Abstract

We have studied the temperature scaling laws for the conditions under which a cloud of trapped Rb85 atoms in the σ+σ configuration makes the transition from the temperature-limited regime to the multiple-scattering regime. Our experimental technique for measuring temperature relies on measuring the ballistic expansion of the cloud after turning off the confining forces and imaging the cloud size as a function of time with two CCD cameras. In the transition regime, the temperature T is shown to depend on the number of atoms N and the peak density n as (TTo)N13 and as (TTo)n23, in a manner consistent with theoretical predictions. Here To is defined as the equilibrium temperature of a low-density optical molasses. In the multiple-scattering regime we find that TΩ2(δΓ), where Ω and δ are the Rabi frequency and the detuning of the trapping laser, respectively, and Γ is the natural linewidth of the cycling transition. We have also measured the ratio of temperatures along the axial and radial directions of the magnetic field gradient coils and find that the temperature is isotropic only if the intensities of the three orthogonal trapping beams are equal, and that the ratio is generally independent of trapping laser intensity and magnetic field gradient. Finally we demonstrate a measurement of the gravitational acceleration precise to 0.1% by tracking the center of the cloud during ballistic expansion.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  30. M. Vengalattore, R. S. Conroy, and M. G. Prentiss, "Enhancement of phase space density by increasing trap anisotropy in a magneto-optical trap with a large number of atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 183001 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. M. Weel and A. Kumarakrishnan, "Observation of ground-state Ramsey fringes," Phys. Rev. A 67, 061602(R) (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  32. M. Weel, S. Beattie, I. Chan, E. Rotberg, A. Vorozcovs, and A. Kumarakrishnan, "A precision measurement of atomic recoil using grating echoes," Phys. Rev. Lett., submitted for publication.

2004

S. Cauchi, A. Vorozcovs, M. Weel, S. Beattie, O. Gagnon, and A. Kumarakrishnan, "Absorption spectroscopy of trapped rubidium atoms," Can. J. Phys. 82, 905-916 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Vengalattore, R. S. Conroy, and M. G. Prentiss, "Enhancement of phase space density by increasing trap anisotropy in a magneto-optical trap with a large number of atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 183001 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

M. Weel and A. Kumarakrishnan, "Observation of ground-state Ramsey fringes," Phys. Rev. A 67, 061602(R) (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Spirou, I. Yavin, M. Weel, A. Vorozcovs, A. Kumarakrishnan, P. R. Battle, and R. C. Swanson, "A high-speed-modulated retro-reflector for lasers using an acousto-optic modulator," Can. J. Phys. 81, 625-638 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1998

1997

C. Gabbanini, A. Evangelista, S. Gozzini, A. Lucchesini, A. Fioretti, J. H. Muller, M. Colla, and E. Arimondo, "Scaling laws in magneto-optical traps," Europhys. Lett. 37, 251-256 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

S. Grego, M. Colla, A. Fioretti, J. H. Muller, P. Verkerk, and E. Arimondo, "A cesium magneto-optical trap for cold collisions studies," Opt. Commun. 132, 519-526 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and J. L. Hall, "High precision linewidth measurement of laser-cooled atoms: resolution of the Na3pP3/22 lifetime discrepancy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2866-2869 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995

M. H. Anderson, J. R. Ensher, M. R. Matthews, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, "Observation of Bose-Einstein condensation in a dilute atomic vapor," Science 269, 198-201 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. B. Davis, M. O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, N. J. van Druten, D. S. Durfee, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, "Bose-Einstein condensation in a gas of sodium atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3969-3973 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. G. Townsend, N. H. Edwards, C. J. Cooper, K. P. Zetie, C. J. Foot, A. M. Steane, P. Szriftgiser, H. Perrin, and J. Dalibard, "Phase-space density in the magneto-optical trap," Phys. Rev. A 52, 1423-1440 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Hillenbrand, K. Burnett, and C. Foot, "Effect of scattered radiation on sub-Doppler cooling," Phys. Rev. A 52, 4763-4786 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Castin and K. Molmer, "Monte Carlo wave-function analysis of 3D optical molasses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3772-3775 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

G. Hillenbrand, C. J. Foot, and K. Burnett, "Heating due to long-range photon exchange interactions between cold atoms," Phys. Rev. A 50, 1479-1489 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. D. Wallace, T. P. Dinneen, K. Y. N. Tan, A. Kumarakrishnan, P. L. Gould, and J. Javanainen, "Measurements of temperature and spring constant in a magneto-optical trap," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 703-711 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Drewsen, Ph. Laurent, A. Nadir, G. Santarelli, A. Clairon, Y. Castin, D. Grison, and C. Salomon, "Investigation of sub-Doppler cooling effects in a cesium magneto-optical trap," Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 59, 283-298 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Cooper, G. Hillenbrand, J. Rink, C. G. Townsend, K. Zetie, and C. J. Foot, "The temperature of atoms in a magneto-optical trap," Europhys. Lett. 28, 397-402 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

A. Hope, D. Haubrich, G. Muller, W. G. Kaenders, and D. Meschede, "Neutral cesium atoms in strong magnetic-quadrupole fields at sub-Doppler temperatures," Europhys. Lett. 22, 669-674 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. Gerz, T. W. Hodapp, P. Jessen, K. M. Jones, W. D. Phillips, C. I. Westbrook, and K. Molmer, "The temperature of optical molasses for two different atomic angular momenta," Europhys. Lett. 21, 661-666 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

K. Lindquist, M. Stephens, and C. Wieman, "Experimental and theoretical study of the vapor-cell Zeeman optical trap," Phys. Rev. A 46, 4082-4090 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. E. Gibble, S. Kasapi, and S. Chu, "Improved magneto-optic trapping in a vapor cell," Opt. Lett. 17, 526-528 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991

M. Kasevich and S. Chu, "Atomic interferometry using stimulated Raman transitions," Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 181-184 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Steane and C. J. Foot, "Laser cooling below the Doppler limit in a magneto-optical trap," Europhys. Lett. 14, 231-236 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Sesko, T. J. Walker, and C. E. Wieman, "Behavior of neutral atoms in a spontaneous force trap," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 946-958 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

C. Monroe, W. Swann, H. Robinson, and C. Wieman, "Very cold trapped atoms in a vapor cell," Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1571-1574 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Salomon, J. Dalibard, W. D. Phillips, A. Clairon, and S. Guellatti, "Laser cooling of cesium atoms below 3 µK," Europhys. Lett. 12, 683-688 (1990).
[CrossRef]

T. Walker, D. Sesko, and C. Wieman, "Collective behavior of optically trapped neutral atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 408-411 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989

1987

E. L. Raab, M. Prentiss, A. Cable, S. Chu, and D. E. Pritchard, "Trapping of neutral sodium atoms with radiation pressure," Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2631-2634 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, M. H.

M. H. Anderson, J. R. Ensher, M. R. Matthews, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, "Observation of Bose-Einstein condensation in a dilute atomic vapor," Science 269, 198-201 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andrews, M. R.

K. B. Davis, M. O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, N. J. van Druten, D. S. Durfee, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, "Bose-Einstein condensation in a gas of sodium atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3969-3973 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arimondo, E.

C. Gabbanini, A. Evangelista, S. Gozzini, A. Lucchesini, A. Fioretti, J. H. Muller, M. Colla, and E. Arimondo, "Scaling laws in magneto-optical traps," Europhys. Lett. 37, 251-256 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Grego, M. Colla, A. Fioretti, J. H. Muller, P. Verkerk, and E. Arimondo, "A cesium magneto-optical trap for cold collisions studies," Opt. Commun. 132, 519-526 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Battle, P. R.

G. Spirou, I. Yavin, M. Weel, A. Vorozcovs, A. Kumarakrishnan, P. R. Battle, and R. C. Swanson, "A high-speed-modulated retro-reflector for lasers using an acousto-optic modulator," Can. J. Phys. 81, 625-638 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Beattie, S.

S. Cauchi, A. Vorozcovs, M. Weel, S. Beattie, O. Gagnon, and A. Kumarakrishnan, "Absorption spectroscopy of trapped rubidium atoms," Can. J. Phys. 82, 905-916 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Weel, S. Beattie, I. Chan, E. Rotberg, A. Vorozcovs, and A. Kumarakrishnan, "A precision measurement of atomic recoil using grating echoes," Phys. Rev. Lett., submitted for publication.

Burnett, K.

G. Hillenbrand, K. Burnett, and C. Foot, "Effect of scattered radiation on sub-Doppler cooling," Phys. Rev. A 52, 4763-4786 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Hillenbrand, C. J. Foot, and K. Burnett, "Heating due to long-range photon exchange interactions between cold atoms," Phys. Rev. A 50, 1479-1489 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cable, A.

E. L. Raab, M. Prentiss, A. Cable, S. Chu, and D. E. Pritchard, "Trapping of neutral sodium atoms with radiation pressure," Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2631-2634 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Castin, Y.

Y. Castin and K. Molmer, "Monte Carlo wave-function analysis of 3D optical molasses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3772-3775 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Drewsen, Ph. Laurent, A. Nadir, G. Santarelli, A. Clairon, Y. Castin, D. Grison, and C. Salomon, "Investigation of sub-Doppler cooling effects in a cesium magneto-optical trap," Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 59, 283-298 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Cauchi, S.

S. Cauchi, A. Vorozcovs, M. Weel, S. Beattie, O. Gagnon, and A. Kumarakrishnan, "Absorption spectroscopy of trapped rubidium atoms," Can. J. Phys. 82, 905-916 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chan, I.

M. Weel, S. Beattie, I. Chan, E. Rotberg, A. Vorozcovs, and A. Kumarakrishnan, "A precision measurement of atomic recoil using grating echoes," Phys. Rev. Lett., submitted for publication.

Chu, S.

K. E. Gibble, S. Kasapi, and S. Chu, "Improved magneto-optic trapping in a vapor cell," Opt. Lett. 17, 526-528 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kasevich and S. Chu, "Atomic interferometry using stimulated Raman transitions," Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 181-184 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Weiss, E. Riis, Y. Shevy, P. J. Ungar, and S. Chu, "Optical molasses and multilevel atoms: experiment," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 2072-2083 (1989).
[CrossRef]

E. L. Raab, M. Prentiss, A. Cable, S. Chu, and D. E. Pritchard, "Trapping of neutral sodium atoms with radiation pressure," Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2631-2634 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clairon, A.

M. Drewsen, Ph. Laurent, A. Nadir, G. Santarelli, A. Clairon, Y. Castin, D. Grison, and C. Salomon, "Investigation of sub-Doppler cooling effects in a cesium magneto-optical trap," Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 59, 283-298 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. Salomon, J. Dalibard, W. D. Phillips, A. Clairon, and S. Guellatti, "Laser cooling of cesium atoms below 3 µK," Europhys. Lett. 12, 683-688 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Cohen-Tannoudji, C.

Colla, M.

C. Gabbanini, A. Evangelista, S. Gozzini, A. Lucchesini, A. Fioretti, J. H. Muller, M. Colla, and E. Arimondo, "Scaling laws in magneto-optical traps," Europhys. Lett. 37, 251-256 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Grego, M. Colla, A. Fioretti, J. H. Muller, P. Verkerk, and E. Arimondo, "A cesium magneto-optical trap for cold collisions studies," Opt. Commun. 132, 519-526 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Conroy, R. S.

M. Vengalattore, R. S. Conroy, and M. G. Prentiss, "Enhancement of phase space density by increasing trap anisotropy in a magneto-optical trap with a large number of atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 183001 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cooper, C. J.

C. G. Townsend, N. H. Edwards, C. J. Cooper, K. P. Zetie, C. J. Foot, A. M. Steane, P. Szriftgiser, H. Perrin, and J. Dalibard, "Phase-space density in the magneto-optical trap," Phys. Rev. A 52, 1423-1440 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. Cooper, G. Hillenbrand, J. Rink, C. G. Townsend, K. Zetie, and C. J. Foot, "The temperature of atoms in a magneto-optical trap," Europhys. Lett. 28, 397-402 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Cornell, E. A.

M. H. Anderson, J. R. Ensher, M. R. Matthews, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, "Observation of Bose-Einstein condensation in a dilute atomic vapor," Science 269, 198-201 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dalibard, J.

C. G. Townsend, N. H. Edwards, C. J. Cooper, K. P. Zetie, C. J. Foot, A. M. Steane, P. Szriftgiser, H. Perrin, and J. Dalibard, "Phase-space density in the magneto-optical trap," Phys. Rev. A 52, 1423-1440 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Salomon, J. Dalibard, W. D. Phillips, A. Clairon, and S. Guellatti, "Laser cooling of cesium atoms below 3 µK," Europhys. Lett. 12, 683-688 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Dalibard and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, "Laser cooling below the Doppler limit by polarization gradients: simple theoretical models," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 2023-2045 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Dalibard, Jean

Davis, K. B.

K. B. Davis, M. O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, N. J. van Druten, D. S. Durfee, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, "Bose-Einstein condensation in a gas of sodium atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3969-3973 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Desbiolles, P.

Dinneen, T. P.

Drewsen, M.

M. Drewsen, Ph. Laurent, A. Nadir, G. Santarelli, A. Clairon, Y. Castin, D. Grison, and C. Salomon, "Investigation of sub-Doppler cooling effects in a cesium magneto-optical trap," Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 59, 283-298 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Durfee, D. S.

K. B. Davis, M. O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, N. J. van Druten, D. S. Durfee, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, "Bose-Einstein condensation in a gas of sodium atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3969-3973 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Edwards, N. H.

C. G. Townsend, N. H. Edwards, C. J. Cooper, K. P. Zetie, C. J. Foot, A. M. Steane, P. Szriftgiser, H. Perrin, and J. Dalibard, "Phase-space density in the magneto-optical trap," Phys. Rev. A 52, 1423-1440 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ensher, J. R.

M. H. Anderson, J. R. Ensher, M. R. Matthews, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, "Observation of Bose-Einstein condensation in a dilute atomic vapor," Science 269, 198-201 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Evangelista, A.

C. Gabbanini, A. Evangelista, S. Gozzini, A. Lucchesini, A. Fioretti, J. H. Muller, M. Colla, and E. Arimondo, "Scaling laws in magneto-optical traps," Europhys. Lett. 37, 251-256 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fioretti, A.

C. Gabbanini, A. Evangelista, S. Gozzini, A. Lucchesini, A. Fioretti, J. H. Muller, M. Colla, and E. Arimondo, "Scaling laws in magneto-optical traps," Europhys. Lett. 37, 251-256 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Grego, M. Colla, A. Fioretti, J. H. Muller, P. Verkerk, and E. Arimondo, "A cesium magneto-optical trap for cold collisions studies," Opt. Commun. 132, 519-526 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Foot, C.

G. Hillenbrand, K. Burnett, and C. Foot, "Effect of scattered radiation on sub-Doppler cooling," Phys. Rev. A 52, 4763-4786 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Foot, C. J.

C. G. Townsend, N. H. Edwards, C. J. Cooper, K. P. Zetie, C. J. Foot, A. M. Steane, P. Szriftgiser, H. Perrin, and J. Dalibard, "Phase-space density in the magneto-optical trap," Phys. Rev. A 52, 1423-1440 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Hillenbrand, C. J. Foot, and K. Burnett, "Heating due to long-range photon exchange interactions between cold atoms," Phys. Rev. A 50, 1479-1489 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. Cooper, G. Hillenbrand, J. Rink, C. G. Townsend, K. Zetie, and C. J. Foot, "The temperature of atoms in a magneto-optical trap," Europhys. Lett. 28, 397-402 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Steane and C. J. Foot, "Laser cooling below the Doppler limit in a magneto-optical trap," Europhys. Lett. 14, 231-236 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Gabbanini, C.

C. Gabbanini, A. Evangelista, S. Gozzini, A. Lucchesini, A. Fioretti, J. H. Muller, M. Colla, and E. Arimondo, "Scaling laws in magneto-optical traps," Europhys. Lett. 37, 251-256 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gagnon, O.

S. Cauchi, A. Vorozcovs, M. Weel, S. Beattie, O. Gagnon, and A. Kumarakrishnan, "Absorption spectroscopy of trapped rubidium atoms," Can. J. Phys. 82, 905-916 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gerz, C.

C. Gerz, T. W. Hodapp, P. Jessen, K. M. Jones, W. D. Phillips, C. I. Westbrook, and K. Molmer, "The temperature of optical molasses for two different atomic angular momenta," Europhys. Lett. 21, 661-666 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gibble, K. E.

Gould, P. L.

Gozzini, S.

C. Gabbanini, A. Evangelista, S. Gozzini, A. Lucchesini, A. Fioretti, J. H. Muller, M. Colla, and E. Arimondo, "Scaling laws in magneto-optical traps," Europhys. Lett. 37, 251-256 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Grego, S.

S. Grego, M. Colla, A. Fioretti, J. H. Muller, P. Verkerk, and E. Arimondo, "A cesium magneto-optical trap for cold collisions studies," Opt. Commun. 132, 519-526 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Grison, D.

M. Drewsen, Ph. Laurent, A. Nadir, G. Santarelli, A. Clairon, Y. Castin, D. Grison, and C. Salomon, "Investigation of sub-Doppler cooling effects in a cesium magneto-optical trap," Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 59, 283-298 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Guellatti, S.

C. Salomon, J. Dalibard, W. D. Phillips, A. Clairon, and S. Guellatti, "Laser cooling of cesium atoms below 3 µK," Europhys. Lett. 12, 683-688 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Guery-Odelin, D.

Hall, J. L.

C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and J. L. Hall, "High precision linewidth measurement of laser-cooled atoms: resolution of the Na3pP3/22 lifetime discrepancy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2866-2869 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haubrich, D.

A. Hope, D. Haubrich, G. Muller, W. G. Kaenders, and D. Meschede, "Neutral cesium atoms in strong magnetic-quadrupole fields at sub-Doppler temperatures," Europhys. Lett. 22, 669-674 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hillenbrand, G.

G. Hillenbrand, K. Burnett, and C. Foot, "Effect of scattered radiation on sub-Doppler cooling," Phys. Rev. A 52, 4763-4786 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Hillenbrand, C. J. Foot, and K. Burnett, "Heating due to long-range photon exchange interactions between cold atoms," Phys. Rev. A 50, 1479-1489 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. Cooper, G. Hillenbrand, J. Rink, C. G. Townsend, K. Zetie, and C. J. Foot, "The temperature of atoms in a magneto-optical trap," Europhys. Lett. 28, 397-402 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hodapp, T. W.

C. Gerz, T. W. Hodapp, P. Jessen, K. M. Jones, W. D. Phillips, C. I. Westbrook, and K. Molmer, "The temperature of optical molasses for two different atomic angular momenta," Europhys. Lett. 21, 661-666 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hope, A.

A. Hope, D. Haubrich, G. Muller, W. G. Kaenders, and D. Meschede, "Neutral cesium atoms in strong magnetic-quadrupole fields at sub-Doppler temperatures," Europhys. Lett. 22, 669-674 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Javanainen, J.

Jessen, P.

C. Gerz, T. W. Hodapp, P. Jessen, K. M. Jones, W. D. Phillips, C. I. Westbrook, and K. Molmer, "The temperature of optical molasses for two different atomic angular momenta," Europhys. Lett. 21, 661-666 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jones, K. M.

C. Gerz, T. W. Hodapp, P. Jessen, K. M. Jones, W. D. Phillips, C. I. Westbrook, and K. Molmer, "The temperature of optical molasses for two different atomic angular momenta," Europhys. Lett. 21, 661-666 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kaenders, W. G.

A. Hope, D. Haubrich, G. Muller, W. G. Kaenders, and D. Meschede, "Neutral cesium atoms in strong magnetic-quadrupole fields at sub-Doppler temperatures," Europhys. Lett. 22, 669-674 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kasapi, S.

Kasevich, M.

M. Kasevich and S. Chu, "Atomic interferometry using stimulated Raman transitions," Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 181-184 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ketterle, W.

K. B. Davis, M. O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, N. J. van Druten, D. S. Durfee, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, "Bose-Einstein condensation in a gas of sodium atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3969-3973 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kumarakrishnan, A.

S. Cauchi, A. Vorozcovs, M. Weel, S. Beattie, O. Gagnon, and A. Kumarakrishnan, "Absorption spectroscopy of trapped rubidium atoms," Can. J. Phys. 82, 905-916 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Weel and A. Kumarakrishnan, "Observation of ground-state Ramsey fringes," Phys. Rev. A 67, 061602(R) (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Spirou, I. Yavin, M. Weel, A. Vorozcovs, A. Kumarakrishnan, P. R. Battle, and R. C. Swanson, "A high-speed-modulated retro-reflector for lasers using an acousto-optic modulator," Can. J. Phys. 81, 625-638 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Wallace, T. P. Dinneen, K. Y. N. Tan, A. Kumarakrishnan, P. L. Gould, and J. Javanainen, "Measurements of temperature and spring constant in a magneto-optical trap," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 703-711 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Weel, S. Beattie, I. Chan, E. Rotberg, A. Vorozcovs, and A. Kumarakrishnan, "A precision measurement of atomic recoil using grating echoes," Phys. Rev. Lett., submitted for publication.

Kurn, D. M.

K. B. Davis, M. O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, N. J. van Druten, D. S. Durfee, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, "Bose-Einstein condensation in a gas of sodium atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3969-3973 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laurent, Ph.

M. Drewsen, Ph. Laurent, A. Nadir, G. Santarelli, A. Clairon, Y. Castin, D. Grison, and C. Salomon, "Investigation of sub-Doppler cooling effects in a cesium magneto-optical trap," Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 59, 283-298 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lett, P. D.

Lindquist, K.

K. Lindquist, M. Stephens, and C. Wieman, "Experimental and theoretical study of the vapor-cell Zeeman optical trap," Phys. Rev. A 46, 4082-4090 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lucchesini, A.

C. Gabbanini, A. Evangelista, S. Gozzini, A. Lucchesini, A. Fioretti, J. H. Muller, M. Colla, and E. Arimondo, "Scaling laws in magneto-optical traps," Europhys. Lett. 37, 251-256 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Matthews, M. R.

M. H. Anderson, J. R. Ensher, M. R. Matthews, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, "Observation of Bose-Einstein condensation in a dilute atomic vapor," Science 269, 198-201 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meschede, D.

A. Hope, D. Haubrich, G. Muller, W. G. Kaenders, and D. Meschede, "Neutral cesium atoms in strong magnetic-quadrupole fields at sub-Doppler temperatures," Europhys. Lett. 22, 669-674 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mewes, M. O.

K. B. Davis, M. O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, N. J. van Druten, D. S. Durfee, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, "Bose-Einstein condensation in a gas of sodium atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3969-3973 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Molmer, K.

Y. Castin and K. Molmer, "Monte Carlo wave-function analysis of 3D optical molasses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3772-3775 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Gerz, T. W. Hodapp, P. Jessen, K. M. Jones, W. D. Phillips, C. I. Westbrook, and K. Molmer, "The temperature of optical molasses for two different atomic angular momenta," Europhys. Lett. 21, 661-666 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Monroe, C.

C. Monroe, W. Swann, H. Robinson, and C. Wieman, "Very cold trapped atoms in a vapor cell," Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1571-1574 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Muller, G.

A. Hope, D. Haubrich, G. Muller, W. G. Kaenders, and D. Meschede, "Neutral cesium atoms in strong magnetic-quadrupole fields at sub-Doppler temperatures," Europhys. Lett. 22, 669-674 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Muller, J. H.

C. Gabbanini, A. Evangelista, S. Gozzini, A. Lucchesini, A. Fioretti, J. H. Muller, M. Colla, and E. Arimondo, "Scaling laws in magneto-optical traps," Europhys. Lett. 37, 251-256 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Grego, M. Colla, A. Fioretti, J. H. Muller, P. Verkerk, and E. Arimondo, "A cesium magneto-optical trap for cold collisions studies," Opt. Commun. 132, 519-526 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nadir, A.

M. Drewsen, Ph. Laurent, A. Nadir, G. Santarelli, A. Clairon, Y. Castin, D. Grison, and C. Salomon, "Investigation of sub-Doppler cooling effects in a cesium magneto-optical trap," Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 59, 283-298 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Oates, C. W.

C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and J. L. Hall, "High precision linewidth measurement of laser-cooled atoms: resolution of the Na3pP3/22 lifetime discrepancy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2866-2869 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perrin, H.

C. G. Townsend, N. H. Edwards, C. J. Cooper, K. P. Zetie, C. J. Foot, A. M. Steane, P. Szriftgiser, H. Perrin, and J. Dalibard, "Phase-space density in the magneto-optical trap," Phys. Rev. A 52, 1423-1440 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phillips, W. D.

C. Gerz, T. W. Hodapp, P. Jessen, K. M. Jones, W. D. Phillips, C. I. Westbrook, and K. Molmer, "The temperature of optical molasses for two different atomic angular momenta," Europhys. Lett. 21, 661-666 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. Salomon, J. Dalibard, W. D. Phillips, A. Clairon, and S. Guellatti, "Laser cooling of cesium atoms below 3 µK," Europhys. Lett. 12, 683-688 (1990).
[CrossRef]

P. D. Lett, W. D. Phillips, S. L. Rolston, C. E. Tanner, R. N. Watts, and C. I. Westbrook, "Optical molasses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 2084-2107 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Prentiss, M.

E. L. Raab, M. Prentiss, A. Cable, S. Chu, and D. E. Pritchard, "Trapping of neutral sodium atoms with radiation pressure," Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2631-2634 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prentiss, M. G.

M. Vengalattore, R. S. Conroy, and M. G. Prentiss, "Enhancement of phase space density by increasing trap anisotropy in a magneto-optical trap with a large number of atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 183001 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pritchard, D. E.

E. L. Raab, M. Prentiss, A. Cable, S. Chu, and D. E. Pritchard, "Trapping of neutral sodium atoms with radiation pressure," Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2631-2634 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raab, E. L.

E. L. Raab, M. Prentiss, A. Cable, S. Chu, and D. E. Pritchard, "Trapping of neutral sodium atoms with radiation pressure," Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2631-2634 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Riis, E.

Rink, J.

C. J. Cooper, G. Hillenbrand, J. Rink, C. G. Townsend, K. Zetie, and C. J. Foot, "The temperature of atoms in a magneto-optical trap," Europhys. Lett. 28, 397-402 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, H.

C. Monroe, W. Swann, H. Robinson, and C. Wieman, "Very cold trapped atoms in a vapor cell," Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1571-1574 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rolston, S. L.

Rotberg, E.

M. Weel, S. Beattie, I. Chan, E. Rotberg, A. Vorozcovs, and A. Kumarakrishnan, "A precision measurement of atomic recoil using grating echoes," Phys. Rev. Lett., submitted for publication.

Salomon, C.

M. Drewsen, Ph. Laurent, A. Nadir, G. Santarelli, A. Clairon, Y. Castin, D. Grison, and C. Salomon, "Investigation of sub-Doppler cooling effects in a cesium magneto-optical trap," Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 59, 283-298 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. Salomon, J. Dalibard, W. D. Phillips, A. Clairon, and S. Guellatti, "Laser cooling of cesium atoms below 3 µK," Europhys. Lett. 12, 683-688 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Santarelli, G.

M. Drewsen, Ph. Laurent, A. Nadir, G. Santarelli, A. Clairon, Y. Castin, D. Grison, and C. Salomon, "Investigation of sub-Doppler cooling effects in a cesium magneto-optical trap," Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 59, 283-298 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sesko, D.

T. Walker, D. Sesko, and C. Wieman, "Collective behavior of optically trapped neutral atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 408-411 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sesko, D. W.

Shevy, Y.

Soeding, J.

Spirou, G.

G. Spirou, I. Yavin, M. Weel, A. Vorozcovs, A. Kumarakrishnan, P. R. Battle, and R. C. Swanson, "A high-speed-modulated retro-reflector for lasers using an acousto-optic modulator," Can. J. Phys. 81, 625-638 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Steane, A. M.

C. G. Townsend, N. H. Edwards, C. J. Cooper, K. P. Zetie, C. J. Foot, A. M. Steane, P. Szriftgiser, H. Perrin, and J. Dalibard, "Phase-space density in the magneto-optical trap," Phys. Rev. A 52, 1423-1440 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Steane and C. J. Foot, "Laser cooling below the Doppler limit in a magneto-optical trap," Europhys. Lett. 14, 231-236 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Stephens, M.

K. Lindquist, M. Stephens, and C. Wieman, "Experimental and theoretical study of the vapor-cell Zeeman optical trap," Phys. Rev. A 46, 4082-4090 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swann, W.

C. Monroe, W. Swann, H. Robinson, and C. Wieman, "Very cold trapped atoms in a vapor cell," Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1571-1574 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, R. C.

G. Spirou, I. Yavin, M. Weel, A. Vorozcovs, A. Kumarakrishnan, P. R. Battle, and R. C. Swanson, "A high-speed-modulated retro-reflector for lasers using an acousto-optic modulator," Can. J. Phys. 81, 625-638 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Szriftgiser, P.

C. G. Townsend, N. H. Edwards, C. J. Cooper, K. P. Zetie, C. J. Foot, A. M. Steane, P. Szriftgiser, H. Perrin, and J. Dalibard, "Phase-space density in the magneto-optical trap," Phys. Rev. A 52, 1423-1440 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tan, K. Y. N.

Tanner, C. E.

Townsend, C. G.

C. G. Townsend, N. H. Edwards, C. J. Cooper, K. P. Zetie, C. J. Foot, A. M. Steane, P. Szriftgiser, H. Perrin, and J. Dalibard, "Phase-space density in the magneto-optical trap," Phys. Rev. A 52, 1423-1440 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. Cooper, G. Hillenbrand, J. Rink, C. G. Townsend, K. Zetie, and C. J. Foot, "The temperature of atoms in a magneto-optical trap," Europhys. Lett. 28, 397-402 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ungar, P. J.

van Druten, N. J.

K. B. Davis, M. O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, N. J. van Druten, D. S. Durfee, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, "Bose-Einstein condensation in a gas of sodium atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3969-3973 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vengalattore, M.

M. Vengalattore, R. S. Conroy, and M. G. Prentiss, "Enhancement of phase space density by increasing trap anisotropy in a magneto-optical trap with a large number of atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 183001 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Verkerk, P.

S. Grego, M. Colla, A. Fioretti, J. H. Muller, P. Verkerk, and E. Arimondo, "A cesium magneto-optical trap for cold collisions studies," Opt. Commun. 132, 519-526 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Vogel, K. R.

C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and J. L. Hall, "High precision linewidth measurement of laser-cooled atoms: resolution of the Na3pP3/22 lifetime discrepancy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2866-2869 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vorozcovs, A.

S. Cauchi, A. Vorozcovs, M. Weel, S. Beattie, O. Gagnon, and A. Kumarakrishnan, "Absorption spectroscopy of trapped rubidium atoms," Can. J. Phys. 82, 905-916 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Spirou, I. Yavin, M. Weel, A. Vorozcovs, A. Kumarakrishnan, P. R. Battle, and R. C. Swanson, "A high-speed-modulated retro-reflector for lasers using an acousto-optic modulator," Can. J. Phys. 81, 625-638 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Weel, S. Beattie, I. Chan, E. Rotberg, A. Vorozcovs, and A. Kumarakrishnan, "A precision measurement of atomic recoil using grating echoes," Phys. Rev. Lett., submitted for publication.

Walker, T.

T. Walker, D. Sesko, and C. Wieman, "Collective behavior of optically trapped neutral atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 408-411 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walker, T. J.

Wallace, C. D.

Watts, R. N.

Weel, M.

S. Cauchi, A. Vorozcovs, M. Weel, S. Beattie, O. Gagnon, and A. Kumarakrishnan, "Absorption spectroscopy of trapped rubidium atoms," Can. J. Phys. 82, 905-916 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Weel and A. Kumarakrishnan, "Observation of ground-state Ramsey fringes," Phys. Rev. A 67, 061602(R) (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Spirou, I. Yavin, M. Weel, A. Vorozcovs, A. Kumarakrishnan, P. R. Battle, and R. C. Swanson, "A high-speed-modulated retro-reflector for lasers using an acousto-optic modulator," Can. J. Phys. 81, 625-638 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Weel, S. Beattie, I. Chan, E. Rotberg, A. Vorozcovs, and A. Kumarakrishnan, "A precision measurement of atomic recoil using grating echoes," Phys. Rev. Lett., submitted for publication.

Weiss, D. S.

Westbrook, C. I.

C. Gerz, T. W. Hodapp, P. Jessen, K. M. Jones, W. D. Phillips, C. I. Westbrook, and K. Molmer, "The temperature of optical molasses for two different atomic angular momenta," Europhys. Lett. 21, 661-666 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. D. Lett, W. D. Phillips, S. L. Rolston, C. E. Tanner, R. N. Watts, and C. I. Westbrook, "Optical molasses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 2084-2107 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Wieman, C.

K. Lindquist, M. Stephens, and C. Wieman, "Experimental and theoretical study of the vapor-cell Zeeman optical trap," Phys. Rev. A 46, 4082-4090 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Walker, D. Sesko, and C. Wieman, "Collective behavior of optically trapped neutral atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 408-411 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Monroe, W. Swann, H. Robinson, and C. Wieman, "Very cold trapped atoms in a vapor cell," Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1571-1574 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wieman, C. E.

M. H. Anderson, J. R. Ensher, M. R. Matthews, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, "Observation of Bose-Einstein condensation in a dilute atomic vapor," Science 269, 198-201 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. W. Sesko, T. J. Walker, and C. E. Wieman, "Behavior of neutral atoms in a spontaneous force trap," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 946-958 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Yavin, I.

G. Spirou, I. Yavin, M. Weel, A. Vorozcovs, A. Kumarakrishnan, P. R. Battle, and R. C. Swanson, "A high-speed-modulated retro-reflector for lasers using an acousto-optic modulator," Can. J. Phys. 81, 625-638 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zetie, K.

C. J. Cooper, G. Hillenbrand, J. Rink, C. G. Townsend, K. Zetie, and C. J. Foot, "The temperature of atoms in a magneto-optical trap," Europhys. Lett. 28, 397-402 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Zetie, K. P.

C. G. Townsend, N. H. Edwards, C. J. Cooper, K. P. Zetie, C. J. Foot, A. M. Steane, P. Szriftgiser, H. Perrin, and J. Dalibard, "Phase-space density in the magneto-optical trap," Phys. Rev. A 52, 1423-1440 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt.

M. Drewsen, Ph. Laurent, A. Nadir, G. Santarelli, A. Clairon, Y. Castin, D. Grison, and C. Salomon, "Investigation of sub-Doppler cooling effects in a cesium magneto-optical trap," Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 59, 283-298 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Can. J. Phys.

G. Spirou, I. Yavin, M. Weel, A. Vorozcovs, A. Kumarakrishnan, P. R. Battle, and R. C. Swanson, "A high-speed-modulated retro-reflector for lasers using an acousto-optic modulator," Can. J. Phys. 81, 625-638 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Cauchi, A. Vorozcovs, M. Weel, S. Beattie, O. Gagnon, and A. Kumarakrishnan, "Absorption spectroscopy of trapped rubidium atoms," Can. J. Phys. 82, 905-916 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Europhys. Lett.

C. Gabbanini, A. Evangelista, S. Gozzini, A. Lucchesini, A. Fioretti, J. H. Muller, M. Colla, and E. Arimondo, "Scaling laws in magneto-optical traps," Europhys. Lett. 37, 251-256 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Gerz, T. W. Hodapp, P. Jessen, K. M. Jones, W. D. Phillips, C. I. Westbrook, and K. Molmer, "The temperature of optical molasses for two different atomic angular momenta," Europhys. Lett. 21, 661-666 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Cooper, G. Hillenbrand, J. Rink, C. G. Townsend, K. Zetie, and C. J. Foot, "The temperature of atoms in a magneto-optical trap," Europhys. Lett. 28, 397-402 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. Salomon, J. Dalibard, W. D. Phillips, A. Clairon, and S. Guellatti, "Laser cooling of cesium atoms below 3 µK," Europhys. Lett. 12, 683-688 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Steane and C. J. Foot, "Laser cooling below the Doppler limit in a magneto-optical trap," Europhys. Lett. 14, 231-236 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. Hope, D. Haubrich, G. Muller, W. G. Kaenders, and D. Meschede, "Neutral cesium atoms in strong magnetic-quadrupole fields at sub-Doppler temperatures," Europhys. Lett. 22, 669-674 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Commun.

S. Grego, M. Colla, A. Fioretti, J. H. Muller, P. Verkerk, and E. Arimondo, "A cesium magneto-optical trap for cold collisions studies," Opt. Commun. 132, 519-526 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

C. G. Townsend, N. H. Edwards, C. J. Cooper, K. P. Zetie, C. J. Foot, A. M. Steane, P. Szriftgiser, H. Perrin, and J. Dalibard, "Phase-space density in the magneto-optical trap," Phys. Rev. A 52, 1423-1440 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Hillenbrand, C. J. Foot, and K. Burnett, "Heating due to long-range photon exchange interactions between cold atoms," Phys. Rev. A 50, 1479-1489 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Hillenbrand, K. Burnett, and C. Foot, "Effect of scattered radiation on sub-Doppler cooling," Phys. Rev. A 52, 4763-4786 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Lindquist, M. Stephens, and C. Wieman, "Experimental and theoretical study of the vapor-cell Zeeman optical trap," Phys. Rev. A 46, 4082-4090 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Weel and A. Kumarakrishnan, "Observation of ground-state Ramsey fringes," Phys. Rev. A 67, 061602(R) (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

M. Vengalattore, R. S. Conroy, and M. G. Prentiss, "Enhancement of phase space density by increasing trap anisotropy in a magneto-optical trap with a large number of atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 183001 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Castin and K. Molmer, "Monte Carlo wave-function analysis of 3D optical molasses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3772-3775 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. L. Raab, M. Prentiss, A. Cable, S. Chu, and D. E. Pritchard, "Trapping of neutral sodium atoms with radiation pressure," Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2631-2634 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Monroe, W. Swann, H. Robinson, and C. Wieman, "Very cold trapped atoms in a vapor cell," Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1571-1574 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kasevich and S. Chu, "Atomic interferometry using stimulated Raman transitions," Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 181-184 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and J. L. Hall, "High precision linewidth measurement of laser-cooled atoms: resolution of the Na3pP3/22 lifetime discrepancy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2866-2869 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Walker, D. Sesko, and C. Wieman, "Collective behavior of optically trapped neutral atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 408-411 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. B. Davis, M. O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, N. J. van Druten, D. S. Durfee, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, "Bose-Einstein condensation in a gas of sodium atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3969-3973 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

M. H. Anderson, J. R. Ensher, M. R. Matthews, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, "Observation of Bose-Einstein condensation in a dilute atomic vapor," Science 269, 198-201 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

M. Weel, S. Beattie, I. Chan, E. Rotberg, A. Vorozcovs, and A. Kumarakrishnan, "A precision measurement of atomic recoil using grating echoes," Phys. Rev. Lett., submitted for publication.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of experimental setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

CCD camera timing diagram.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Cloud radius [given by Eq. (2)] as a function of time; T = 121 ± 0.9 μ K , R Z 0 = ( 9.2 ± 0.2 ) × 10 3 m , I = 60 mW cm 2 , δ = 2.0 Γ , B z = 1 G cm .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Peak density n and (b) trap volume V versus number of atoms N.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Temperature versus field gradient; δ = 4.0 Γ .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Cloud radius as a function of N 1 3 for a range of field gradients; δ = 4.0 Γ .

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Temperature versus laser intensity, (b) light-shift parameter for a range of laser detunings, (c) coefficient C σ + σ versus laser detuning δ; B z = 2.5 G cm for our experiments and 10 G cm for the data in Ref. [15]; I sat = 3.24 mW cm 2 .

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Temperature versus N 1 3 ; B z = 10 G cm , I = 60 mW cm 2 .

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Temperature T versus n 2 3 ; B z = 10 G cm , I = 60 mW cm 2 .

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(a) Ratio of radial to axial temperatures versus laser intensity for a variety of field gradients; (b) cloud radius, (c) temperature as a function of I axial I radial with δ = 2.0 Γ , I = 60 mW cm 2 , B z = 10 G cm .

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Gravity measurement showing the position of cloud center as a function of time; z 0 = 4.51 × 10 4 m , g eff = 9.870 ± 0.038 m s 2 , I = 60 mW cm 2 , δ = 2.0 Γ , B z = 1.0 G cm .

Equations (2)

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k B T Γ = ( C σ + σ ) Ω 2 δ Γ + C 0 ,
R Z ( t ) = [ R Z 0 2 + ( v 0 t ) 2 ] 1 2 .

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