Abstract

Bleaching relaxation in lead salt (PbS) quantum dots (QDs) of various sizes and under different pump intensities has been studied. The observed bleaching relaxation features (particularly, shortening of the bleaching relaxation times with a decrease in the QD size and an increase of the pump-light intensity) are explained in the context of the proposed spectroscopic model. The model takes into account transitions of the excited-charge carriers both within the system of quantum-confined energy levels and the defect states of the QDs. The characteristic times of the direct electron-hole recombination, carriers trapping to the defect states, and their subsequent relaxation from these states as well as the cross sections of the ground-state and excited-state absorption of charge carriers can be evaluated from the experimental data for PbS QDs of different sizes and under different pumping conditions using this model.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. D. Yoffe, "Semiconductor quantum dots and related systems: electronic, optical, luminescence and related properties of low-dimensional systems," Adv. Phys. 50, 1-208 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. V. Gaponenko, Optical Properties of Semiconductor Nanocrystals (Cambridge U. Press, 1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. U. Woggon, Optical Properties of Semiconductor Quantum Dots (Springer, 1997).
  4. A. M. Malyarevich, V. G. Savitski, P. V. Prokoshin, N. N. Posnov, K. V. Yumashev, E. Raaben, and A. A. Zhilin, "Glass doped with PbS quantum dots as a saturable absorber for 1-µm neodymium lasers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 28-32 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Dementjev, V. Gulbinas, L. Valkunas, I. Motchalov, H. Raaben, and A. Michailovas, "Mode-locking of neodymium lasers by glasses doped with PbS nanocrystals," Appl. Phys. B 77, 595-599 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. T. Guerreiro, S. Ten, N. F. Borrelli, J. Butty, G. E. Jabbour, and N. Peyghambarian, "PbS quantum-dot doped glasses as saturable absorbers for mode-locking of a Cr:forsterite laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1595-1597 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. V. G. Savitski, N. N. Posnov, P. V. Prokoshin, A. M. Malyarevich, K. V. Yumashev, M. I. Demchuk, and A. A. Lipovskii, "PbS-doped phosphate glasses saturable absorbers for 1.3-µm neodymium lasers," Appl. Phys. B 75, 841-846 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. V. G. Savitski, A. M. Malyarevich, K. V. Yumashev, B. D. Sinclair, A. A. Lipovskii, "Diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 and Nd:KGd(WO4)21.3 µm lasers passively Q-switched with PbS-doped glass," Appl. Phys. B 76, 253-256 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. M. Malyarevich, I. A. Denisov, V. G. Savitsky, K. V. Yumashev, and A. A. Lipovskii, "Glass doped with PbS quantum dots as passive Q-switch for 1.54 µm laser," Appl. Opt. 39, 4345-4347 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. F. Philipps, T. Töpfer, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, D. Ehrt, R. Sauerbrey, and N. F. Borrelli, "Diode-pumped erbium-ytterbium-glass laser passively Q-switched with a PbS semiconductor quantum-dot doped glass," Appl. Phys. B 72, 175-178 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. A. Lagatsky, C. G. Leburn, C. T. A. Brown, W. Sibbett, A. M. Malyarevich, V. G. Savitski, K. V. Yumashev, E. L. Raaben, and A. A. Zhilin, "Passive mode locking of a Cr4+:YAG laser by PbS quantum-dot-doped glass saturable absorber," Opt. Commun. 241, 449-454 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  12. K. Wundke, S. Putting, J. Auxier, A. Schulzgen, N. Peyghambarian, and N. F. Borrelli, "PbS quantum-dot-doped glasses for ultrashort-pulse generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 10-12 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  13. G. Tamulaitis, V. Gulbinas, G. Kodis, A. Dementjev, L. Valkunas, I. Motchalov, and H. Raaben, "Optical nonlinearities of glass doped with PbS nanocrystals," J. Appl. Phys. 88, 178-182 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  14. V. G. Savitski, N. N. Posnov, A. M. Malyarevich, K. V. Yumashev, E. Raaben, and A. A. Zhilin, "Relaxation of bleaching in lead sulfide nanoparticles at different pump powers," J. Appl. Spectrosc. 71, 83-88 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  15. V. G. Savitski, A. M. Malyarevich, K. V. Yumashev, V. L. Kalashnikov, B. D. Sinclair, H. Raaben, and A. A. Zhilin, "Experiment and modeling of a diode-pumped 1.3-µmNd:YVO4 laser passively Q-switched with PbS-doped glass," Appl. Phys. B 79, 315-319 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  16. I. Kang and F. W. Wise, "Electronic structure and optical properties of PbS and PbSe quantum dots," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1632-1646 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. Declemey and C. Rulliere, "Totally automated picosecond transient absorption spectrometer using two photodiode arrays as detectors," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 57, 2733-2738 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. L. Machol, F. W. Wise, R. C. Patel, and D. D. Tanner, "Vibronic quantum beats in PbS microcrystallites," Phys. Rev. B 48, 2819-2822 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  19. M. M. Sheik-bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Sensitive measurements of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
    [CrossRef]

2004 (3)

V. G. Savitski, N. N. Posnov, A. M. Malyarevich, K. V. Yumashev, E. Raaben, and A. A. Zhilin, "Relaxation of bleaching in lead sulfide nanoparticles at different pump powers," J. Appl. Spectrosc. 71, 83-88 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Savitski, A. M. Malyarevich, K. V. Yumashev, V. L. Kalashnikov, B. D. Sinclair, H. Raaben, and A. A. Zhilin, "Experiment and modeling of a diode-pumped 1.3-µmNd:YVO4 laser passively Q-switched with PbS-doped glass," Appl. Phys. B 79, 315-319 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Lagatsky, C. G. Leburn, C. T. A. Brown, W. Sibbett, A. M. Malyarevich, V. G. Savitski, K. V. Yumashev, E. L. Raaben, and A. A. Zhilin, "Passive mode locking of a Cr4+:YAG laser by PbS quantum-dot-doped glass saturable absorber," Opt. Commun. 241, 449-454 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

A. Dementjev, V. Gulbinas, L. Valkunas, I. Motchalov, H. Raaben, and A. Michailovas, "Mode-locking of neodymium lasers by glasses doped with PbS nanocrystals," Appl. Phys. B 77, 595-599 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Savitski, A. M. Malyarevich, K. V. Yumashev, B. D. Sinclair, A. A. Lipovskii, "Diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 and Nd:KGd(WO4)21.3 µm lasers passively Q-switched with PbS-doped glass," Appl. Phys. B 76, 253-256 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

V. G. Savitski, N. N. Posnov, P. V. Prokoshin, A. M. Malyarevich, K. V. Yumashev, M. I. Demchuk, and A. A. Lipovskii, "PbS-doped phosphate glasses saturable absorbers for 1.3-µm neodymium lasers," Appl. Phys. B 75, 841-846 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Malyarevich, V. G. Savitski, P. V. Prokoshin, N. N. Posnov, K. V. Yumashev, E. Raaben, and A. A. Zhilin, "Glass doped with PbS quantum dots as a saturable absorber for 1-µm neodymium lasers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 28-32 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

A. D. Yoffe, "Semiconductor quantum dots and related systems: electronic, optical, luminescence and related properties of low-dimensional systems," Adv. Phys. 50, 1-208 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Philipps, T. Töpfer, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, D. Ehrt, R. Sauerbrey, and N. F. Borrelli, "Diode-pumped erbium-ytterbium-glass laser passively Q-switched with a PbS semiconductor quantum-dot doped glass," Appl. Phys. B 72, 175-178 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

A. M. Malyarevich, I. A. Denisov, V. G. Savitsky, K. V. Yumashev, and A. A. Lipovskii, "Glass doped with PbS quantum dots as passive Q-switch for 1.54 µm laser," Appl. Opt. 39, 4345-4347 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Wundke, S. Putting, J. Auxier, A. Schulzgen, N. Peyghambarian, and N. F. Borrelli, "PbS quantum-dot-doped glasses for ultrashort-pulse generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 10-12 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Tamulaitis, V. Gulbinas, G. Kodis, A. Dementjev, L. Valkunas, I. Motchalov, and H. Raaben, "Optical nonlinearities of glass doped with PbS nanocrystals," J. Appl. Phys. 88, 178-182 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

I. Kang and F. W. Wise, "Electronic structure and optical properties of PbS and PbSe quantum dots," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1632-1646 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. T. Guerreiro, S. Ten, N. F. Borrelli, J. Butty, G. E. Jabbour, and N. Peyghambarian, "PbS quantum-dot doped glasses as saturable absorbers for mode-locking of a Cr:forsterite laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1595-1597 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

J. L. Machol, F. W. Wise, R. C. Patel, and D. D. Tanner, "Vibronic quantum beats in PbS microcrystallites," Phys. Rev. B 48, 2819-2822 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

M. M. Sheik-bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Sensitive measurements of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

A. Declemey and C. Rulliere, "Totally automated picosecond transient absorption spectrometer using two photodiode arrays as detectors," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 57, 2733-2738 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Auxier, J.

K. Wundke, S. Putting, J. Auxier, A. Schulzgen, N. Peyghambarian, and N. F. Borrelli, "PbS quantum-dot-doped glasses for ultrashort-pulse generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 10-12 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Borrelli, N. F.

J. F. Philipps, T. Töpfer, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, D. Ehrt, R. Sauerbrey, and N. F. Borrelli, "Diode-pumped erbium-ytterbium-glass laser passively Q-switched with a PbS semiconductor quantum-dot doped glass," Appl. Phys. B 72, 175-178 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Wundke, S. Putting, J. Auxier, A. Schulzgen, N. Peyghambarian, and N. F. Borrelli, "PbS quantum-dot-doped glasses for ultrashort-pulse generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 10-12 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. T. Guerreiro, S. Ten, N. F. Borrelli, J. Butty, G. E. Jabbour, and N. Peyghambarian, "PbS quantum-dot doped glasses as saturable absorbers for mode-locking of a Cr:forsterite laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1595-1597 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Brown, C. T. A.

A. A. Lagatsky, C. G. Leburn, C. T. A. Brown, W. Sibbett, A. M. Malyarevich, V. G. Savitski, K. V. Yumashev, E. L. Raaben, and A. A. Zhilin, "Passive mode locking of a Cr4+:YAG laser by PbS quantum-dot-doped glass saturable absorber," Opt. Commun. 241, 449-454 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Butty, J.

P. T. Guerreiro, S. Ten, N. F. Borrelli, J. Butty, G. E. Jabbour, and N. Peyghambarian, "PbS quantum-dot doped glasses as saturable absorbers for mode-locking of a Cr:forsterite laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1595-1597 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Declemey, A.

A. Declemey and C. Rulliere, "Totally automated picosecond transient absorption spectrometer using two photodiode arrays as detectors," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 57, 2733-2738 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Demchuk, M. I.

V. G. Savitski, N. N. Posnov, P. V. Prokoshin, A. M. Malyarevich, K. V. Yumashev, M. I. Demchuk, and A. A. Lipovskii, "PbS-doped phosphate glasses saturable absorbers for 1.3-µm neodymium lasers," Appl. Phys. B 75, 841-846 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dementjev, A.

A. Dementjev, V. Gulbinas, L. Valkunas, I. Motchalov, H. Raaben, and A. Michailovas, "Mode-locking of neodymium lasers by glasses doped with PbS nanocrystals," Appl. Phys. B 77, 595-599 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Tamulaitis, V. Gulbinas, G. Kodis, A. Dementjev, L. Valkunas, I. Motchalov, and H. Raaben, "Optical nonlinearities of glass doped with PbS nanocrystals," J. Appl. Phys. 88, 178-182 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Denisov, I. A.

Ebendorff-Heidepriem, H.

J. F. Philipps, T. Töpfer, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, D. Ehrt, R. Sauerbrey, and N. F. Borrelli, "Diode-pumped erbium-ytterbium-glass laser passively Q-switched with a PbS semiconductor quantum-dot doped glass," Appl. Phys. B 72, 175-178 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ehrt, D.

J. F. Philipps, T. Töpfer, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, D. Ehrt, R. Sauerbrey, and N. F. Borrelli, "Diode-pumped erbium-ytterbium-glass laser passively Q-switched with a PbS semiconductor quantum-dot doped glass," Appl. Phys. B 72, 175-178 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gaponenko, S. V.

S. V. Gaponenko, Optical Properties of Semiconductor Nanocrystals (Cambridge U. Press, 1998).
[CrossRef]

Guerreiro, P. T.

P. T. Guerreiro, S. Ten, N. F. Borrelli, J. Butty, G. E. Jabbour, and N. Peyghambarian, "PbS quantum-dot doped glasses as saturable absorbers for mode-locking of a Cr:forsterite laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1595-1597 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gulbinas, V.

A. Dementjev, V. Gulbinas, L. Valkunas, I. Motchalov, H. Raaben, and A. Michailovas, "Mode-locking of neodymium lasers by glasses doped with PbS nanocrystals," Appl. Phys. B 77, 595-599 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Tamulaitis, V. Gulbinas, G. Kodis, A. Dementjev, L. Valkunas, I. Motchalov, and H. Raaben, "Optical nonlinearities of glass doped with PbS nanocrystals," J. Appl. Phys. 88, 178-182 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hagan, D. J.

M. M. Sheik-bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Sensitive measurements of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Jabbour, G. E.

P. T. Guerreiro, S. Ten, N. F. Borrelli, J. Butty, G. E. Jabbour, and N. Peyghambarian, "PbS quantum-dot doped glasses as saturable absorbers for mode-locking of a Cr:forsterite laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1595-1597 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kalashnikov, V. L.

V. G. Savitski, A. M. Malyarevich, K. V. Yumashev, V. L. Kalashnikov, B. D. Sinclair, H. Raaben, and A. A. Zhilin, "Experiment and modeling of a diode-pumped 1.3-µmNd:YVO4 laser passively Q-switched with PbS-doped glass," Appl. Phys. B 79, 315-319 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kang, I.

Kodis, G.

G. Tamulaitis, V. Gulbinas, G. Kodis, A. Dementjev, L. Valkunas, I. Motchalov, and H. Raaben, "Optical nonlinearities of glass doped with PbS nanocrystals," J. Appl. Phys. 88, 178-182 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lagatsky, A. A.

A. A. Lagatsky, C. G. Leburn, C. T. A. Brown, W. Sibbett, A. M. Malyarevich, V. G. Savitski, K. V. Yumashev, E. L. Raaben, and A. A. Zhilin, "Passive mode locking of a Cr4+:YAG laser by PbS quantum-dot-doped glass saturable absorber," Opt. Commun. 241, 449-454 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Leburn, C. G.

A. A. Lagatsky, C. G. Leburn, C. T. A. Brown, W. Sibbett, A. M. Malyarevich, V. G. Savitski, K. V. Yumashev, E. L. Raaben, and A. A. Zhilin, "Passive mode locking of a Cr4+:YAG laser by PbS quantum-dot-doped glass saturable absorber," Opt. Commun. 241, 449-454 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lipovskii, A. A.

V. G. Savitski, A. M. Malyarevich, K. V. Yumashev, B. D. Sinclair, A. A. Lipovskii, "Diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 and Nd:KGd(WO4)21.3 µm lasers passively Q-switched with PbS-doped glass," Appl. Phys. B 76, 253-256 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Savitski, N. N. Posnov, P. V. Prokoshin, A. M. Malyarevich, K. V. Yumashev, M. I. Demchuk, and A. A. Lipovskii, "PbS-doped phosphate glasses saturable absorbers for 1.3-µm neodymium lasers," Appl. Phys. B 75, 841-846 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Malyarevich, I. A. Denisov, V. G. Savitsky, K. V. Yumashev, and A. A. Lipovskii, "Glass doped with PbS quantum dots as passive Q-switch for 1.54 µm laser," Appl. Opt. 39, 4345-4347 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Machol, J. L.

J. L. Machol, F. W. Wise, R. C. Patel, and D. D. Tanner, "Vibronic quantum beats in PbS microcrystallites," Phys. Rev. B 48, 2819-2822 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Malyarevich, A. M.

V. G. Savitski, A. M. Malyarevich, K. V. Yumashev, V. L. Kalashnikov, B. D. Sinclair, H. Raaben, and A. A. Zhilin, "Experiment and modeling of a diode-pumped 1.3-µmNd:YVO4 laser passively Q-switched with PbS-doped glass," Appl. Phys. B 79, 315-319 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Lagatsky, C. G. Leburn, C. T. A. Brown, W. Sibbett, A. M. Malyarevich, V. G. Savitski, K. V. Yumashev, E. L. Raaben, and A. A. Zhilin, "Passive mode locking of a Cr4+:YAG laser by PbS quantum-dot-doped glass saturable absorber," Opt. Commun. 241, 449-454 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Savitski, N. N. Posnov, A. M. Malyarevich, K. V. Yumashev, E. Raaben, and A. A. Zhilin, "Relaxation of bleaching in lead sulfide nanoparticles at different pump powers," J. Appl. Spectrosc. 71, 83-88 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Savitski, A. M. Malyarevich, K. V. Yumashev, B. D. Sinclair, A. A. Lipovskii, "Diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 and Nd:KGd(WO4)21.3 µm lasers passively Q-switched with PbS-doped glass," Appl. Phys. B 76, 253-256 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Savitski, N. N. Posnov, P. V. Prokoshin, A. M. Malyarevich, K. V. Yumashev, M. I. Demchuk, and A. A. Lipovskii, "PbS-doped phosphate glasses saturable absorbers for 1.3-µm neodymium lasers," Appl. Phys. B 75, 841-846 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Malyarevich, V. G. Savitski, P. V. Prokoshin, N. N. Posnov, K. V. Yumashev, E. Raaben, and A. A. Zhilin, "Glass doped with PbS quantum dots as a saturable absorber for 1-µm neodymium lasers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 28-32 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Malyarevich, I. A. Denisov, V. G. Savitsky, K. V. Yumashev, and A. A. Lipovskii, "Glass doped with PbS quantum dots as passive Q-switch for 1.54 µm laser," Appl. Opt. 39, 4345-4347 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Michailovas, A.

A. Dementjev, V. Gulbinas, L. Valkunas, I. Motchalov, H. Raaben, and A. Michailovas, "Mode-locking of neodymium lasers by glasses doped with PbS nanocrystals," Appl. Phys. B 77, 595-599 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Motchalov, I.

A. Dementjev, V. Gulbinas, L. Valkunas, I. Motchalov, H. Raaben, and A. Michailovas, "Mode-locking of neodymium lasers by glasses doped with PbS nanocrystals," Appl. Phys. B 77, 595-599 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Tamulaitis, V. Gulbinas, G. Kodis, A. Dementjev, L. Valkunas, I. Motchalov, and H. Raaben, "Optical nonlinearities of glass doped with PbS nanocrystals," J. Appl. Phys. 88, 178-182 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Patel, R. C.

J. L. Machol, F. W. Wise, R. C. Patel, and D. D. Tanner, "Vibronic quantum beats in PbS microcrystallites," Phys. Rev. B 48, 2819-2822 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Peyghambarian, N.

K. Wundke, S. Putting, J. Auxier, A. Schulzgen, N. Peyghambarian, and N. F. Borrelli, "PbS quantum-dot-doped glasses for ultrashort-pulse generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 10-12 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. T. Guerreiro, S. Ten, N. F. Borrelli, J. Butty, G. E. Jabbour, and N. Peyghambarian, "PbS quantum-dot doped glasses as saturable absorbers for mode-locking of a Cr:forsterite laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1595-1597 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Philipps, J. F.

J. F. Philipps, T. Töpfer, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, D. Ehrt, R. Sauerbrey, and N. F. Borrelli, "Diode-pumped erbium-ytterbium-glass laser passively Q-switched with a PbS semiconductor quantum-dot doped glass," Appl. Phys. B 72, 175-178 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Posnov, N. N.

V. G. Savitski, N. N. Posnov, A. M. Malyarevich, K. V. Yumashev, E. Raaben, and A. A. Zhilin, "Relaxation of bleaching in lead sulfide nanoparticles at different pump powers," J. Appl. Spectrosc. 71, 83-88 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Savitski, N. N. Posnov, P. V. Prokoshin, A. M. Malyarevich, K. V. Yumashev, M. I. Demchuk, and A. A. Lipovskii, "PbS-doped phosphate glasses saturable absorbers for 1.3-µm neodymium lasers," Appl. Phys. B 75, 841-846 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Malyarevich, V. G. Savitski, P. V. Prokoshin, N. N. Posnov, K. V. Yumashev, E. Raaben, and A. A. Zhilin, "Glass doped with PbS quantum dots as a saturable absorber for 1-µm neodymium lasers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 28-32 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Prokoshin, P. V.

A. M. Malyarevich, V. G. Savitski, P. V. Prokoshin, N. N. Posnov, K. V. Yumashev, E. Raaben, and A. A. Zhilin, "Glass doped with PbS quantum dots as a saturable absorber for 1-µm neodymium lasers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 28-32 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Savitski, N. N. Posnov, P. V. Prokoshin, A. M. Malyarevich, K. V. Yumashev, M. I. Demchuk, and A. A. Lipovskii, "PbS-doped phosphate glasses saturable absorbers for 1.3-µm neodymium lasers," Appl. Phys. B 75, 841-846 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Putting, S.

K. Wundke, S. Putting, J. Auxier, A. Schulzgen, N. Peyghambarian, and N. F. Borrelli, "PbS quantum-dot-doped glasses for ultrashort-pulse generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 10-12 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Raaben, E.

V. G. Savitski, N. N. Posnov, A. M. Malyarevich, K. V. Yumashev, E. Raaben, and A. A. Zhilin, "Relaxation of bleaching in lead sulfide nanoparticles at different pump powers," J. Appl. Spectrosc. 71, 83-88 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Malyarevich, V. G. Savitski, P. V. Prokoshin, N. N. Posnov, K. V. Yumashev, E. Raaben, and A. A. Zhilin, "Glass doped with PbS quantum dots as a saturable absorber for 1-µm neodymium lasers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 28-32 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Raaben, E. L.

A. A. Lagatsky, C. G. Leburn, C. T. A. Brown, W. Sibbett, A. M. Malyarevich, V. G. Savitski, K. V. Yumashev, E. L. Raaben, and A. A. Zhilin, "Passive mode locking of a Cr4+:YAG laser by PbS quantum-dot-doped glass saturable absorber," Opt. Commun. 241, 449-454 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Raaben, H.

V. G. Savitski, A. M. Malyarevich, K. V. Yumashev, V. L. Kalashnikov, B. D. Sinclair, H. Raaben, and A. A. Zhilin, "Experiment and modeling of a diode-pumped 1.3-µmNd:YVO4 laser passively Q-switched with PbS-doped glass," Appl. Phys. B 79, 315-319 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Dementjev, V. Gulbinas, L. Valkunas, I. Motchalov, H. Raaben, and A. Michailovas, "Mode-locking of neodymium lasers by glasses doped with PbS nanocrystals," Appl. Phys. B 77, 595-599 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Tamulaitis, V. Gulbinas, G. Kodis, A. Dementjev, L. Valkunas, I. Motchalov, and H. Raaben, "Optical nonlinearities of glass doped with PbS nanocrystals," J. Appl. Phys. 88, 178-182 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rulliere, C.

A. Declemey and C. Rulliere, "Totally automated picosecond transient absorption spectrometer using two photodiode arrays as detectors," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 57, 2733-2738 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Said, A. A.

M. M. Sheik-bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Sensitive measurements of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sauerbrey, R.

J. F. Philipps, T. Töpfer, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, D. Ehrt, R. Sauerbrey, and N. F. Borrelli, "Diode-pumped erbium-ytterbium-glass laser passively Q-switched with a PbS semiconductor quantum-dot doped glass," Appl. Phys. B 72, 175-178 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Savitski, V. G.

A. A. Lagatsky, C. G. Leburn, C. T. A. Brown, W. Sibbett, A. M. Malyarevich, V. G. Savitski, K. V. Yumashev, E. L. Raaben, and A. A. Zhilin, "Passive mode locking of a Cr4+:YAG laser by PbS quantum-dot-doped glass saturable absorber," Opt. Commun. 241, 449-454 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Savitski, N. N. Posnov, A. M. Malyarevich, K. V. Yumashev, E. Raaben, and A. A. Zhilin, "Relaxation of bleaching in lead sulfide nanoparticles at different pump powers," J. Appl. Spectrosc. 71, 83-88 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Savitski, A. M. Malyarevich, K. V. Yumashev, V. L. Kalashnikov, B. D. Sinclair, H. Raaben, and A. A. Zhilin, "Experiment and modeling of a diode-pumped 1.3-µmNd:YVO4 laser passively Q-switched with PbS-doped glass," Appl. Phys. B 79, 315-319 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Savitski, A. M. Malyarevich, K. V. Yumashev, B. D. Sinclair, A. A. Lipovskii, "Diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 and Nd:KGd(WO4)21.3 µm lasers passively Q-switched with PbS-doped glass," Appl. Phys. B 76, 253-256 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Savitski, N. N. Posnov, P. V. Prokoshin, A. M. Malyarevich, K. V. Yumashev, M. I. Demchuk, and A. A. Lipovskii, "PbS-doped phosphate glasses saturable absorbers for 1.3-µm neodymium lasers," Appl. Phys. B 75, 841-846 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Malyarevich, V. G. Savitski, P. V. Prokoshin, N. N. Posnov, K. V. Yumashev, E. Raaben, and A. A. Zhilin, "Glass doped with PbS quantum dots as a saturable absorber for 1-µm neodymium lasers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 28-32 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Savitsky, V. G.

Schulzgen, A.

K. Wundke, S. Putting, J. Auxier, A. Schulzgen, N. Peyghambarian, and N. F. Borrelli, "PbS quantum-dot-doped glasses for ultrashort-pulse generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 10-12 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sheik-bahae, M. M.

M. M. Sheik-bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Sensitive measurements of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sibbett, W.

A. A. Lagatsky, C. G. Leburn, C. T. A. Brown, W. Sibbett, A. M. Malyarevich, V. G. Savitski, K. V. Yumashev, E. L. Raaben, and A. A. Zhilin, "Passive mode locking of a Cr4+:YAG laser by PbS quantum-dot-doped glass saturable absorber," Opt. Commun. 241, 449-454 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sinclair, B. D.

V. G. Savitski, A. M. Malyarevich, K. V. Yumashev, V. L. Kalashnikov, B. D. Sinclair, H. Raaben, and A. A. Zhilin, "Experiment and modeling of a diode-pumped 1.3-µmNd:YVO4 laser passively Q-switched with PbS-doped glass," Appl. Phys. B 79, 315-319 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Savitski, A. M. Malyarevich, K. V. Yumashev, B. D. Sinclair, A. A. Lipovskii, "Diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 and Nd:KGd(WO4)21.3 µm lasers passively Q-switched with PbS-doped glass," Appl. Phys. B 76, 253-256 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tamulaitis, G.

G. Tamulaitis, V. Gulbinas, G. Kodis, A. Dementjev, L. Valkunas, I. Motchalov, and H. Raaben, "Optical nonlinearities of glass doped with PbS nanocrystals," J. Appl. Phys. 88, 178-182 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tanner, D. D.

J. L. Machol, F. W. Wise, R. C. Patel, and D. D. Tanner, "Vibronic quantum beats in PbS microcrystallites," Phys. Rev. B 48, 2819-2822 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ten, S.

P. T. Guerreiro, S. Ten, N. F. Borrelli, J. Butty, G. E. Jabbour, and N. Peyghambarian, "PbS quantum-dot doped glasses as saturable absorbers for mode-locking of a Cr:forsterite laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1595-1597 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Töpfer, T.

J. F. Philipps, T. Töpfer, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, D. Ehrt, R. Sauerbrey, and N. F. Borrelli, "Diode-pumped erbium-ytterbium-glass laser passively Q-switched with a PbS semiconductor quantum-dot doped glass," Appl. Phys. B 72, 175-178 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Valkunas, L.

A. Dementjev, V. Gulbinas, L. Valkunas, I. Motchalov, H. Raaben, and A. Michailovas, "Mode-locking of neodymium lasers by glasses doped with PbS nanocrystals," Appl. Phys. B 77, 595-599 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Tamulaitis, V. Gulbinas, G. Kodis, A. Dementjev, L. Valkunas, I. Motchalov, and H. Raaben, "Optical nonlinearities of glass doped with PbS nanocrystals," J. Appl. Phys. 88, 178-182 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Van Stryland, E. W.

M. M. Sheik-bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Sensitive measurements of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wei, T.-H.

M. M. Sheik-bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Sensitive measurements of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wise, F. W.

I. Kang and F. W. Wise, "Electronic structure and optical properties of PbS and PbSe quantum dots," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1632-1646 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Machol, F. W. Wise, R. C. Patel, and D. D. Tanner, "Vibronic quantum beats in PbS microcrystallites," Phys. Rev. B 48, 2819-2822 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Woggon, U.

U. Woggon, Optical Properties of Semiconductor Quantum Dots (Springer, 1997).

Wundke, K.

K. Wundke, S. Putting, J. Auxier, A. Schulzgen, N. Peyghambarian, and N. F. Borrelli, "PbS quantum-dot-doped glasses for ultrashort-pulse generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 10-12 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yoffe, A. D.

A. D. Yoffe, "Semiconductor quantum dots and related systems: electronic, optical, luminescence and related properties of low-dimensional systems," Adv. Phys. 50, 1-208 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yumashev, K. V.

A. A. Lagatsky, C. G. Leburn, C. T. A. Brown, W. Sibbett, A. M. Malyarevich, V. G. Savitski, K. V. Yumashev, E. L. Raaben, and A. A. Zhilin, "Passive mode locking of a Cr4+:YAG laser by PbS quantum-dot-doped glass saturable absorber," Opt. Commun. 241, 449-454 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Savitski, N. N. Posnov, A. M. Malyarevich, K. V. Yumashev, E. Raaben, and A. A. Zhilin, "Relaxation of bleaching in lead sulfide nanoparticles at different pump powers," J. Appl. Spectrosc. 71, 83-88 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Savitski, A. M. Malyarevich, K. V. Yumashev, V. L. Kalashnikov, B. D. Sinclair, H. Raaben, and A. A. Zhilin, "Experiment and modeling of a diode-pumped 1.3-µmNd:YVO4 laser passively Q-switched with PbS-doped glass," Appl. Phys. B 79, 315-319 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Savitski, A. M. Malyarevich, K. V. Yumashev, B. D. Sinclair, A. A. Lipovskii, "Diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 and Nd:KGd(WO4)21.3 µm lasers passively Q-switched with PbS-doped glass," Appl. Phys. B 76, 253-256 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Savitski, N. N. Posnov, P. V. Prokoshin, A. M. Malyarevich, K. V. Yumashev, M. I. Demchuk, and A. A. Lipovskii, "PbS-doped phosphate glasses saturable absorbers for 1.3-µm neodymium lasers," Appl. Phys. B 75, 841-846 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Malyarevich, V. G. Savitski, P. V. Prokoshin, N. N. Posnov, K. V. Yumashev, E. Raaben, and A. A. Zhilin, "Glass doped with PbS quantum dots as a saturable absorber for 1-µm neodymium lasers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 28-32 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Malyarevich, I. A. Denisov, V. G. Savitsky, K. V. Yumashev, and A. A. Lipovskii, "Glass doped with PbS quantum dots as passive Q-switch for 1.54 µm laser," Appl. Opt. 39, 4345-4347 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhilin, A. A.

A. A. Lagatsky, C. G. Leburn, C. T. A. Brown, W. Sibbett, A. M. Malyarevich, V. G. Savitski, K. V. Yumashev, E. L. Raaben, and A. A. Zhilin, "Passive mode locking of a Cr4+:YAG laser by PbS quantum-dot-doped glass saturable absorber," Opt. Commun. 241, 449-454 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Savitski, N. N. Posnov, A. M. Malyarevich, K. V. Yumashev, E. Raaben, and A. A. Zhilin, "Relaxation of bleaching in lead sulfide nanoparticles at different pump powers," J. Appl. Spectrosc. 71, 83-88 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Savitski, A. M. Malyarevich, K. V. Yumashev, V. L. Kalashnikov, B. D. Sinclair, H. Raaben, and A. A. Zhilin, "Experiment and modeling of a diode-pumped 1.3-µmNd:YVO4 laser passively Q-switched with PbS-doped glass," Appl. Phys. B 79, 315-319 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Malyarevich, V. G. Savitski, P. V. Prokoshin, N. N. Posnov, K. V. Yumashev, E. Raaben, and A. A. Zhilin, "Glass doped with PbS quantum dots as a saturable absorber for 1-µm neodymium lasers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 28-32 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Phys. (1)

A. D. Yoffe, "Semiconductor quantum dots and related systems: electronic, optical, luminescence and related properties of low-dimensional systems," Adv. Phys. 50, 1-208 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (5)

V. G. Savitski, A. M. Malyarevich, K. V. Yumashev, V. L. Kalashnikov, B. D. Sinclair, H. Raaben, and A. A. Zhilin, "Experiment and modeling of a diode-pumped 1.3-µmNd:YVO4 laser passively Q-switched with PbS-doped glass," Appl. Phys. B 79, 315-319 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Dementjev, V. Gulbinas, L. Valkunas, I. Motchalov, H. Raaben, and A. Michailovas, "Mode-locking of neodymium lasers by glasses doped with PbS nanocrystals," Appl. Phys. B 77, 595-599 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Savitski, N. N. Posnov, P. V. Prokoshin, A. M. Malyarevich, K. V. Yumashev, M. I. Demchuk, and A. A. Lipovskii, "PbS-doped phosphate glasses saturable absorbers for 1.3-µm neodymium lasers," Appl. Phys. B 75, 841-846 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Savitski, A. M. Malyarevich, K. V. Yumashev, B. D. Sinclair, A. A. Lipovskii, "Diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 and Nd:KGd(WO4)21.3 µm lasers passively Q-switched with PbS-doped glass," Appl. Phys. B 76, 253-256 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Philipps, T. Töpfer, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, D. Ehrt, R. Sauerbrey, and N. F. Borrelli, "Diode-pumped erbium-ytterbium-glass laser passively Q-switched with a PbS semiconductor quantum-dot doped glass," Appl. Phys. B 72, 175-178 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

P. T. Guerreiro, S. Ten, N. F. Borrelli, J. Butty, G. E. Jabbour, and N. Peyghambarian, "PbS quantum-dot doped glasses as saturable absorbers for mode-locking of a Cr:forsterite laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1595-1597 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Wundke, S. Putting, J. Auxier, A. Schulzgen, N. Peyghambarian, and N. F. Borrelli, "PbS quantum-dot-doped glasses for ultrashort-pulse generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 10-12 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. M. Sheik-bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Sensitive measurements of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

G. Tamulaitis, V. Gulbinas, G. Kodis, A. Dementjev, L. Valkunas, I. Motchalov, and H. Raaben, "Optical nonlinearities of glass doped with PbS nanocrystals," J. Appl. Phys. 88, 178-182 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

V. G. Savitski, N. N. Posnov, A. M. Malyarevich, K. V. Yumashev, E. Raaben, and A. A. Zhilin, "Relaxation of bleaching in lead sulfide nanoparticles at different pump powers," J. Appl. Spectrosc. 71, 83-88 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. A. Lagatsky, C. G. Leburn, C. T. A. Brown, W. Sibbett, A. M. Malyarevich, V. G. Savitski, K. V. Yumashev, E. L. Raaben, and A. A. Zhilin, "Passive mode locking of a Cr4+:YAG laser by PbS quantum-dot-doped glass saturable absorber," Opt. Commun. 241, 449-454 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

J. L. Machol, F. W. Wise, R. C. Patel, and D. D. Tanner, "Vibronic quantum beats in PbS microcrystallites," Phys. Rev. B 48, 2819-2822 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

A. Declemey and C. Rulliere, "Totally automated picosecond transient absorption spectrometer using two photodiode arrays as detectors," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 57, 2733-2738 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

S. V. Gaponenko, Optical Properties of Semiconductor Nanocrystals (Cambridge U. Press, 1998).
[CrossRef]

U. Woggon, Optical Properties of Semiconductor Quantum Dots (Springer, 1997).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Absorption spectra of PbS–QD-doped silicate glasses with a dot average diameter of 4.2, 5.5, 6.0 and 6.3 nm (samples #1–#4, respectively). (b) Energy-level scheme of PbS QDs under the isotropic approximation.[16]

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Intensity-dependent relative absorption for the PbS–QD-doped glass sample #3 (squares): (a) at λ = 1.525 μ m under the picosecond pump; (b) at λ = 1.54 μ m under the nanosecond excitation. Solid curves present the results of the best fit within Eqs. (2, 5), respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Kinetics of bleaching relaxation for the sample #3 at 1.52 μ m under the pump intensities of 5.6, 2.8, 2.2, 1.4, 0.9, and 0.25 GW cm 2 (a)–(f), respectively. Solid curves present the results of the modeling using the rate equations [Eq. (2)] and the parameters of the spectroscopic model from Table 1.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Dependencies of the fast relaxation time τ f and the ratio of fast to slow component amplitudes A f A s on the pump intensity. Solid curves are the guides for eyes.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Spectroscopic model for the description of the bleaching relaxation processes in PbS QDs.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Dependence of the parameters of the model (a) σ 2 σ 0 , (b) τ 1 , and (c) τ 13 on the pump intensity for PbS QDs of 6.0 nm (solid squares) and 5.5 nm (open squares) in size.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Parameters of the model τ 1 (open squares) and τ 13 (solid squares) for PbS–QD-doped glass samples #1–#4 (see the text for details). Solid curves are the guides for eyes.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Experimental and Calculated Data on Bleaching Relaxation in PbS QDs a

Equations (17)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ O D = A f exp ( t τ f ) + A s exp ( t τ s ) ,
d N 0 d t = I p ( t ) σ p N 0 ( t ) + N 1 ( t ) τ 1 + N 3 ( t ) τ 3 ,
d N 1 d t = I p ( t ) σ p N 0 ( t ) N 1 ( t ) τ 1 N 1 ( t ) τ 13 ,
d N 3 d t = N 1 ( t ) τ 13 N 3 ( t ) τ 3 ,
Δ O D ( t d ) + exp [ 2 ( t t d ) Δ t ] 2 { [ 2 N 1 ( t ) + N 3 ( t ) ] + σ 1 σ 0 N 1 ( t ) + σ 2 σ 0 N 3 ( t ) } d t ,
I p ( t ) = I p 0 exp ( 2 t Δ t ) 2 ,
γ 1 = 1 σ 1 2 σ 0 ,
γ 2 = [ σ 1 σ 0 τ τ 3 + σ 2 σ 0 ( 1 τ σ 1 ) ] [ 1 τ τ 1 + 2 τ τ 3 ] ,
a = [ ( 1 τ τ 3 ) ( 2 σ 1 σ 0 ) ( 1 τ τ 1 ) ( 1 σ 2 σ 0 ) ] 1 ,
τ s = τ 3 ,
τ f = τ 1 τ 13 τ 1 + τ 13 ,
σ 1 σ 0 = 2 ( 1 γ 1 ) ,
σ 2 σ 0 = ( τ f τ s ) [ ( 1 γ 2 ) ( 1 + a γ 1 ) a γ 1 ] γ 1 γ 2 ( τ f τ s ) [ ( 1 γ 2 ) ( 1 + a ) a γ 1 ] γ 1 ,
τ 1 = τ f [ ( 1 + 2 τ f τ s ) 2 γ 1 ( 1 + a ) ( 1 γ 2 ) ( 1 + a τ f τ s ) ] ,
τ 13 = τ 1 τ f τ 1 τ f ,
τ 3 = τ s .
ln ( T T 0 ) = ( τ 3 + 2 τ 13 τ 3 σ 2 σ 0 + τ 13 σ 1 σ 0 1 ) ln ( 1 + I τ 1 σ 1 ( σ 2 σ 1 τ 3 + τ 13 ) ( τ 1 + τ 13 ) 1 + I T τ 1 σ 1 ( σ 2 σ 1 τ 3 + τ 13 ) ( τ 1 + τ 13 ) ) .

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