Abstract

Second-harmonic generation (SHG) in magnetically ordered crystals is reviewed. The symmetry of such crystals is determined by the arrangement of both the charges and the spins, so their contributions to the crystallographic and the magnetic structures, respectively, must be distinguished. Magnetic SHG is introduced as a probe for magnetic structures and sublattice interactions. The specific degrees of optical experiments—including spectral, spatial, and temporal resolution—lead to the observation of novel physical effects that cannot be revealed by other techniques of probing magnetism. These include local or hidden phase transitions, interacting magnetized and polarized sublattices and domain walls, and magnetic interfaces. SHG in various centrosymmetric and noncentrosymmetric crystal classes of antiferromagnetic oxides such as Cr2O3, hexagonal RMnO3 (R=Sc, Y, In, Ho-Lu), magnetic garnet films, CuB2O4, CoO, and NiO, is discussed.

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Th. Lonkai, U. Amman, J. Ihringer, D. G. Tomuta, R. W. A. Hendrikx, D. M. Többens, and J. A. Mydosh, "Development of the high-temperature phase of hexagonal manganites," Phys. Rev. B 69, 134108/1-10 (2004).
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B. B. Van Aken, T. T. M. Palstra, A. Filippetti, and N. A. Spaldin, "Origin of ferroelectricity in magnetoelectric YMnO3," Nature Mater. 3, 164-170 (2004).
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Th. Lottermoser, Th. Lonkai, U. Amann, D. Hohlwein, J. Ihringer, and M. Fiebig, "Magnetic phase control by an electric field," Nature (London) 430, 541-544 (2004).
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H. Nakamura, Y. Fujii, H. Kikuchi, and M. Chiba, "11B-NMR in soliton lattice system CuB2O4," J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 272-276, 1007-1008 (2004).
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R. Gómez-Abal, O. Ney, K. Satitkovitchai, and W. Hübner, "All-optical subpicosecond magnetic switching in NiO(001)," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 227402 (2004).
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R. V. Pisarev, I. Sänger, G. A. Petrakovskii, and M. Fiebig, "Magnetic-field induced second harmonic generation in CuB2O4," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 037204/1-4 (2004).
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Y. Ogawa, Y. Kaneko, J. P. He, X. Z. Yu, T. Arima, and Y. Tokura, "Magnetization-induced second harmonic generation in a polar ferromagnet," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 047401/1-4 (2004).
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M. Fiebig, D. Fröhlich, T. Lottermoser, and S. Kallenbach, "Phase-resolved second-harmonic imaging with non-ideal laser sources," Opt. Lett. 29, 41-43 (2004).
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2003 (8)

M. Fiebig, Th. Lottermoser, and R. V. Pisarev, "Spin-rotation phenomena and magnetic phase diagrams of hexagonal RMnO3," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 8194-8196 (2003).
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M. Fiebig, Th. Lottermoser, V. V. Pavlov, and R. V. Pisarev, "Magnetic second harmonic generation in centrosymmetric CoO, NiO, and KNiF3," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 6900-6902 (2003).
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M. Fiebig, D. Fröhlich, Th. Lottermoser, V. V. Pavlov, R. V. Pisarev, and H.-J. Weber, "Second harmonic generation of magnetic-dipole type in the centrosymmetric antiferromagnets NiO and KNiF3," J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 258-259, 110-113 (2003).
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A. B. Souchkov, J. R. Simpson, M. Quijada, H. Ishibashi, N. Hur, J. S. Ahn, S. W. Cheong, A. J. Millis, and H. D. Drewl, "Exchange interaction effects on the optical properties of LuMnO3," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 027203/1-4 (2003).
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A. M. Kalashnikova and R. V. Pisarev, "Electronic structure of hexagonal rare-earth manganites RMnO3," JETP Lett. 78, 143-147 (2003).
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A. V. Goltsev, R. V. Pisarev, Th. Lottermoser, and M. Fiebig, "Structure and interaction of antiferromagnetic domain walls in hexagonal YMnO3," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 177204/1-4 (2003).
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V. V. Pavlov, R. V. Pisarev, M. Fiebig, and D. Fröhlich, "Optical harmonic generation in magnetic garnet epitaxial films near the fundamental absorption edge," Phys. Solid State 45, 662-669 (2003).
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A. A. Fedyanin, T. Yoshida, K. Nishimura, G. Marowsky, M. Inoue, and O. A. Aktsipetrov, "Nonlinear magneto-optical Kerr effect in gyrotropic photonic band gap structures: magneto-photonic microcavities," J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 258-259, 96-98 (2003).
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2002 (12)

A. N. Bogdanov, U. K. Rößler, M. Wolf, and K. H. Müller, "Magnetic structures and reorientation transitions in noncentrosymmetric uniaxial antiferromagnets," Phys. Rev. B 66, 214410/1-16 (2002).
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V. V. Pavlov, R. V. Pisarev, M. Fiebig, and D. Fröhlich, "Nonlinear optical spectroscopy of epitaxial magnetic garnet films," Low Temp. Phys. 28, 523-527 (2002).
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V. V. Pavlov, R. V. Pisarev, M. Fiebig, D. Fröhlich, and Th. Lottermoser, "Magnetoelectric phenomena in nonlinear optics," Ferroelectrics 279, 93-109 (2002).
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M. Fiebig, C. Degenhardt, and R. V. Pisarev, "Interaction of frustrated magnetic sublattices in ErMnO3," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 027203/1-4 (2002).

M. Fiebig, D. Fröhlich, Th. Lottermoser, V. V. Pavlov, R. V. Pisarev, and J.-H. Weber, "Optical second harmonic generation in centrosymmetric antiferromagnetic NiO," in XI Feofilov Symposium on Spectroscopy of Crystals Activated by Rare-Earth and Transition Metal Ions, Proc. SPIE 4766, 238-247 (2002).
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H. Sugie, N. Iwata, and K. Kohn, "Magnetic ordering of rare earth ions and magnetic-electric interaction of hexagonal RMnO3(R=Ho, Er, Yb or Lu)," J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 71, 1558-1564 (2002).
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Th. Lonkai, D. Hohlwein, J. Ihringer, and W. Prandl, "The magnetic structures of YMnO3−delta and HoMnO3," Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 74, S843-S845 (2002).
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M. Fiebig, Th. Lottermoser, D. Fröhlich, A. V. Goltsev, and R. V. Pisarev, "Observation of coupled magnetic and electric domains," Nature (London) 419, 818-820 (2002).
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V. Venkataramanan, K. Noguchi, M. Aono, and T. Suzuki, "A sensitive detection method for magnetization-induced second-harmonic generation under an externally applied field," Appl. Phys. B: Photophys. Laser Chem. 74, 683-689 (2002).
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M. Boehm, S. Martynov, B. Roessli, G. Petrakovskii, and J. Kulda, "Spin-wave spectrum of copper metaborate in the commensurate phase 10K <T <21K," J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 250, 313-318 (2002).
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O. A. Aktsipetrov, "Nonlinear magneto-optics in magnetic nanoparticles," Colloids Surf., A 202, 165-173 (2002).
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A. Kirilyuk, "Nonlinear optics in application to magnetic surfaces and thin films," J. Phys. D 35, R189-R207 (2002).
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2001 (13)

V. I. Belotelov, A. P. Pyatakov, G. G. Musaev, S. A. Eremin, and A. K. Zvezdin, "Nonlinear intensity-related magneto-optical Kerr effects in the planar geometry," Opt. Spectrosc. 91, 626-633 (2001).
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F. U. Hillebrecht, H. Ohldag, N. B. Weber, C. Bethke, and U. Mick, "Magnetic moments at the surface of antiferromagnetic NiO(100)," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3419-3422 (2001).
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G. A. Petrakovskii, M. A. Popov, B. Roessli, and B. Ouladdiaf, "Incommensurate magnetic structure in copper metaborate," J. Exp. Theor. Phys. 93, 809-814 (2001).
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T. Suzuki, V. Venkataramanan, and M. Aono, "Magnetic-field-induced second-harmonic generation on Si(111)-7×7," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 40, L1119-L1122 (2001).
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V. V. Pavlov, J. Ferré, P. Meyer, G. Tessier, P. Georges, A. Brun, P. Beauvillain, and V. Mathet, "Linear and non-linear magneto-optical studies of Pt/Co/Pt thin films," J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 13, 9867-9878 (2001).

C. Degenhardt, M. Fiebig, D. Fröhlich, Th. Lottermoser, and R. V. Pisarev, "Nonlinear optical spectroscopy of electronic transitions in hexagonal manganites," Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 73, 139-144 (2001).
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V. N. Gridnev, V. V. Pavlov, and R. V. Pisarev, "Second harmonic generation in anisotropic magnetic films," Phys. Rev. B 63, 184407/1-11 (2001).
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A. Muñoz, J. A. Alonso, M. J. Martí´nez-Lope, M. T. Casáis, J. L. Martí´nez, and M. T. Fernández-Dí´az, "Evolution of the magnetic structure of hexagonal HoMnO3 from neutron powder diffraction data," Chem. Mater. 13, 1497-1505 (2001).
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M. Fiebig, D. Fröhlich, Th. Lottermoser, V. V. Pavlov, R. V. Pisarev, and H.-J. Weber, "Second harmonic generation in the centrosymmetric antiferromagnet NiO," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 137202/1-4 (2001).
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T. Iizuka-Sakano, E. Nakamura, and Y. Tanabe, "Second-harmonic-generation spectra of the hexagonal manganites RMnO3," J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 13, 3031-3055 (2001).

A. V. Kimel, R. V. Pisarev, F. Bentivegna, and Th. Rasing, "Time-resolved nonlinear optical spectroscopy of Mn3+ ions in rare-earth hexagonal manganites RMnO3(R= Sc, Y, Er)," Phys. Rev. B 64, 201103/1-4 (2001).
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B. Roessli, J. Schefer, G. A. Petrovskii, B. Ouladdiaf, M. Boehm, U. Staub, A. Vorotinaov, and L. Bezmaternikh, "Formation of a magnetic soliton lattice in copper metaborate," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1885-1888 (2001).
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S. C. Abrahams, "Ferroelectricity and structure in the YMnO3 family," Acta Crystallogr. 57, 485-490 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (16)

A. Muñoz, J. A. Alonso, M. Y. Martí´nez-Lope, M. T. Casáis, J. L. Martí´nez, and M. T. Fernández-Dí´az, "Magnetic structure of hexagonal RMnO3(R=Y, Sc): thermal evolution from neutron powder diffraction data," Phys. Rev. B 62, 9498-9510 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Medvedeva, V. I. Anisimov, M. A. Korotin, O. N. Mryasov, and A. J. Freeman, "The effect of Coulomb correlation and magnetic ordering on the electronic structure of two hexagonal phases of ferroelectromagnetic YMnO3," J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 12, 4947-4958 (2000).

M. Qian, J. Dong, and Q. Zheng, "Electronic structure of the ferroelectromagnet YMnO3," Phys. Lett. A 270, 96-101 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W.-C. Yi, S.-I. Kwun, and J.-G. Yoon, "Study on the electronic structure of hexagonal and orthorhombic YMnO3," J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 69, 2706-2707 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Shablaev, I. P. Areshev, and R. V. Pisarev, "Resonant two-photon absorption in the Cr2O3 antiferromagnet," Phys. Solid State 42, 1868-1872 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Kirilyuk, V. V. Pavlov, R. V. Pisarev, and Th. Rasing, "Asymmetry of second harmonic generation in magnetic thin films under circular optical exitation," Phys. Rev. B 61, R3796-R3799 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Petrakovskii, A. D. Balaev, and A. M. Vorotynov, "Magnetic susceptibility and magnetic-field behavior of CuB2O4 copper metaborate," Phys. Solid State 42, 321-325 (2000).
[CrossRef]

X. Wan, J. Dong, M. Quian, and W. Zhang, "Nonlinear optical properties of perovskite YMnO3 studied by real-space recursion method," Phys. Rev. B 61, 10664-10669 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Fiebig, D. Fröhlich, K. Kohn, St. Leute, Th. Lottermoser, V. V. Pavlov, and R. V. Pisarev, "Determination of the magnetic symmetry of hexagonal manganites by second harmonic generation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5620-5623 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Koopmans, M. van Kampen, J. T. Kohlhepp, and W. J. M. de Jonge, "Ultrafast magneto-optics in nickel: magnetism or optics?" Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 844-847 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Regensburger, R. Vollmer, and J. Kirschner, "Time-resolved magnetization-induced second-harmonic generation from the Ni(110) surface," Phys. Rev. B 61, 14716-14722 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Trzeciecki and W. Hübner, "Time-reversal symmetry in nonlinear optics," Phys. Rev. B 62, 13888-13891 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Sa, R. Valentí´, and C. Gros, "A generalized Ginzburg-Landau approach to second harmonic generation," Eur. Phys. J. B 14, 301-305 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Wegner, U. Conrad, J. Güdde, G. Meyer, T. Crecelius, and A. Bauer, "In-plane magnetization of garnet films imaged by proximal probe nonlinear magneto-optical microscopy," J. Appl. Phys. 88, 2166-2168 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Bredow and A. R. Gerson, "Effect of exchange and correlation on bulk properties of MgO, NiO, and CoO," Phys. Rev. B 61, 5194-5201 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. I. Belotelov, A. P. Pyatakov, S. A. Eremin, G. G. Musaev, and A. K. Zvezdin, "New nonlinear intensity Kerr effect in the polar geometry," Phys. Solid State 42, 1873-1880 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (6)

A. K. Zvezdin and N. F. Kubrakov, "Nonlinear magneto-optical Kerr effects," JETP 89, 77-85 (1999).
[CrossRef]

St. Leute, Th. Lottermoser, and D. Fröhlich, "Nonlinear spatially resolved phase spectroscopy," Opt. Lett. 24, 1520-1522 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Trzeciecki, A. Dähn, and W. Hübner, "Symmetry analysis of second-harmonic generation at surfaces of antiferromagnets," Phys. Rev. B 60, 1144-1160 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Bieringer and J. E. Greedan, "Magnetic structure and spin reorientation transition in ScMnO3," J. Solid State Chem. 143, 132-139 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Kirilyuk, R. V. Pisarev, V. N. Gridnev, V. V. Pavlov, and Th. Rasing, "Nonlinear optics of magnetic crystals," J. Magn. Soc. Jpn. 23, 346-351 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. M. D. Coey, M. Viret, and S. von Molnar, "Mixed-valence manganites," Adv. Phys. 48, 167-293 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (6)

M. Fiebig, D. Fröhlich, S. Leute, and R. V. Pisarev, "Second harmonic spectroscopy and control of domain size in antiferromagnetic YMnO3," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 6560-6562 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Okimoto, Y. Tomioka, Y. Onose, Y. Otsuka, and Y. Tokura, "Charge ordering and disordering transitions in Pr1−xCaxMnO3(x=0.4) as investigated by optical spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 57, R9377-R9380 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Fröhlich, St. Leute, V. V. Pavlov, R. V. Pisarev, A. Kirilyuk, and Th. Reasing, "Nonlinear optical spectroscopy of the two-order-parameter compound YMnO3," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3239-3242 (1998).
[CrossRef]

N. Iwata and K. Kohn, "Dielectric anomalies at magnetic transitions of hexagonal rare earth manganese oxides RMnO3," J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 67, 3318-3319 (1998). The results for ErMnO3 and HoMnO3 have to be exchanged.
[CrossRef]

M. Muto, Yu. Tanabe, T. Iizuka-Sakano, and E. Hanamura, "Magnetoelectric and second-harmonic spectra in antiferromagnetic Cr2O3," Phys. Rev. B 57, 9586-9607 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tanabe, M. Muto, M. Fiebig, and E. Hanamura, "Interference of second harmonics due to electric and magnetic dipoles in antiferromagnetic Cr2O3," Phys. Rev. B 58, 8654-8666 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (11)

A. V. Balakin, N. I. Koroteev, A. V. Pakulev, A. P. Shkurinov, D. Boucher, P. Masselin, and E. Fertein, "Polarization characteristics of the 'forbidden' second optical harmonic of fem tosecond laser pulses in a bacteriorhodopsin solution," JETP 85, 52-60 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Fiebig, D. Fröhlich, and R. V. Pisarev, "Nonlinear spec-troscopy of antiferromagnetic Cr2O3," J. Appl. Phys. 81, 4875-4877 (1997).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Pavlov, R. V. Pisarev, A. Kirilyuk, and Th. Rasing, "Observation of a transversal nonlinear magneto-optical effect in thin magnetic garnet films," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2004-2007 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Hohlfeld, E. Matthias, R. Knorren, and K. H. Bennemann, "Nonequilibrium magnetization dynamics of nickel," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4861-4864 (1997).
[CrossRef]

O. A. Aktsipetrov, V. A. Aleshkevich, A. V. Melnikov, T. V. Misuryaev, T. V. Murzina, and V. V. Randoshkin, "Magnetic field induced effects in optical second harmonic generation from iron garnet films," J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 165, 421-423 (1997).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Pavlov, R. V. Pisarev, A. Kirilyuk, and Th. Rasing, "A spectroscopic study of the nonlinear magneto-optical response of garnets," J. Appl. Phys. 81, 4631-4633 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. N. Iliev, H. G. Lee, V. N. Popov, M. V. Abrashev, A. Hamed, R. L. Meng, and C. W. Chu, "Raman- and infrared-active phonons in hexagonal YMnO3: experiment and lattice-dynamical calculations," Phys. Rev. B 56, 2488-2494 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Th. Rasing, "Nonlinear magneto-optics," J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 175, 35-50 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Kirilyuk, V. Kirilyuk, and Th. Rasing, "A combined nonlinear and linear magneto-optical microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2306-2308 (1997).
[CrossRef]

I. I. Smolyaninov, A. V. Zayats, and C. C. Davis, "Near-field second-harmonic imaging of ferromagnetic and ferroelectric materials," Opt. Lett. 22, 1592-1594 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Zvesdin, "Non-linear surface Kerr effect and SHG in magnets," Physica A 241, 444-449 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (7)

A. Kirilyuk, V. Kirilyuk, Th. Rasing, V. V. Pavlov, and R. V. Pisarev, "Domain and domain wall images by second harmonic generation," J. Magn. Soc. Jpn. 20(S1), 361-364 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Takahashi and J. Igarashi, "Local approach to elec tronic excitations in MnO, FeO, CoO, and NiO," Phys. Rev. B 54, 13566-13574 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Fiebig, D. Fröhlich, and H.-J. Thiele, "Determination of spin direction in the spin-flop phase of Cr2O3," Phys. Rev. B 54, 12681-12684 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. V. Pisarev, V. V. Pavlov, A. Kirilyuk, and Th. Rasing, "Nonlinear magnetooptics in garnets," J. Magn. Soc. Jpn. 20(S1), 23-28 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Bassi, P. Camagni, R. Rolli, G. Samoggia, F. Parmigiani, G. Dhalenne, and A. Revcolevschi, "Optical absorption of CuGeO3," Phys. Rev. B 54, 11030-11033 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Takahashi and J. Igarashi, "Local approach to electronic excitations in MnO, FeO, CoO, and NiO," Phys. Rev. B 54, 13566-13574 (1996).
[CrossRef]

V. N. Muthukumar, R. Valentí´, and C. Gros, "Theory of nonreciprocal optical effects in antiferromagnets: The case of Cr2O3," Phys. Rev. B 54, 433-440 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (4)

V. N. Muthukumar, R. Valentí´, and C. Gros, "Microscopic model of nonreciprocal optical effects in Cr2O3," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2766-2769 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Th. Verbiest, M. Kauranen, J. J. Maki, M. N. Teerenstra, A. J. Schouten, R. J. M. Nolte, and A. Persoons, "Linearly polarized probes of surface chirality," J. Chem. Phys. 103, 8296-8298 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Maki, M. Kauranen, and A. Persoons, "Surface second-harmonic generation from chiral materials," Phys. Rev. B 51, 1425-1434 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Xu, J. Iwasaki, T. Shimizu, H. Sato, and N. Kamegashira, "Structure, magnetic-susceptibility and heat-capacity of ScMnO3," J. Alloys Compd. 221, 274-279 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (6)

H. Wiegelmann, A. G. M. Jansen, P. Wyder, J. P. Rivera, and H. Schmid, "Magnetoelectric effect of Cr2O3 in strong static magnetic fields," Ferroelectrics 162, 141-146 (1994).
[CrossRef]

B. B. Krichevtsov, V. V. Pavlov, R. V. Pisarev, and A. G. Selitsky, "Linear magnetoelectric effect in magnetic garnet thin films," Ferroelectrics 161, 65-71 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Tsuboi and W. Kleemann, "Fine-structure of near-infrared optical-absorption in NiO," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 6, 8625-8631 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Fiebig, D. Fröhlich, B. B. Krichevtsov, and R. V. Pisarev, "Second harmonic generation and magnetic-dipole-electric-dipole interference in antiferromagnetic Cr2O3," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2127-2130 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. A. Murashov, D. N. Rakov, V. M. Ionov, I. S. Dubenko, Y. V. Titov, and V. S. Gorelik, "Magnetoelectric (Bi,Ln)FeO3 compounds: crystal growth, structure and properties," Ferroelectrics 162, 11-21 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. V. Pisarev, "Crystal optics of magnetoelectrics," Ferroelectrics 162, 191-209 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (7)

J. Reif, C. Rau, and E. Matthias, "Influence of magnetism on second harmonic generation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1931-1934 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Zawodny, "Nonlinear magneto-optics of magnetically ordered crystals," Adv. Chem. Phys. 85, 307-374 (1993).

R. V. Pisarev, B. B. Krichevtsov, V. N. Gridnev, V. P. Klin, D. Fröhlich, and Ch. Pahlke-Lerch, "Optical second-harmonic generation in magnetic garnet thin films," J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 5, 8621-8628 (1993).

G. Petrocelli, S. Martellucci, and M. Richetta, "Bismuth induced enhancement of the second-harmonic generation efficiency in bismuth-substituted yttrium iron garnet films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 3402-3404 (1993).
[CrossRef]

B. Koopmans, A.-M. Janner, H. T. Jonkman, G. A. Sawatzky, and F. van der Woude, "Strong bulk magnetic dipole induced second-harmonic generation from C60," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3569-3572 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. V. Belov, G. P. Vorob'ev, A. M. Kadomtseva, and Y. F. Popov, "Magnetoelectric effect in the spin-flop-phase of Cr2O3 and the problem of determining the magnetic structure," JETP Lett. 58, 579-584 (1993).

G. F. Dionne and G. A. Allen, "Spectral origins of giant Faraday rotation and ellipticity in Bi-substituted magnetic garnets," J. Appl. Phys. 73, 6127-6129 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (3)

Y. F. Popov, Z. A. Kazei, and A. M. Kadomtseva, "Linear magnetoelectric effect in Cr2O3 in strong magnetic fields," JETP Lett. 55, 234-238 (1992).

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, "Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation: tuning and tolerances," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631-2654 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Kocinski, "The nonlinear optical susceptibility tensor xi_ijk in a diperiodic magnetic layer," J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 104-107, 1787-1788 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (3)

J. Reif, J. C. Zink, C.-M. Schneider, and J. Kirschner, "Effects of surface magnetism on optical second harmonic generation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2878-2881 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Moskvin, A. V. Zenkov, E. I. Yuryeva, and V. A. Gubanov, "Origin of the magneto-optical properties of iron garnets," Physica B 168, 187-196 (1991).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Alekseev, V. V. Druzhinin, and R. V. Pisarev, "Analysis of the yttrium iron garnet optical spectrum with allowance for local lattice distortions," Phys. Solid State 33, 1507-1510 (1991).

1990 (3)

Y. Tokura, S. Koshihara, T. Arima, H. Takagi, S. Ishibashi, T. Ido, and S. Uchida, Phys. Rev. B 41, 11657-11660 (1990).
[CrossRef]

E. W. Meijer, E. E. Havinga, and G. L. J. A. Rikken, "Second-harmonic generation in centrosymmetric crystals of chiral molecules," Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 37-39 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. A. Aktsipetrov, O. V. Braginskii, and D. A. Esikov, "Nonlinear optics of gyrotropyc media: second harmonic generation in rare-earth iron garnets," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 20, 259-263 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (5)

A. M. Agaltsov, V. S. Gorelik, A. K. Zvezdin, V. A. Murashov, and D. N. Rakov, "Temperature dependence of the second harmonic generation in ferroelectric-magnetic bismuth ferrite," Sov. Phys. Short Commun. 5, 37-39 (1989).

R.-P. Pan, H. D. Wei, and Y. R. Shen, "Optical second-harmonic generation from magnetized surfaces," Phys. Rev. B 39, 1229-1234 (1989).
[CrossRef]

W. Hübner and K. H. Bennemann, "Nonlinear magneto-optical Kerr effect on a nickel surface," Phys. Rev. B 40, 5973-5979 (1989).
[CrossRef]

B. B. Krichevtsov, V. V. Pavlov, and R. V. Pisarev, "Giant linear magnetoelectric effect in garnet ferrite films," JETP Lett. 49, 535-539 (1989).

B. B. Krichevtsov, V. V. Pavlov, and R. V. Pisarev, "Linear effects of an electric field on the magnetization processes in iron garnet films," Phys. Solid State 31, 1142-1148 (1989).

1988 (1)

P. Guyot-Sionnest and Y. R. Shen, "Bulk contribution in surface second-harmonic generation," Phys. Rev. B 38, 7985-7989 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (4)

J. E. Sipe, D. J. Moss, and H. M. van Driel, "Phenomenological theory of optical second- and third-harmonic generation from cubic centrosymmetric crystals," Phys. Rev. B 35, 1129-1141 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Sipe, V. Mizrahi, and G. I. Stegeman, "Fundamental difficulty in the use of second-harmonic generation as a strictly surface probe," Phys. Rev. B 35, 9091-9094 (1987).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Girgel and T. V. Demidova, "Frequency conversion of electromagnetic waves in crystals with a centrosymmetric paramagnetic phase," Opt. Spectrosc. 62, 63-65 (1987).

R.-P. Pan and Y. R. Shen, "Optical second harmonic generation as a probe for surface magnetization," Chin. J. Phys. (Taipei) 25, 175-177 (1987).

1986 (2)

S. B. Borisov and I. L. Lyubchanskii, "Microscopic theory of the nonlinear optical susceptibility of magnetics," Opt. Spectrosc. 61, 801-804 (1986).

W. Sikora and V. N. Syromyatnikov, "Symmetry analysis of magnetic-structure in hexagonal manganites ErMnO3,HoMnO3,LuMnO3,ScMnO3,TmMnO3,YMnO3," J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 60, 199-203 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

N. N. Akhmediev, S. B. Borisov, A. K. Zvezdin, I. L. Lyubchanski, and Yu. V. Melikhov, "Nonlinear optical susceptibility of magnetically ordered crystals," Sov. Phys. Solid State 27, 650-652 (1985).

1984 (1)

J. Ohtani and K. Kohn, "Magnetoelectric effect and spin direction in a spin-flopped Cr2O3 single crystal," J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 53, 3744-3746 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (2)

B. B. Krichevtsov, O. Ochilov, and R. V. Pisarev, "Sublattice anisotropy of the magnetic linear dichroism of yttrium-iron garnet Y3Fe5O12," Phys. Solid State 25, 1380-1385 (1983).

H. W. K. Tom, T. F. Heinz, and Y. R. Shen, "Second-harmonic reflection from silicon surfaces and its relation to structural symmetry," Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 1983-1986 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

N. A. Mironova, G. A. Grinvald, V. N. Skvortsova, and U. A. Ulmanis, "Fine-structure of anti-ferromagnetic NiO absorption spectra," Sov. Phys. Solid State 23, 874-875 (1981).

1980 (1)

W. Kleemann, F. J. Schäfer, and D. S. Tannhauser, "Linear birefringence in S-domains of NiO near the anti-ferromagnetic phase-transition," J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 15-18, 415-416 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

G. B. Scott and J. L. Page, "Absorption spectra of Y3Fe5O12 and Y3Ga5O12 - Fe3+ to 5.5 eV," Phys. Status Solidi B 79, 203-213 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1975 (2)

T. K. Vien, J. L. Dormann, and H. Le Gall, "Crystal-field splitting in octahedral and tetrahedral symmetry for Fe3+ ions in Y3Fe5O12," Phys. Status Solidi 71, 731-739 (1975).
[CrossRef]

K. Nakahigashi, N. Fukuoka, and Y. Shimomura, "Crystal-structure of antiferromagnetic NiO determined by x-ray topography," J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 38, 1634-1640 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974 (4)

K. W. Blazey, "Wavelength-modulated spectra of some Fe3+ oxides," J. Appl. Phys. 45, 2273-2280 (1974).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Wemple, S. L. Blank, J. A. Seman, and W. A. Biolsi, "Optical properties of epitaxial iron garnet thin films," Phys. Rev. B 9, 2134-2144 (1974).
[CrossRef]

G. B. Scott, D. E. Lacklison, and J. L. Page, "Absorption spectra of Y3Fe5O12 (YIG) and Y3Ga5O12:Fe3+," Phys. Rev. B 10, 971-986 (1974).
[CrossRef]

K. Lukaszewicz and J. Karut-Kalicinska, "X-ray investigations of the crystal structure and phase transitions of YMnO3," Ferroelectrics 7, 81-82 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973 (3)

A. I. Galuza, V. V. Eremenko, and A. P. Kirichenko, "Optical properties of yttrium-ferrite garnet," Sov. Phys. Solid State 15, 407 (1973).

S. Kielich and R. Zawodny, "Optical nonlinear phenomena in magnetized crystals and isotropic bodies," Acta Phys. Pol. A 43, 579-603 (1973).

S. Kielich and R. Zawodny, "On new nonlinear magneto-optical phenomena in crystals and liquids," Opt. Acta 20, 867-877 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

M. T. Hutchings and E. J. Samuelsen, "Measurement of spin-wave dispersion in NiO by inelastic neutron-scattering and its relation to magnetic properties," Phys. Rev. B 6, 3447-3461 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1971 (4)

S. Kielich and R. Zawodny, "DC magnetic field induced second harmonic generation of laser beam," Opt. Commun. 4, 132 (1971).
[CrossRef]

J. P. van der Ziel, J. F. Dillon, Jr., and J. P. Remeika, "Excitons, spin-wave sidebands, and exchange interactions in yttrium iron garnet," AIP Conf. Proc. 5, 254-258 (1971).

M. Martinez-Ripoli, S. Martinez-Carrera, and S. Garcia-Blanco, "The crystal structure of copper metaborate, CuB2O4," Acta Crystallogr., Sect. B: Struct. Crystallogr. Cryst. Chem. 27, 677-681 (1971).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Macfarlane and J. W. Allen, "Exciton bands in antiferromagnetic Cr2O3," Phys. Rev. B 4, 3054-3067 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

R. Pauthenet and C. Veyret, "Les propriétés magnétostatiques des manganites de terres rares," J. Phys. (Paris) 31, 65 (1970). Curie temperatures were incorrectly listed owing to a misprint.
[CrossRef]

1969 (3)

J. W. Allen, R. M. Macfarlane, and R. L. White, "Magnetic Davydov splitting in the optical absorption spectrum of Cr2O3," Phys. Rev. 179, 523-541 (1969).
[CrossRef]

K. Kritayakirana, P. Berger, and R. V. Jones, "Optical spectra of ferroelectric-antiferromagnetic rare earth manganates," Opt. Commun. 1, 95-98 (1969).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Kahn, P. S. Pershan, and J. P. Remeika, "Ultraviolet magneto-optical properties of single-crystal orthoferrites, garnets, and other ferric oxide compounds," Phys. Rev. 186, 891-918 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1967 (4)

D. L. Wood and J. P. Remeika, "Effect of impurities on optical properties of yttriom iron garnet," J. Appl. Phys. 38, 1038-1045 (1967).
[CrossRef]

J. P. van der Ziel, "Davydov splitting of the 2E lines in antiferromagnetic Cr2O3," Phys. Rev. Lett. 18, 237239 (1967).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Lee, R. K. Chang, and N. Bloembergen, "Nonlinear electroreflectance in silicon and silver," Phys. Rev. Lett. 18, 167-170 (1967).
[CrossRef]

J. Lajzerowicz and M. Vallade, "Génération du second harmonique dans les substances magnétiques ordonnées," C. R. Seances Acad. Sci., Ser. B 264, 1819-1821 (1967).

1965 (1)

G. M. Nedlin, "Possible ordered magnetic structures of YMnO3-type crystals," Sov. Phys. Solid State 6, 2156-2161 (1965).

1964 (2)

L. M. Corliss and J. M. Hastings, "Magnetic structure studies at Brookhaven National Laboratory," J. Phys. (Paris) 25, 557-562 (1964).
[CrossRef]

E. Adler, "Nonlinear optical frequency polarization in a dielectric," Phys. Rev. 134, A728-A733 (1964).
[CrossRef]

1963 (4)

P. S. Pershan, "Nonlinear optical properties of solids: energy considerations," Phys. Rev. 130, 919-929 (1963).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Yakel, W. C. Koehler, E. F. Bertraut, and E. F. Forrat, "On crystal structure of manganese (111) trioxides of heavy lanthanides and yttrium," Acta Crystallogr. 16, 957-963 (1963).
[CrossRef]

D. S. McClure, "Comparison of the crystal fields and optical spectra of Cr2O3 and ruby," J. Chem. Phys. 38, 2289-2294 (1963).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Bertaut, M. Mercier, and R. Pauthenet, "Structure magnétique de MnYO3," Phys. Lett. 5, 27-29 (1963).
[CrossRef]

1962 (2)

R. E. Newnham and Y. M. de Haan, "Refinement of the alpha-Al2O3,Ti2O3,V2O3, and Cr2O3 structure," Z. Kristallogr. 117, 235-237 (1962).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Terhune, P. D. Maker, and C. M. Savage, "Optical harmonic generation in calcite," Phys. Rev. Lett. 8, 404-406 (1962).
[CrossRef]

1961 (1)

P. A. Franken, A. E. Hill, C. W. Peters, and G. Weinreich, "Generation of optical harmonics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 7, 118-119 (1961).
[CrossRef]

1960 (2)

D. N. Astrov, "The magnetoelectric effect in antiferromagnetics," Sov. Phys. JETP 11, 708-709 (1960).

I. E. Dzyaloshinskii, "The magnetoelectric effect in antiferromagnetic materials," Sov. Phys. JETP 10, 628-629 (1960).

1958 (1)

W. L. Roth, "Magnetic structure of MnO, FeO, CoO, and NiO," Phys. Rev. 110, 1333-1341 (1958).
[CrossRef]

1954 (1)

Y. Tanabe and S. Sugano, "On the absorption spectra of complex ions," J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 9, 753-766 (1954).
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1953 (1)

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Figures (29)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Electric-dipole-type SHG in magnetically ordered crystals. A time invariant (i-type) source term, which is sensitive to the spinless crystallographic lattice, and a time noninvariant (c-type) source term, which is sensitive to the spin lattice, i.e. the magnetic structure, interfere, thus constituting the total SHG signal.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Transmission setup for SHG spectroscopy and polarimetry. The laser source is a two-stage optical parametric oscillator pumped by the third harmonic of a pulsed Nd:YAG laser. THG, third harmonic generation at 3.495 eV (3 ns pulses at 10–40 Hz); S- or P-OPO, seeder or power OPO; WP, wave plate; LPF, SPF, long-, short-pass filter; PD, photodiode; CCD, camera; PC, computer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Crystallographic and (b) magnetic structure of Cr2O3. (a) Cr3+ ions (black) are surrounded by six O2- ligands (white) in a distorted octahedral with site symmetry 3. (b) Two antiferromagnetic 180° domains with a + - + - or - + - + sequence of spins along the trigonal axis are formed, thus defining the antiferromagnetic vector l.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Energy levels, linear absorption, and SHG spectra of Cr2O3. (a) Energy levels of Cr3+(3d3) electrons in the trigonally distorted octahedral ligand field of Cr2O3. (b) Linear absorption spectrum of Cr2O3 at 77 K; lines 1–5 from Ref. 106, line 6 from Ref. 105. (c) SHG spectrum at 10 K for light incident along the trigonal z axis. (d), (e) SHG spectra of Cr2O3 on different locations on the sample. Filled and open squares refer to, respectively, right and left circularly polarized light which is incident along z.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Temperature dependence of SHG for light incident along z. (a) Interference between c-type ED SHG and i-type MD SHG with circularly polarized light for SHG at 2.1 eV. (b) Corresponding contributions from c-type ED SHG and i-type MD SHG. The curves are fits of χe(c)l(T) and χm(i)b+cl(T)2 to the temperature dependence (see text).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Antiferromagnetic 180° domains in Cr2O3 exposed to circularly polarized light for SHG at 2.1 eV. Exposure time was 35 min but was reduced to 1–5 min in subsequent experiments.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) SHG spectrum of Cr2O3 in the spin-flop phase taken with circularly polarized light incident along the z axis. (b) Distribution of the six orientational domains, l1,2,3±, that exist in the spin-flop phase.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Stereographic view of the ferroelectric RMnO3 lattice. (b), (c) Relation of the R3+ and Mn3+ cations and the position of the oxygen ligands for the paraelectric and ferroelectric case. Arrows denote the movement of ions in the course of the two-stage124 ferroelectric ordering; dashed lines indicate weakened interaction. (d) Electronic levels of the fivefold coordinated Mn3+(3d4) ion.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Magnetic structures of hexagonal RMnO3. Two types of triangular antiferromagnetic ordering with opposite orientation of Mn3+ spins in adjacent planes along z for A, A1 and B, A2 representations and two types of spin rotation with an equal (+, in phase) or opposite (-, antiphase) sense of rotation in adjacent planes along z lead to a total of eight different magnetic structures. For each structure the magnetic point group and the one-dimensional representation describing the transformation properties of the Mn3+ spins are given. Neighboring structures at the corners differ by ±90° in φspin. They are interconnected by an in-phase or antiphase spin rotation, which leads to the intermediate structures depicted for an (arbitrary) rotation of spins by ±15° or ±75°.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

i-type crystallographic SHG spectra of YMnO3 measured at 6 K. The direction of the incident light was parallel to the y axis of the crystal (ky).

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Magnetic SHG spectra and temperature dependence of SHG in YMnO3 and ErMnO3 with light incident along the z axes (kz). A sharp dip marked * is due to the absorption by the fundamental beam in the  4I11/2 lines of the Er3+ ion. The dashed line points out the correspondence between the maximum of the χyyy(c) spectrum and the minimum of the χyyy(i) spectrum at 2.46 eV.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Dependence on a magnetic field applied along the z axis of (a) SHG intensity at 2.44 eV and (b) Faraday rotation (FR) at 1.23 eV of YbMnO3. The inset in (a) depicts the rotation of Mn3+ spins occuring in the 1.5–3.0 T interval in the field-increasing run.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Magnetic phase diagram of hexagonal RMnO3. Top, magnetic phases of the Mn3+ sublattice at zero magnetic field, increasing the in-plane lattice constant of the components from left to right; hyst., hysteresis. Lower four panels, phase diagrams of the compounds with partially filled 4f shell in the magnetic-field–temperature plane. The right (left) border of the gray area marks the field at which the BA (AB) transition in field-increasing (-decreasing) runs occurs, with the gray area representing the hysteresis. The hatched area in the HoMnO3 panel indicates the presence of a very broad hysteresis.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Coexisting (a) ferroelectric and (b) antiferromagnetic domains in YMnO3 exposed to SHG light at 2.46 eV.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Left two columns, crystal-field energy states of the Fe3+ ion in the distorted tetrahedral and octahedral positions in the garnet structure.164 Middle column, experimentally observed electronic transitions and the continuous absorption at higher photon energy. Right-hand columns, energy range of the pump beam and that of the second- and third-harmonic (THG) spectra.170,172

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

SHG spectra of (a), (b) YIG/GGG(111) and (d), (e) Bi-YIG/SGGG(210) films obtained for two opposite orientations of the magnetization M in transverse geometry; (c), (f) corresponding linear absorption spectra.169,171

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Rotational anisotropies of SHG for Bi-YIG/GGG(111) and Bi-YIG/SGGG(210) films.171

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

Temperature variation of crystallographic, magnetization-induced, and interference terms of the SHG intensity of the Bi-YIG/GGG(111) film.61

Fig. 19
Fig. 19

Magnetic-field dependence of the magnetization-induced contribution to SHG for the Bi-YIG/SGGG(210) film.

Fig. 20
Fig. 20

(a) Projection of the crystal structure of CuB2O4 into the plane perpendicular to the tetragonal axis. (b) Electronic states, local symmetry, and coordination of Cu2+(3d9) ions at 4b and 8d sites in CuB2O4. Wave functions are given in terms of the local coordinate system whose axes are defined by the connections between the central Cu2+ ion and the square or undistorted octahedron of O2- ligands at the respective sites. Local symmetry is given in bold italics. Coordination is shown for the Cu2+ ion (black spheres) with the nearest O2- ligands (gray spheres). Axes are those of the global coordinate system.

Fig. 21
Fig. 21

Magnetic-field-induced SHG spectra of (010)-oriented CuB2O4 in a static magnetic field applied along the x axis. Insets show (b) the magnetic field dependence of SHG and (c) the spectral dependence of crystallographic SHG for a (110)-oriented sample.

Fig. 22
Fig. 22

Linear absorption spectra of (top) (100)-oriented and (middle, bottom) (010)-oriented CuB2O4 at H=0. k and E denote the wave vector and polarization of the incoming light wave.

Fig. 23
Fig. 23

Temperature dependence of SHG intensity at (a), (b) 4b and (c), (d) 8d sites in static magnetic fields applied along the z axis of (010)-oriented CuB2O4. The inset in (b) shows the temperature dependence of linear absorption for ky, Ex.

Fig. 24
Fig. 24

Phase diagrams of CuB2O4 in the magnetic-field–temperature plane for (a) in-plane (Hρ with ρ=x+y) and (b) uniaxial (Hz) magnetic field. Insets, SHG intensity ISHG or magnetization M±ISHG0.5 dependence on the magnetic field for selected points in the phase diagram.

Fig. 25
Fig. 25

(a) SHG spectra and (b), (c) linear absorption spectra of a multidomain (001)-oriented NiO crystal in the region of the lowest (3d)8 single-ion transitions. The spectra were gained with linearly polarized incident light.

Fig. 26
Fig. 26

(a) SHG spectra and (b), (c) linear absorption spectra of a multidomain (111)-oriented CoO crystal in the region of the lowest (3d)7 single-ion transitions. The spectra were gained with linearly polarized incident light. Vertical arrows indicate the position of narrow lines in the slope of the  4Γ44Γ5 peak.

Fig. 27
Fig. 27

Schematic splitting of the Hund-coupled orbitals of the free Co2+, Ni2+, and Mn2+ ions in the octahedral crystal field. The SHG process with excitation at energies ℏω and 2ℏω is indicated by the arrows.

Fig. 28
Fig. 28

(a), (b) Anisotropy of the SHG intensity from multidomain regions of a NiO and a CoO sample. (c), (d), (e) Anisotropy for three different regions of a (111)-oriented T domain in NiO. The polarization dependence of the SHG signal reveals the three differently oriented S domains. Solid curves, fits of the nonzero tensor components χijkeem to the data. The center of each polar diagram corresponds to zero SHG intensity.

Fig. 29
Fig. 29

S and T domains in NiO taken with SHG light at 2.05 eV. Incident fundamental and detected SHG light is polarized along the [011¯] axis.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Nonzero Tensor Components χijk(2) for ED-SHG in Hexagonal RMnO3

Equations (18)

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Pχee:E+χem:H+χeee:EE+χeem:EH+χemm:HH+O[(E, H)3],
Mχme:E+χmm:H+χmee:EE+χmem:EH+χmmm:HH+O[(E, H)3],
Qˆχqe:E+χqm:H+χqee:EE+χqem:EH+χqmm:HH+O[(E, H)3].
S=μ0 2Pt2+μ0×Mt-μ0 2Qˆt2
P(2ω)=0(χ(i)+χ(c)):E(ω)E(ω),
I(2ω)(|χ(i)|2+|χ(c)|2±2|χ(i)||χ(c)|cos |φ|)E4(ω),
χ(i)=χ(0)+α:PS+O[PS2],
χ(c)=β:FM+γ:PSFM+O[(PS, FM)2].
χ(i)=η:E(0)+ν:H(0)FM+O[(E(0), H(0))2],
χ(c)=σ:H(0)+ς:E(0)H(0)+τ:H(0)PS+v:E(0)FM+O[(E(0), H(0))2].
S(2ω)=S+S-Sz=42 ω2c2 [-χm(i)+iχe(c)]E-2[χm(i)+iχe(c)]E+20.
I(2ω)I(ω)2[|χm(i)|2+|χe(c)|2-lσ·Δ],
P(i)(2ω)=02χxxz(i)Ex(ω)Ez(ω)2χxxz(i)Ey(ω)Ez(ω)χzxx(i)[Ex2(ω)+Ey2(ω)]+χzzz(i)Ez2(ω),
P(c)(2ω)=0χxxx(c)[Ex2(ω)-Ey2(ω)]2χxxx(c)Ex(ω)Ey(ω)0,
P(2ω)=0(χ:E(ω)E(ω)+β:E(ω)E(ω)M(0)),
I(2ω)[|χ|2+|βM(0)|2±2|χ||β|M(0)cos φ]E4(ω),
P(2ω)χˆeem(-2ω; ω, ω)E(ω)H(ω)
χijkeemg,n,n(Pi)gn(Pj)nn(Mk)ng(2ω-ωng)(ω-ωng)+pg(0),

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