Abstract

A study on the dynamics of gain spectral hole burning (GSHB) in a silica-based erbium-doped fiber amplifier at 77K was performed. When a saturation signal was input into an Er3+-doped fiber, a multigain spectral hole structure that consisted of nine gain spectral holes, was observed in the wavelength region from 1510to1640nm at 77K. As for the Er3+ ion concentration dependence of these gain spectral holes, the depth of the gain spectral hole at around 1530nm was found to become shallower in the silica-based erbium-doped fiber that had higher Er3+ ion content. This Er3+ ion concentration dependence of the gain spectral hole depth suggests that the contribution of the energy-transfer interaction between Er3+ ions excited to the Stark levels within the I1324 manifold plays an important role in the gain spectral hole formation at 77K. As far as we know, this is the first report of the Er3+ ion concentration effect on the GSHB in the Er3+-doped fiber. The dynamics of GSHB is discussed in relation to the effect of energy transfer between Er3+ ions. In addition, the relation between gain spectral hole structure and the Stark energy structure of Er3+ ion is also discussed.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. E. Desurvire, J. L. Zyskind, and J. R. Simpson, "Study of spectral dependence of gain saturation and effect of inhomogeneous broadening in erbium-doped aluminosilicate fiber amplifiers," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 2, 246-248 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  2. E. Rudkevich, D. M. Baney, J. Stimple, D. Derickson, and G. Wang, "Nonresonant spectral-hole burning in erbium-doped fiber amplifier," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 542-544 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Nishihara, Y. Sugaya, and E. Ishikawa, "Characterization and new numerical model of spectral hole burning in broadband erbium-doped fiber amplifier," in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, A.Srivastava and J.Moerk, eds. (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper Tud3.
  4. S. Jarado, I. J. Sola, and J. Saez-Landete, "Spectral hole burning induced by reflected amplified spontaneous emission in erbium-doped silica optical fiber pumped at 980 nm," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 1204-1211 (2003).
  5. N. S. Bergano, C. R. Davidson, M. A. Mills, P. C. Corbett, S. G. Evangelides, B. Pedersen, R. Menges, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, A. K. Srivasta, C. Wolf, and J. Judlins, "Long-haul transmission using optimum channel modulation: a 160 Gb/s(32×5 Gb/s)9300 km demonstration," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 6 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1997), paper PD.16.
  6. J. Chung, S. Yong Kim, and C. J. Chae, "Performances of all optical gain-clamped EDFAs with different feedback wavelengths for use in multiwavelength optical networks," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 6 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1997), paper TuE5, pp. 22-24.
  7. G. Luo, J. L. Zyskind, Y. Sun, A. K. Srivastava, J. W. Sulhoff, and M. A. Ali, "Relaxation oscillations and spectral hole burning in laser automatic gain control of EDFAs," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 6 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1997), paper WF4, pp. 130-131.
  8. M. Bolshtyansky, "Spectral hole burning in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers," J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 1032-1038 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. W. Sulhoff, A. K. Srivastava, C. Wolf, Y. Sun, and J. L. Zyskind, "Spectral-hole burning in erbium-doped silica and fluoride fibers," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9, 1578-1579 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. I. Joindot and F. Dupre, "Spectral hole burning in silica-based and in fluoride-based optical fibre amplifiers," Electron. Lett. 33, 1239-1204 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  11. E. Desurvire and J. R. Simpson, "Evaluation of I15/24 and I13/24 Stark-level energies in erbium-doped aluminosilicate glass fibers," Opt. Lett. 15, 547-550 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  12. L. Bigot, A. Jurdyc, B. Jacquier, L. Gasca, and D. Bayart, "Resonant fluorescence line narrowing measurements in erbium-doped glasses for optical amplifiers," Phys. Rev. B 66, 214204-1 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  13. D. L. Dexter, "A theory of sensitized luminescence in solids," J. Chem. Phys. 21, 836-850 (1953).
    [CrossRef]
  14. V. P. Gapontsv and N. S. Platonov, "Migration-accelerated quenching in glasses activated by rare earth ions," in Dynamical Processes in Disordered Systems, Vol. 51 of Material Science Forum (Trans Tech, 1990).

2003

2002

L. Bigot, A. Jurdyc, B. Jacquier, L. Gasca, and D. Bayart, "Resonant fluorescence line narrowing measurements in erbium-doped glasses for optical amplifiers," Phys. Rev. B 66, 214204-1 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999

E. Rudkevich, D. M. Baney, J. Stimple, D. Derickson, and G. Wang, "Nonresonant spectral-hole burning in erbium-doped fiber amplifier," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 542-544 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

J. W. Sulhoff, A. K. Srivastava, C. Wolf, Y. Sun, and J. L. Zyskind, "Spectral-hole burning in erbium-doped silica and fluoride fibers," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9, 1578-1579 (1997).
[CrossRef]

I. Joindot and F. Dupre, "Spectral hole burning in silica-based and in fluoride-based optical fibre amplifiers," Electron. Lett. 33, 1239-1204 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1990

E. Desurvire, J. L. Zyskind, and J. R. Simpson, "Study of spectral dependence of gain saturation and effect of inhomogeneous broadening in erbium-doped aluminosilicate fiber amplifiers," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 2, 246-248 (1990).
[CrossRef]

E. Desurvire and J. R. Simpson, "Evaluation of I15/24 and I13/24 Stark-level energies in erbium-doped aluminosilicate glass fibers," Opt. Lett. 15, 547-550 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1953

D. L. Dexter, "A theory of sensitized luminescence in solids," J. Chem. Phys. 21, 836-850 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Ali, M. A.

G. Luo, J. L. Zyskind, Y. Sun, A. K. Srivastava, J. W. Sulhoff, and M. A. Ali, "Relaxation oscillations and spectral hole burning in laser automatic gain control of EDFAs," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 6 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1997), paper WF4, pp. 130-131.

Baney, D. M.

E. Rudkevich, D. M. Baney, J. Stimple, D. Derickson, and G. Wang, "Nonresonant spectral-hole burning in erbium-doped fiber amplifier," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 542-544 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bayart, D.

L. Bigot, A. Jurdyc, B. Jacquier, L. Gasca, and D. Bayart, "Resonant fluorescence line narrowing measurements in erbium-doped glasses for optical amplifiers," Phys. Rev. B 66, 214204-1 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bergano, N. S.

N. S. Bergano, C. R. Davidson, M. A. Mills, P. C. Corbett, S. G. Evangelides, B. Pedersen, R. Menges, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, A. K. Srivasta, C. Wolf, and J. Judlins, "Long-haul transmission using optimum channel modulation: a 160 Gb/s(32×5 Gb/s)9300 km demonstration," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 6 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1997), paper PD.16.

Bigot, L.

L. Bigot, A. Jurdyc, B. Jacquier, L. Gasca, and D. Bayart, "Resonant fluorescence line narrowing measurements in erbium-doped glasses for optical amplifiers," Phys. Rev. B 66, 214204-1 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bolshtyansky, M.

Chae, C. J.

J. Chung, S. Yong Kim, and C. J. Chae, "Performances of all optical gain-clamped EDFAs with different feedback wavelengths for use in multiwavelength optical networks," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 6 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1997), paper TuE5, pp. 22-24.

Chung, J.

J. Chung, S. Yong Kim, and C. J. Chae, "Performances of all optical gain-clamped EDFAs with different feedback wavelengths for use in multiwavelength optical networks," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 6 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1997), paper TuE5, pp. 22-24.

Corbett, P. C.

N. S. Bergano, C. R. Davidson, M. A. Mills, P. C. Corbett, S. G. Evangelides, B. Pedersen, R. Menges, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, A. K. Srivasta, C. Wolf, and J. Judlins, "Long-haul transmission using optimum channel modulation: a 160 Gb/s(32×5 Gb/s)9300 km demonstration," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 6 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1997), paper PD.16.

Davidson, C. R.

N. S. Bergano, C. R. Davidson, M. A. Mills, P. C. Corbett, S. G. Evangelides, B. Pedersen, R. Menges, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, A. K. Srivasta, C. Wolf, and J. Judlins, "Long-haul transmission using optimum channel modulation: a 160 Gb/s(32×5 Gb/s)9300 km demonstration," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 6 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1997), paper PD.16.

Derickson, D.

E. Rudkevich, D. M. Baney, J. Stimple, D. Derickson, and G. Wang, "Nonresonant spectral-hole burning in erbium-doped fiber amplifier," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 542-544 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Desurvire, E.

E. Desurvire and J. R. Simpson, "Evaluation of I15/24 and I13/24 Stark-level energies in erbium-doped aluminosilicate glass fibers," Opt. Lett. 15, 547-550 (1990).
[CrossRef]

E. Desurvire, J. L. Zyskind, and J. R. Simpson, "Study of spectral dependence of gain saturation and effect of inhomogeneous broadening in erbium-doped aluminosilicate fiber amplifiers," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 2, 246-248 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Dexter, D. L.

D. L. Dexter, "A theory of sensitized luminescence in solids," J. Chem. Phys. 21, 836-850 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Dupre, F.

I. Joindot and F. Dupre, "Spectral hole burning in silica-based and in fluoride-based optical fibre amplifiers," Electron. Lett. 33, 1239-1204 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Evangelides, S. G.

N. S. Bergano, C. R. Davidson, M. A. Mills, P. C. Corbett, S. G. Evangelides, B. Pedersen, R. Menges, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, A. K. Srivasta, C. Wolf, and J. Judlins, "Long-haul transmission using optimum channel modulation: a 160 Gb/s(32×5 Gb/s)9300 km demonstration," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 6 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1997), paper PD.16.

Gapontsv, V. P.

V. P. Gapontsv and N. S. Platonov, "Migration-accelerated quenching in glasses activated by rare earth ions," in Dynamical Processes in Disordered Systems, Vol. 51 of Material Science Forum (Trans Tech, 1990).

Gasca, L.

L. Bigot, A. Jurdyc, B. Jacquier, L. Gasca, and D. Bayart, "Resonant fluorescence line narrowing measurements in erbium-doped glasses for optical amplifiers," Phys. Rev. B 66, 214204-1 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, E.

M. Nishihara, Y. Sugaya, and E. Ishikawa, "Characterization and new numerical model of spectral hole burning in broadband erbium-doped fiber amplifier," in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, A.Srivastava and J.Moerk, eds. (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper Tud3.

Jacquier, B.

L. Bigot, A. Jurdyc, B. Jacquier, L. Gasca, and D. Bayart, "Resonant fluorescence line narrowing measurements in erbium-doped glasses for optical amplifiers," Phys. Rev. B 66, 214204-1 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jarado, S.

Joindot, I.

I. Joindot and F. Dupre, "Spectral hole burning in silica-based and in fluoride-based optical fibre amplifiers," Electron. Lett. 33, 1239-1204 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Judlins, J.

N. S. Bergano, C. R. Davidson, M. A. Mills, P. C. Corbett, S. G. Evangelides, B. Pedersen, R. Menges, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, A. K. Srivasta, C. Wolf, and J. Judlins, "Long-haul transmission using optimum channel modulation: a 160 Gb/s(32×5 Gb/s)9300 km demonstration," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 6 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1997), paper PD.16.

Jurdyc, A.

L. Bigot, A. Jurdyc, B. Jacquier, L. Gasca, and D. Bayart, "Resonant fluorescence line narrowing measurements in erbium-doped glasses for optical amplifiers," Phys. Rev. B 66, 214204-1 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. Yong

J. Chung, S. Yong Kim, and C. J. Chae, "Performances of all optical gain-clamped EDFAs with different feedback wavelengths for use in multiwavelength optical networks," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 6 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1997), paper TuE5, pp. 22-24.

Luo, G.

G. Luo, J. L. Zyskind, Y. Sun, A. K. Srivastava, J. W. Sulhoff, and M. A. Ali, "Relaxation oscillations and spectral hole burning in laser automatic gain control of EDFAs," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 6 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1997), paper WF4, pp. 130-131.

Menges, R.

N. S. Bergano, C. R. Davidson, M. A. Mills, P. C. Corbett, S. G. Evangelides, B. Pedersen, R. Menges, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, A. K. Srivasta, C. Wolf, and J. Judlins, "Long-haul transmission using optimum channel modulation: a 160 Gb/s(32×5 Gb/s)9300 km demonstration," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 6 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1997), paper PD.16.

Mills, M. A.

N. S. Bergano, C. R. Davidson, M. A. Mills, P. C. Corbett, S. G. Evangelides, B. Pedersen, R. Menges, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, A. K. Srivasta, C. Wolf, and J. Judlins, "Long-haul transmission using optimum channel modulation: a 160 Gb/s(32×5 Gb/s)9300 km demonstration," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 6 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1997), paper PD.16.

Nishihara, M.

M. Nishihara, Y. Sugaya, and E. Ishikawa, "Characterization and new numerical model of spectral hole burning in broadband erbium-doped fiber amplifier," in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, A.Srivastava and J.Moerk, eds. (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper Tud3.

Pedersen, B.

N. S. Bergano, C. R. Davidson, M. A. Mills, P. C. Corbett, S. G. Evangelides, B. Pedersen, R. Menges, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, A. K. Srivasta, C. Wolf, and J. Judlins, "Long-haul transmission using optimum channel modulation: a 160 Gb/s(32×5 Gb/s)9300 km demonstration," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 6 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1997), paper PD.16.

Platonov, N. S.

V. P. Gapontsv and N. S. Platonov, "Migration-accelerated quenching in glasses activated by rare earth ions," in Dynamical Processes in Disordered Systems, Vol. 51 of Material Science Forum (Trans Tech, 1990).

Rudkevich, E.

E. Rudkevich, D. M. Baney, J. Stimple, D. Derickson, and G. Wang, "Nonresonant spectral-hole burning in erbium-doped fiber amplifier," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 542-544 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Saez-Landete, J.

Simpson, J. R.

E. Desurvire and J. R. Simpson, "Evaluation of I15/24 and I13/24 Stark-level energies in erbium-doped aluminosilicate glass fibers," Opt. Lett. 15, 547-550 (1990).
[CrossRef]

E. Desurvire, J. L. Zyskind, and J. R. Simpson, "Study of spectral dependence of gain saturation and effect of inhomogeneous broadening in erbium-doped aluminosilicate fiber amplifiers," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 2, 246-248 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sola, I. J.

Srivasta, A. K.

N. S. Bergano, C. R. Davidson, M. A. Mills, P. C. Corbett, S. G. Evangelides, B. Pedersen, R. Menges, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, A. K. Srivasta, C. Wolf, and J. Judlins, "Long-haul transmission using optimum channel modulation: a 160 Gb/s(32×5 Gb/s)9300 km demonstration," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 6 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1997), paper PD.16.

Srivastava, A. K.

J. W. Sulhoff, A. K. Srivastava, C. Wolf, Y. Sun, and J. L. Zyskind, "Spectral-hole burning in erbium-doped silica and fluoride fibers," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9, 1578-1579 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Luo, J. L. Zyskind, Y. Sun, A. K. Srivastava, J. W. Sulhoff, and M. A. Ali, "Relaxation oscillations and spectral hole burning in laser automatic gain control of EDFAs," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 6 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1997), paper WF4, pp. 130-131.

Stimple, J.

E. Rudkevich, D. M. Baney, J. Stimple, D. Derickson, and G. Wang, "Nonresonant spectral-hole burning in erbium-doped fiber amplifier," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 542-544 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sugaya, Y.

M. Nishihara, Y. Sugaya, and E. Ishikawa, "Characterization and new numerical model of spectral hole burning in broadband erbium-doped fiber amplifier," in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, A.Srivastava and J.Moerk, eds. (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper Tud3.

Sulhoff, J. W.

J. W. Sulhoff, A. K. Srivastava, C. Wolf, Y. Sun, and J. L. Zyskind, "Spectral-hole burning in erbium-doped silica and fluoride fibers," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9, 1578-1579 (1997).
[CrossRef]

N. S. Bergano, C. R. Davidson, M. A. Mills, P. C. Corbett, S. G. Evangelides, B. Pedersen, R. Menges, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, A. K. Srivasta, C. Wolf, and J. Judlins, "Long-haul transmission using optimum channel modulation: a 160 Gb/s(32×5 Gb/s)9300 km demonstration," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 6 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1997), paper PD.16.

G. Luo, J. L. Zyskind, Y. Sun, A. K. Srivastava, J. W. Sulhoff, and M. A. Ali, "Relaxation oscillations and spectral hole burning in laser automatic gain control of EDFAs," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 6 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1997), paper WF4, pp. 130-131.

Sun, Y.

J. W. Sulhoff, A. K. Srivastava, C. Wolf, Y. Sun, and J. L. Zyskind, "Spectral-hole burning in erbium-doped silica and fluoride fibers," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9, 1578-1579 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Luo, J. L. Zyskind, Y. Sun, A. K. Srivastava, J. W. Sulhoff, and M. A. Ali, "Relaxation oscillations and spectral hole burning in laser automatic gain control of EDFAs," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 6 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1997), paper WF4, pp. 130-131.

Wang, G.

E. Rudkevich, D. M. Baney, J. Stimple, D. Derickson, and G. Wang, "Nonresonant spectral-hole burning in erbium-doped fiber amplifier," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 542-544 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, C.

J. W. Sulhoff, A. K. Srivastava, C. Wolf, Y. Sun, and J. L. Zyskind, "Spectral-hole burning in erbium-doped silica and fluoride fibers," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9, 1578-1579 (1997).
[CrossRef]

N. S. Bergano, C. R. Davidson, M. A. Mills, P. C. Corbett, S. G. Evangelides, B. Pedersen, R. Menges, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, A. K. Srivasta, C. Wolf, and J. Judlins, "Long-haul transmission using optimum channel modulation: a 160 Gb/s(32×5 Gb/s)9300 km demonstration," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 6 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1997), paper PD.16.

Zyskind, J. L.

J. W. Sulhoff, A. K. Srivastava, C. Wolf, Y. Sun, and J. L. Zyskind, "Spectral-hole burning in erbium-doped silica and fluoride fibers," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9, 1578-1579 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. Desurvire, J. L. Zyskind, and J. R. Simpson, "Study of spectral dependence of gain saturation and effect of inhomogeneous broadening in erbium-doped aluminosilicate fiber amplifiers," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 2, 246-248 (1990).
[CrossRef]

G. Luo, J. L. Zyskind, Y. Sun, A. K. Srivastava, J. W. Sulhoff, and M. A. Ali, "Relaxation oscillations and spectral hole burning in laser automatic gain control of EDFAs," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 6 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1997), paper WF4, pp. 130-131.

N. S. Bergano, C. R. Davidson, M. A. Mills, P. C. Corbett, S. G. Evangelides, B. Pedersen, R. Menges, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, A. K. Srivasta, C. Wolf, and J. Judlins, "Long-haul transmission using optimum channel modulation: a 160 Gb/s(32×5 Gb/s)9300 km demonstration," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 6 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1997), paper PD.16.

Electron. Lett.

I. Joindot and F. Dupre, "Spectral hole burning in silica-based and in fluoride-based optical fibre amplifiers," Electron. Lett. 33, 1239-1204 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.

E. Desurvire, J. L. Zyskind, and J. R. Simpson, "Study of spectral dependence of gain saturation and effect of inhomogeneous broadening in erbium-doped aluminosilicate fiber amplifiers," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 2, 246-248 (1990).
[CrossRef]

E. Rudkevich, D. M. Baney, J. Stimple, D. Derickson, and G. Wang, "Nonresonant spectral-hole burning in erbium-doped fiber amplifier," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 542-544 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Sulhoff, A. K. Srivastava, C. Wolf, Y. Sun, and J. L. Zyskind, "Spectral-hole burning in erbium-doped silica and fluoride fibers," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9, 1578-1579 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys.

D. L. Dexter, "A theory of sensitized luminescence in solids," J. Chem. Phys. 21, 836-850 (1953).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. B

L. Bigot, A. Jurdyc, B. Jacquier, L. Gasca, and D. Bayart, "Resonant fluorescence line narrowing measurements in erbium-doped glasses for optical amplifiers," Phys. Rev. B 66, 214204-1 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other

V. P. Gapontsv and N. S. Platonov, "Migration-accelerated quenching in glasses activated by rare earth ions," in Dynamical Processes in Disordered Systems, Vol. 51 of Material Science Forum (Trans Tech, 1990).

M. Nishihara, Y. Sugaya, and E. Ishikawa, "Characterization and new numerical model of spectral hole burning in broadband erbium-doped fiber amplifier," in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, A.Srivastava and J.Moerk, eds. (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper Tud3.

N. S. Bergano, C. R. Davidson, M. A. Mills, P. C. Corbett, S. G. Evangelides, B. Pedersen, R. Menges, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, A. K. Srivasta, C. Wolf, and J. Judlins, "Long-haul transmission using optimum channel modulation: a 160 Gb/s(32×5 Gb/s)9300 km demonstration," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 6 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1997), paper PD.16.

J. Chung, S. Yong Kim, and C. J. Chae, "Performances of all optical gain-clamped EDFAs with different feedback wavelengths for use in multiwavelength optical networks," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 6 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1997), paper TuE5, pp. 22-24.

G. Luo, J. L. Zyskind, Y. Sun, A. K. Srivastava, J. W. Sulhoff, and M. A. Ali, "Relaxation oscillations and spectral hole burning in laser automatic gain control of EDFAs," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 6 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1997), paper WF4, pp. 130-131.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Absorption spectra of EDF samples with different Er 3 + ion content in the wavelength region from 1420 to 1640 nm .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

GSHB measurement setup at 77 K . TLS, tunable laser source; PS, polarization scrambler; ATT, variable attenuator; OSA, optical spectrum analyzer; WDM, wavelength division multiplexing.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Multigain spectral hole structure in the wavelength region from 1510 to 1640 nm .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) GSHB spectra with various saturating signal wavelength at 77 K for EDF I ( Er 3 + : 130 ppm ) . (b) Relationship between the second hole depth and the saturating signal wavelength for EDF I ( P sat = 0 dBm ) .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Relationships between the main and the second hole widths and the saturating signal wavelength for the case in which the saturating signal power is 0 dBm .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

GSHB spectra for the four EDF samples with different saturating signal powers: P sat = ( a ) 5.3 dBm , (b) 0 dBm .

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Er 3 + ion concentration dependence of the second hole depth at 77 K ( P sat = 5.3 and 0 dBm ).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

GSHB spectra with different saturating signal powers: (a) EDF IV, (b) EDF I.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Relationship between the second hole depth and the saturating signal power for EDF I ( Er 3 + : 130 ppm ) and EDF IV ( Er 3 + : 1600 ppm ) .

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Estimated Stark energy structure of Er 3 + ion in EDF I.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Parameters for Silica-Based EDF Samples

Equations (1)

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Δ gain exp [ ( Δ N 2 j σ e Δ N 1 j σ a ) d z ] ,

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