ P ( Ω ) .
G DFG ( Ω ) = i γ 0 L exp [ i ( Δ k 0 DFG + δ ν P , T Ω ) z ] d z .
A ̂ O ( L , Ω ) = A ̂ SH ( L , Ω ) A ̂ T * ( Ω ) ,
A ̂ SH = G C ( Ω ) [ A ̂ P ( Ω ) A ̂ P ( Ω ) ] .
G C ( Ω ) = i γ 0 L D SHG ( z , Ω ) exp [ i ( Δ k 0 DFG + δ ν SH , T Ω ) z ] d z ,
A P z + 1 u P δ A P t + i β P 2 2 A P t 2 = i ω P κ SHG A P * A SH exp ( i Δ k QPM SHG z ) ,
A SH z + 1 u SH A SH t + i β SH 2 2 A SH t 2
= i ω P κ SHG A P 2 exp ( i Δ k QPM SHG z ) + i ω SH κ DFG A P A T exp ( i Δ k QPM DFG z ) ,
A T z + 1 u T A T t + i β T 2 2 A T t 2 = i ω T κ DFG A O * A SH exp ( i Δ k QPM DFG z ) ,
A O z + 1 u O A O t + i β O 2 2 A O t 2 = i ω O κ DFG A T * A SH exp ( i Δ k QPM DFG z ) .
E O ( t ; τ ) E T * ( t ) E Gate ( t τ ) ,
I XFROG ( ω , τ ) = E T * ( t ) E Gate ( t τ ) exp ( i ω t ) d t 2 .
W ( ω , τ ) = E * ( τ + t 2 ) E ( τ t 2 ) exp ( i ω t ) d t .
ϵ W = { ω , τ [ W input ( ω , τ ) α W test ( ω , τ ) ] 2 ω , τ [ W input ( ω , τ ) ] 2 } 1 2 ,

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