Abstract

Amplification by stimulated emission of radiation provides an interesting means for increasing the sensitivity of atomic-parity-violation (APV) measurements in a pump–probe configuration well adapted to the 6S-7S Cs transition. It takes advantage of the large number of atoms excited along the path of the pump beam. In the longitudinal electric field configuration currently exploited in our ongoing APV measurement, this number is limited only by the total voltage sustainable by the Cs vapor. To overcome this limit we consider, both theoretically and experimentally, the possibility of performing the measurements in a transverse electric field configuration requiring a much lower voltage. We discuss the necessarily different nature of the observable and the magnetoelectric optical effects that come into play. These condition modifications of the experimental configuration with, in particular, the application of a transverse magnetic field. We suggest the possibility of rotating the transverse direction of the fields so as to suppress systematic effects. With a long interaction length a precision reaching 0.1% in a quantum-noise-limited measurement can be expected, limited only by the necessity of operating below the threshold of spontaneous superradiant emission of the excited medium. Were we to approach this limit, however, we could greatly amplify the asymmetry using triggered superradiance.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. A. Bouchiat and C. Bouchiat, "Parity violation induced by weak neutral currents in atomic physics," J. Phys. (France) 35, 899-927 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. A. Bouchiat and C. Bouchiat, "Parity violation in atoms," Rep. Prog. Phys. 60, 1351-1396 (1997), for a complete list of references.
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. S. M. Ginges and V. V. Flambaum, "Violation of fundamental symmetries in atoms and tests of unification theories of elementary particles," Phys. Rep. 397, 63-154 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Particle Data Group, "Review of particle physics," Phys. Rev. D 66, 010001-1 (2002), http://pdg.lbl.gov/, Sect. 10.
  5. V. A. Dzuba, V. V. Flambaum, and J. S. M. Ginges, "High precision calculation of parity nonconservation in cesium and test of the standard model," Phys. Rev. D 66, 076013 1-11 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. V. A. Dzuba, V. V. Flambaum, and O. P. Sushkov, "Summation of the high orders of perturbation theory for the parity nonconserving E1-amplitude of the 6s-7s transition in the caesium atom," Phys. Lett. A 141, 147-153 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. A. Blundell, J. Sapirstein, and W. R. Johnson, "High-accuracy calculation of parity nonconservation in cesium and implications for particle physics," Phys. Rev. D 45, 1602-1623 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Derevianko, "Reconciliation of the meaasurement of parity nonconservation in Cs with the standard model," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1618-1621 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. A. I. Milstein and O. P. Sushkov, "Parity nonconservation in heavy atoms: The radiative correction enhanced by the strong electric field of the nucleus," Phys. Rev. A 66, 022108 1-4 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. S. Wood, S. C. Bennett, D. Cho, B. P. Masterson, J. L. Roberts, C. E. Tanner, and C. E. Wieman, "Measurement of parity nonconservation and an anapole moment in cesium," Science 275, 1759-1763 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. S. C. Bennett and C. E. Wieman, "Measurement of the 6S-->7S transition polarizability in atomic cesium and an improved test of the standard model," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2484-2487 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. A. Bouchiat and J. Guéna, "The E2 6S-7S amplitude in cesium and its importance in a precise calibration of E1pv," J. Phys. (France) 49, 2037-2044 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. Bouchiat and C. A. Piketty, "Magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole amplitudes induced by the hyperfine interaction in the cesium 6S-7S transition and the parity violation calibration," J. Phys. (France) 49, 1851-1856 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  14. W. R. Johnson, M. S. Safronova, and U. I. Safronova, "Combined effect of coherent Z exchange and the hyperfine interaction in the atomic parity-nonconserving interaction," Phys. Rev. A 67, 062106-1-9 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  15. C. Bouchiat and C. A. Piketty, "Nuclear-spin-dependent atomic parity violation, nuclear anapole moments, and the hadronic axial neutral current," Z. Phys. C 49, 91-107 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. A. Bouchiat, J. Guéna, L. Hunter, and L. Pottier, "Observation of a parity violation in cesium," Phys. Lett. B 117, 358-364 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  17. R. Conti, P. Bucksbaum, S. Chu, E. D. Commins, and L. R. Hunter, "Preliminary observation of parity violation in atomic thallium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 343-346 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. A. Bouchiat, Ph. Jacquier, M. Lintz, and L. Pottier, "Parity violation in forbidden transitions: detection of the electroweak alignment or polarization in the upper state by stimulated emission," Opt. Commun. 56, 100-106 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. Guéna, D. Chauvat, Ph. Jacquier, E. Jahier, M. Lintz, S. Sanguinetti, A. Wasan, M.-A. Bouchiat, A. V. Papoyan, and D. Sarkisyan, "New manifestation of Atomic Parity Violation in cesium: A chiral optical gain induced by linearly polarized 6S-7S excitation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 143001 1-4 (2003).
  20. C. Bouchiat and M. A. Bouchiat, "Amplification of the electroweak left-right asymmetry in atoms by stimulated emission," Z. Phys. D 36, 105-117 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  21. J. Guéna, D. Chauvat, Ph. Jacquier, M. Lintz, M. D. Plimmer, and M.-A. Bouchiat, "Sensitive pulsed pump-probe atomic polarimetry for parity-violation measurements in caesium," Quantum Semiclassic. Opt. 10, 733-752 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  22. M.-A. Bouchiat, D. Chauvat, J. Guéna, Ph. Jacquier, M. Lintz, and M. D. Plimmer, "High precision balanced mode polarimetry with a pulsed laser beam," Opt. Commun. 119, 403-414 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  23. J. Guéna, D. Chauvat, Ph. Jacquier, M. Lintz, M. D. Plimmer, and M.-A. Bouchiat, "Differential-mode atomic polarimetry with pulsed lasers: high-precision zero adjustment," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 271-284 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  24. By triggering the probe beam several times after each excitation pulse, the photon shot noise on the reference measurements can be made negligible and will be ignored.
  25. M.-A. Bouchiat, J. Guéna, and M. Lintz, "Cylindrical symmetry discrimination of magnetoelectric optical systematic effects in a pump-probe atomic parity violation experiment," Eur. Phys. J. D 28, 331-349 (2004); e-print arXiv:physics/0311101.
    [CrossRef]
  26. D. Chauvat, J. Guéna, Ph. Jacquier, M. Lintz, and M.-A. Bouchiat, "Amplification of atomic L-R asymmetries by stimulated emission: experimental demonstration of sensitivity enhancement valuable for parity violation measurements," Eur. Phys. J. D 1, 169-177 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  27. This of course does not hold any longer when the excited medium approaches the conditions of spontaneous superradiance, a situation in which spontaneous emission causes additional noise as discussed in Section 3.C.
  28. For matching the two beam intensities, a simple procedure might rely on a highly parallel glass plate serving as a temperature-tunable Fabry-Perot29 close to normal incidence on the path of a single beam. The range over which the transmission can be adjusted is wide (85 to 100%). Proper operating conditions can be achieved with temperature stabilization.
  29. E. Jahier, J. Guéna, Ph. Jacquier, M. Lintz, A. V. Papoyan, and M.-A. Bouchiat, "Temperature-tunable sapphire windows for reflection-loss-free operation of vapor cells," Appl. Phys. B 71, 561-565 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  30. E. Jahier, J. Guéna, M. Lintz, Ph. Jacquier, and M.-A. Bouchiat, "Exploration d'une expérience PV en champ électrique transverse, exploitant la détection par émission stimulée," J. Phys. IV 12, 159-161 (2002).
  31. E. Jahier, "Voies ouvertes par des cellules à césium en saphir pour des expériences de violation de parité détectée par émission stimulée," Ph.D thesis (University of Paris VI, 2001), http://theses-en-ligne.in2p3.fr/view-thes-phys- atom_fr.html.
  32. M. A. Bouchiat, J. Guéna, and L. Pottier, "Atomic parity violation measurements in the highly forbidden 6S1/2-7S1/2 caesium transition. II. Analysis and control of systematic effects," J. Phys. (France) 47, 1175-1202 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  33. D. G. Sarkisyan and A. V. Melkonyan, "T-shaped leucosapphire cell for vapors of alkali-metal atoms," Instrum. Exp. Tech. 32, 485-486 (1989),
  34. E. Jahier, J. Guéna, Ph. Jacquier, M. Lintz, and M.-A. Bouchiat, "Implementation of a sapphire cell with external electrodes for laser excitation of a forbidden atomic transition in a pulsed E-field," Eur. Phys. J. D 13, 221-229 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  35. For the misalignment of E and B the measurement principle is based on the detection of the orientation induced by interference between the M1 and the scalar Stark amplitudes with a single excitation beam and a linear excitation polarization proportional to Re{(E⋅epsilonex )(epsilonex* k )} oriented at 45° to B . After precession in the B field, it gives rise to a longitudinal orientation that - choosing coordinate axes x and z along B and k , respectively - we can write as Re {epsilonx epsilony* }deltaEy Bxk . This is odd under the insertion of a lambda/2 plate that reverses the sign of Re {epsilon x epsilon y* }. Thus it can easily be compared with the component |epsilonex |2 Ex Bxk , which is even under this reversal. The ratio between the two signals yields directly 〈deltaEy 〉/Ex , i.e., the misalignment defect.
  36. The transverse and longitudinal field experiments that we consider here differ not only in the field direction, but in the polarization of the excitation beam, circular versus linear, and the hyperfine transitions involved, 6SF=4 -->7SF=4 -->6P3/2,F=5 versus 6SF=3 -->7SF=4 -->6P3/2,F=4 . But it turns out that the overall change in the k coefficient is small and can be neglected.
  37. We have chosen to make here a comparison between two situations differing by the magnitude of L , but such that the APV asymmetries are of equal size |Ppv |= |thetapv |. Indeed, it is not identical to increase A by increasing L rather than the field magnitude. Increasing the field magnitude increases A at the expense of a reduction of Ppv or thetapv . This reinforces the risks of systematic effects arising for instance from stray fields, which are amplified like the APV asymmetry.
  38. R. H. Dicke, "Coherence in spontaneous radiation processes," Phys. Rev. 93, 99-110 (1954).
    [CrossRef]
  39. L. Mandel and E. Wolf, Optical Coherence and Quantum Optics (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1995), Chap. 16.
  40. M. Gross and S. Haroche, "Superradiance: an essay on the theory of collective spontaneous emission," Phys. Rep. 93, 302-396 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  41. M. A. Bouchiat, J. Guéna, Ph. Jacquier, M. Lintz, and L. Pottier, "From linear amplification to triggered superradiance: illustrative examples of stimulated emission and polarization spectroscopy for sensitive detection of a pulsed excited forbidden transition," J. Phys. II 2, 727-747 (1992).
  42. Ph. Jacquier, "Vers des mesures précises de violation de la parité dans le césium: construction d'une expérience nouvelle utilisant une détection active par émission induite," Ph.D. thesis (University of Paris VI, 1991).
  43. Hyperfine mixing of the wave functions also contributes to this effect but to a smaller extent, leading to a distortion of the line near the center (circular dichroism) or in the wings (optical rotation).
  44. J. E. Stalnaker, D. Budker, D. P. DeMille, S. J. Freedman, and V. V. Yashchuk, "Measurement of the forbidden 6s21S0-->5d6s3D1 magnetic-dipole transition amplitude in atomic ytterbium," Phys. Rev. A 66, 031403 (R) 1-4 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  45. D. Budker and J. E. Stalnaker, "Magnetoelectric Jones dichroism in atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 263901 1-4 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  46. D. Budker, W. Gawlik, D. F. Kimball, S. M. Rochester, V. V. Yashchuk, and A. Weis, "Resonant nonlinear magneto-optical effects in atoms," Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 1153-1204 (2002).
    [CrossRef]

2004 (2)

J. S. M. Ginges and V. V. Flambaum, "Violation of fundamental symmetries in atoms and tests of unification theories of elementary particles," Phys. Rep. 397, 63-154 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M.-A. Bouchiat, J. Guéna, and M. Lintz, "Cylindrical symmetry discrimination of magnetoelectric optical systematic effects in a pump-probe atomic parity violation experiment," Eur. Phys. J. D 28, 331-349 (2004); e-print arXiv:physics/0311101.
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

D. Budker and J. E. Stalnaker, "Magnetoelectric Jones dichroism in atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 263901 1-4 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Johnson, M. S. Safronova, and U. I. Safronova, "Combined effect of coherent Z exchange and the hyperfine interaction in the atomic parity-nonconserving interaction," Phys. Rev. A 67, 062106-1-9 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Guéna, D. Chauvat, Ph. Jacquier, E. Jahier, M. Lintz, S. Sanguinetti, A. Wasan, M.-A. Bouchiat, A. V. Papoyan, and D. Sarkisyan, "New manifestation of Atomic Parity Violation in cesium: A chiral optical gain induced by linearly polarized 6S-7S excitation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 143001 1-4 (2003).

2002 (5)

V. A. Dzuba, V. V. Flambaum, and J. S. M. Ginges, "High precision calculation of parity nonconservation in cesium and test of the standard model," Phys. Rev. D 66, 076013 1-11 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. I. Milstein and O. P. Sushkov, "Parity nonconservation in heavy atoms: The radiative correction enhanced by the strong electric field of the nucleus," Phys. Rev. A 66, 022108 1-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Budker, W. Gawlik, D. F. Kimball, S. M. Rochester, V. V. Yashchuk, and A. Weis, "Resonant nonlinear magneto-optical effects in atoms," Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 1153-1204 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. Jahier, J. Guéna, M. Lintz, Ph. Jacquier, and M.-A. Bouchiat, "Exploration d'une expérience PV en champ électrique transverse, exploitant la détection par émission stimulée," J. Phys. IV 12, 159-161 (2002).

J. E. Stalnaker, D. Budker, D. P. DeMille, S. J. Freedman, and V. V. Yashchuk, "Measurement of the forbidden 6s21S0-->5d6s3D1 magnetic-dipole transition amplitude in atomic ytterbium," Phys. Rev. A 66, 031403 (R) 1-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

E. Jahier, J. Guéna, Ph. Jacquier, M. Lintz, and M.-A. Bouchiat, "Implementation of a sapphire cell with external electrodes for laser excitation of a forbidden atomic transition in a pulsed E-field," Eur. Phys. J. D 13, 221-229 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

E. Jahier, J. Guéna, Ph. Jacquier, M. Lintz, A. V. Papoyan, and M.-A. Bouchiat, "Temperature-tunable sapphire windows for reflection-loss-free operation of vapor cells," Appl. Phys. B 71, 561-565 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Derevianko, "Reconciliation of the meaasurement of parity nonconservation in Cs with the standard model," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1618-1621 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

S. C. Bennett and C. E. Wieman, "Measurement of the 6S-->7S transition polarizability in atomic cesium and an improved test of the standard model," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2484-2487 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

D. Chauvat, J. Guéna, Ph. Jacquier, M. Lintz, and M.-A. Bouchiat, "Amplification of atomic L-R asymmetries by stimulated emission: experimental demonstration of sensitivity enhancement valuable for parity violation measurements," Eur. Phys. J. D 1, 169-177 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Guéna, D. Chauvat, Ph. Jacquier, M. Lintz, M. D. Plimmer, and M.-A. Bouchiat, "Sensitive pulsed pump-probe atomic polarimetry for parity-violation measurements in caesium," Quantum Semiclassic. Opt. 10, 733-752 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

J. Guéna, D. Chauvat, Ph. Jacquier, M. Lintz, M. D. Plimmer, and M.-A. Bouchiat, "Differential-mode atomic polarimetry with pulsed lasers: high-precision zero adjustment," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 271-284 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Wood, S. C. Bennett, D. Cho, B. P. Masterson, J. L. Roberts, C. E. Tanner, and C. E. Wieman, "Measurement of parity nonconservation and an anapole moment in cesium," Science 275, 1759-1763 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Bouchiat and C. Bouchiat, "Parity violation in atoms," Rep. Prog. Phys. 60, 1351-1396 (1997), for a complete list of references.
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

C. Bouchiat and M. A. Bouchiat, "Amplification of the electroweak left-right asymmetry in atoms by stimulated emission," Z. Phys. D 36, 105-117 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

M.-A. Bouchiat, D. Chauvat, J. Guéna, Ph. Jacquier, M. Lintz, and M. D. Plimmer, "High precision balanced mode polarimetry with a pulsed laser beam," Opt. Commun. 119, 403-414 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

M. A. Bouchiat, J. Guéna, Ph. Jacquier, M. Lintz, and L. Pottier, "From linear amplification to triggered superradiance: illustrative examples of stimulated emission and polarization spectroscopy for sensitive detection of a pulsed excited forbidden transition," J. Phys. II 2, 727-747 (1992).

S. A. Blundell, J. Sapirstein, and W. R. Johnson, "High-accuracy calculation of parity nonconservation in cesium and implications for particle physics," Phys. Rev. D 45, 1602-1623 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

C. Bouchiat and C. A. Piketty, "Nuclear-spin-dependent atomic parity violation, nuclear anapole moments, and the hadronic axial neutral current," Z. Phys. C 49, 91-107 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

V. A. Dzuba, V. V. Flambaum, and O. P. Sushkov, "Summation of the high orders of perturbation theory for the parity nonconserving E1-amplitude of the 6s-7s transition in the caesium atom," Phys. Lett. A 141, 147-153 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Sarkisyan and A. V. Melkonyan, "T-shaped leucosapphire cell for vapors of alkali-metal atoms," Instrum. Exp. Tech. 32, 485-486 (1989),

1988 (2)

M. A. Bouchiat and J. Guéna, "The E2 6S-7S amplitude in cesium and its importance in a precise calibration of E1pv," J. Phys. (France) 49, 2037-2044 (1988).
[CrossRef]

C. Bouchiat and C. A. Piketty, "Magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole amplitudes induced by the hyperfine interaction in the cesium 6S-7S transition and the parity violation calibration," J. Phys. (France) 49, 1851-1856 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

M. A. Bouchiat, J. Guéna, and L. Pottier, "Atomic parity violation measurements in the highly forbidden 6S1/2-7S1/2 caesium transition. II. Analysis and control of systematic effects," J. Phys. (France) 47, 1175-1202 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

M. A. Bouchiat, Ph. Jacquier, M. Lintz, and L. Pottier, "Parity violation in forbidden transitions: detection of the electroweak alignment or polarization in the upper state by stimulated emission," Opt. Commun. 56, 100-106 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1982 (2)

M. Gross and S. Haroche, "Superradiance: an essay on the theory of collective spontaneous emission," Phys. Rep. 93, 302-396 (1982).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Bouchiat, J. Guéna, L. Hunter, and L. Pottier, "Observation of a parity violation in cesium," Phys. Lett. B 117, 358-364 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

R. Conti, P. Bucksbaum, S. Chu, E. D. Commins, and L. R. Hunter, "Preliminary observation of parity violation in atomic thallium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 343-346 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

M. A. Bouchiat and C. Bouchiat, "Parity violation induced by weak neutral currents in atomic physics," J. Phys. (France) 35, 899-927 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1954 (1)

R. H. Dicke, "Coherence in spontaneous radiation processes," Phys. Rev. 93, 99-110 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Bennett , S. C.

S. C. Bennett and C. E. Wieman, "Measurement of the 6S-->7S transition polarizability in atomic cesium and an improved test of the standard model," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2484-2487 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, S. C.

C. S. Wood, S. C. Bennett, D. Cho, B. P. Masterson, J. L. Roberts, C. E. Tanner, and C. E. Wieman, "Measurement of parity nonconservation and an anapole moment in cesium," Science 275, 1759-1763 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blundell, S. A.

S. A. Blundell, J. Sapirstein, and W. R. Johnson, "High-accuracy calculation of parity nonconservation in cesium and implications for particle physics," Phys. Rev. D 45, 1602-1623 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bouchiat, C.

M. A. Bouchiat and C. Bouchiat, "Parity violation in atoms," Rep. Prog. Phys. 60, 1351-1396 (1997), for a complete list of references.
[CrossRef]

Bouchiat , C.

C. Bouchiat and M. A. Bouchiat, "Amplification of the electroweak left-right asymmetry in atoms by stimulated emission," Z. Phys. D 36, 105-117 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. Bouchiat and C. A. Piketty, "Nuclear-spin-dependent atomic parity violation, nuclear anapole moments, and the hadronic axial neutral current," Z. Phys. C 49, 91-107 (1991).
[CrossRef]

C. Bouchiat and C. A. Piketty, "Magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole amplitudes induced by the hyperfine interaction in the cesium 6S-7S transition and the parity violation calibration," J. Phys. (France) 49, 1851-1856 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Bouchiat, C.

M. A. Bouchiat and C. Bouchiat, "Parity violation induced by weak neutral currents in atomic physics," J. Phys. (France) 35, 899-927 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Bouchiat , M. A.

M. A. Bouchiat and C. Bouchiat, "Parity violation in atoms," Rep. Prog. Phys. 60, 1351-1396 (1997), for a complete list of references.
[CrossRef]

Bouchiat, M. A.

C. Bouchiat and M. A. Bouchiat, "Amplification of the electroweak left-right asymmetry in atoms by stimulated emission," Z. Phys. D 36, 105-117 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Bouchiat, J. Guéna, Ph. Jacquier, M. Lintz, and L. Pottier, "From linear amplification to triggered superradiance: illustrative examples of stimulated emission and polarization spectroscopy for sensitive detection of a pulsed excited forbidden transition," J. Phys. II 2, 727-747 (1992).

Bouchiat , M. A.

M. A. Bouchiat and J. Guéna, "The E2 6S-7S amplitude in cesium and its importance in a precise calibration of E1pv," J. Phys. (France) 49, 2037-2044 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Bouchiat, M. A.

M. A. Bouchiat, J. Guéna, and L. Pottier, "Atomic parity violation measurements in the highly forbidden 6S1/2-7S1/2 caesium transition. II. Analysis and control of systematic effects," J. Phys. (France) 47, 1175-1202 (1986).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Bouchiat, Ph. Jacquier, M. Lintz, and L. Pottier, "Parity violation in forbidden transitions: detection of the electroweak alignment or polarization in the upper state by stimulated emission," Opt. Commun. 56, 100-106 (1985).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Bouchiat, J. Guéna, L. Hunter, and L. Pottier, "Observation of a parity violation in cesium," Phys. Lett. B 117, 358-364 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Bouchiat , M. A.

M. A. Bouchiat and C. Bouchiat, "Parity violation induced by weak neutral currents in atomic physics," J. Phys. (France) 35, 899-927 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Bouchiat, M.-A.

M.-A. Bouchiat, J. Guéna, and M. Lintz, "Cylindrical symmetry discrimination of magnetoelectric optical systematic effects in a pump-probe atomic parity violation experiment," Eur. Phys. J. D 28, 331-349 (2004); e-print arXiv:physics/0311101.
[CrossRef]

J. Guéna, D. Chauvat, Ph. Jacquier, E. Jahier, M. Lintz, S. Sanguinetti, A. Wasan, M.-A. Bouchiat, A. V. Papoyan, and D. Sarkisyan, "New manifestation of Atomic Parity Violation in cesium: A chiral optical gain induced by linearly polarized 6S-7S excitation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 143001 1-4 (2003).

E. Jahier, J. Guéna, M. Lintz, Ph. Jacquier, and M.-A. Bouchiat, "Exploration d'une expérience PV en champ électrique transverse, exploitant la détection par émission stimulée," J. Phys. IV 12, 159-161 (2002).

E. Jahier, J. Guéna, Ph. Jacquier, M. Lintz, and M.-A. Bouchiat, "Implementation of a sapphire cell with external electrodes for laser excitation of a forbidden atomic transition in a pulsed E-field," Eur. Phys. J. D 13, 221-229 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Jahier, J. Guéna, Ph. Jacquier, M. Lintz, A. V. Papoyan, and M.-A. Bouchiat, "Temperature-tunable sapphire windows for reflection-loss-free operation of vapor cells," Appl. Phys. B 71, 561-565 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Chauvat, J. Guéna, Ph. Jacquier, M. Lintz, and M.-A. Bouchiat, "Amplification of atomic L-R asymmetries by stimulated emission: experimental demonstration of sensitivity enhancement valuable for parity violation measurements," Eur. Phys. J. D 1, 169-177 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Guéna, D. Chauvat, Ph. Jacquier, M. Lintz, M. D. Plimmer, and M.-A. Bouchiat, "Sensitive pulsed pump-probe atomic polarimetry for parity-violation measurements in caesium," Quantum Semiclassic. Opt. 10, 733-752 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Guéna, D. Chauvat, Ph. Jacquier, M. Lintz, M. D. Plimmer, and M.-A. Bouchiat, "Differential-mode atomic polarimetry with pulsed lasers: high-precision zero adjustment," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 271-284 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M.-A. Bouchiat, D. Chauvat, J. Guéna, Ph. Jacquier, M. Lintz, and M. D. Plimmer, "High precision balanced mode polarimetry with a pulsed laser beam," Opt. Commun. 119, 403-414 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bucksbaum, P.

R. Conti, P. Bucksbaum, S. Chu, E. D. Commins, and L. R. Hunter, "Preliminary observation of parity violation in atomic thallium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 343-346 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Budker , D.

D. Budker and J. E. Stalnaker, "Magnetoelectric Jones dichroism in atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 263901 1-4 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Budker, D.

D. Budker, W. Gawlik, D. F. Kimball, S. M. Rochester, V. V. Yashchuk, and A. Weis, "Resonant nonlinear magneto-optical effects in atoms," Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 1153-1204 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Stalnaker, D. Budker, D. P. DeMille, S. J. Freedman, and V. V. Yashchuk, "Measurement of the forbidden 6s21S0-->5d6s3D1 magnetic-dipole transition amplitude in atomic ytterbium," Phys. Rev. A 66, 031403 (R) 1-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chauvat, D.

J. Guéna, D. Chauvat, Ph. Jacquier, E. Jahier, M. Lintz, S. Sanguinetti, A. Wasan, M.-A. Bouchiat, A. V. Papoyan, and D. Sarkisyan, "New manifestation of Atomic Parity Violation in cesium: A chiral optical gain induced by linearly polarized 6S-7S excitation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 143001 1-4 (2003).

J. Guéna, D. Chauvat, Ph. Jacquier, M. Lintz, M. D. Plimmer, and M.-A. Bouchiat, "Sensitive pulsed pump-probe atomic polarimetry for parity-violation measurements in caesium," Quantum Semiclassic. Opt. 10, 733-752 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Chauvat, J. Guéna, Ph. Jacquier, M. Lintz, and M.-A. Bouchiat, "Amplification of atomic L-R asymmetries by stimulated emission: experimental demonstration of sensitivity enhancement valuable for parity violation measurements," Eur. Phys. J. D 1, 169-177 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Guéna, D. Chauvat, Ph. Jacquier, M. Lintz, M. D. Plimmer, and M.-A. Bouchiat, "Differential-mode atomic polarimetry with pulsed lasers: high-precision zero adjustment," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 271-284 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M.-A. Bouchiat, D. Chauvat, J. Guéna, Ph. Jacquier, M. Lintz, and M. D. Plimmer, "High precision balanced mode polarimetry with a pulsed laser beam," Opt. Commun. 119, 403-414 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cho, D.

C. S. Wood, S. C. Bennett, D. Cho, B. P. Masterson, J. L. Roberts, C. E. Tanner, and C. E. Wieman, "Measurement of parity nonconservation and an anapole moment in cesium," Science 275, 1759-1763 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chu, S.

R. Conti, P. Bucksbaum, S. Chu, E. D. Commins, and L. R. Hunter, "Preliminary observation of parity violation in atomic thallium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 343-346 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Commins, E. D.

R. Conti, P. Bucksbaum, S. Chu, E. D. Commins, and L. R. Hunter, "Preliminary observation of parity violation in atomic thallium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 343-346 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Conti, R.

R. Conti, P. Bucksbaum, S. Chu, E. D. Commins, and L. R. Hunter, "Preliminary observation of parity violation in atomic thallium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 343-346 (1979).
[CrossRef]

DeMille, D. P.

J. E. Stalnaker, D. Budker, D. P. DeMille, S. J. Freedman, and V. V. Yashchuk, "Measurement of the forbidden 6s21S0-->5d6s3D1 magnetic-dipole transition amplitude in atomic ytterbium," Phys. Rev. A 66, 031403 (R) 1-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Derevianko, A.

A. Derevianko, "Reconciliation of the meaasurement of parity nonconservation in Cs with the standard model," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1618-1621 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dicke, R. H.

R. H. Dicke, "Coherence in spontaneous radiation processes," Phys. Rev. 93, 99-110 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Dzuba, V. A.

V. A. Dzuba, V. V. Flambaum, and J. S. M. Ginges, "High precision calculation of parity nonconservation in cesium and test of the standard model," Phys. Rev. D 66, 076013 1-11 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Dzuba, V. V. Flambaum, and O. P. Sushkov, "Summation of the high orders of perturbation theory for the parity nonconserving E1-amplitude of the 6s-7s transition in the caesium atom," Phys. Lett. A 141, 147-153 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Flambaum, V. V.

J. S. M. Ginges and V. V. Flambaum, "Violation of fundamental symmetries in atoms and tests of unification theories of elementary particles," Phys. Rep. 397, 63-154 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Dzuba, V. V. Flambaum, and J. S. M. Ginges, "High precision calculation of parity nonconservation in cesium and test of the standard model," Phys. Rev. D 66, 076013 1-11 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Dzuba, V. V. Flambaum, and O. P. Sushkov, "Summation of the high orders of perturbation theory for the parity nonconserving E1-amplitude of the 6s-7s transition in the caesium atom," Phys. Lett. A 141, 147-153 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Freedman, S. J.

J. E. Stalnaker, D. Budker, D. P. DeMille, S. J. Freedman, and V. V. Yashchuk, "Measurement of the forbidden 6s21S0-->5d6s3D1 magnetic-dipole transition amplitude in atomic ytterbium," Phys. Rev. A 66, 031403 (R) 1-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gawlik, W.

D. Budker, W. Gawlik, D. F. Kimball, S. M. Rochester, V. V. Yashchuk, and A. Weis, "Resonant nonlinear magneto-optical effects in atoms," Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 1153-1204 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ginges , J. S. M.

J. S. M. Ginges and V. V. Flambaum, "Violation of fundamental symmetries in atoms and tests of unification theories of elementary particles," Phys. Rep. 397, 63-154 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ginges, J. S. M.

V. A. Dzuba, V. V. Flambaum, and J. S. M. Ginges, "High precision calculation of parity nonconservation in cesium and test of the standard model," Phys. Rev. D 66, 076013 1-11 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gross , M.

M. Gross and S. Haroche, "Superradiance: an essay on the theory of collective spontaneous emission," Phys. Rep. 93, 302-396 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Guéna, J.

M.-A. Bouchiat, J. Guéna, and M. Lintz, "Cylindrical symmetry discrimination of magnetoelectric optical systematic effects in a pump-probe atomic parity violation experiment," Eur. Phys. J. D 28, 331-349 (2004); e-print arXiv:physics/0311101.
[CrossRef]

J. Guéna, D. Chauvat, Ph. Jacquier, E. Jahier, M. Lintz, S. Sanguinetti, A. Wasan, M.-A. Bouchiat, A. V. Papoyan, and D. Sarkisyan, "New manifestation of Atomic Parity Violation in cesium: A chiral optical gain induced by linearly polarized 6S-7S excitation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 143001 1-4 (2003).

E. Jahier, J. Guéna, M. Lintz, Ph. Jacquier, and M.-A. Bouchiat, "Exploration d'une expérience PV en champ électrique transverse, exploitant la détection par émission stimulée," J. Phys. IV 12, 159-161 (2002).

E. Jahier, J. Guéna, Ph. Jacquier, M. Lintz, and M.-A. Bouchiat, "Implementation of a sapphire cell with external electrodes for laser excitation of a forbidden atomic transition in a pulsed E-field," Eur. Phys. J. D 13, 221-229 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Jahier, J. Guéna, Ph. Jacquier, M. Lintz, A. V. Papoyan, and M.-A. Bouchiat, "Temperature-tunable sapphire windows for reflection-loss-free operation of vapor cells," Appl. Phys. B 71, 561-565 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Chauvat, J. Guéna, Ph. Jacquier, M. Lintz, and M.-A. Bouchiat, "Amplification of atomic L-R asymmetries by stimulated emission: experimental demonstration of sensitivity enhancement valuable for parity violation measurements," Eur. Phys. J. D 1, 169-177 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Guéna, D. Chauvat, Ph. Jacquier, M. Lintz, M. D. Plimmer, and M.-A. Bouchiat, "Sensitive pulsed pump-probe atomic polarimetry for parity-violation measurements in caesium," Quantum Semiclassic. Opt. 10, 733-752 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Guéna, D. Chauvat, Ph. Jacquier, M. Lintz, M. D. Plimmer, and M.-A. Bouchiat, "Differential-mode atomic polarimetry with pulsed lasers: high-precision zero adjustment," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 271-284 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M.-A. Bouchiat, D. Chauvat, J. Guéna, Ph. Jacquier, M. Lintz, and M. D. Plimmer, "High precision balanced mode polarimetry with a pulsed laser beam," Opt. Commun. 119, 403-414 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Bouchiat, J. Guéna, Ph. Jacquier, M. Lintz, and L. Pottier, "From linear amplification to triggered superradiance: illustrative examples of stimulated emission and polarization spectroscopy for sensitive detection of a pulsed excited forbidden transition," J. Phys. II 2, 727-747 (1992).

M. A. Bouchiat and J. Guéna, "The E2 6S-7S amplitude in cesium and its importance in a precise calibration of E1pv," J. Phys. (France) 49, 2037-2044 (1988).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Bouchiat, J. Guéna, and L. Pottier, "Atomic parity violation measurements in the highly forbidden 6S1/2-7S1/2 caesium transition. II. Analysis and control of systematic effects," J. Phys. (France) 47, 1175-1202 (1986).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Bouchiat, J. Guéna, L. Hunter, and L. Pottier, "Observation of a parity violation in cesium," Phys. Lett. B 117, 358-364 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Haroche, S.

M. Gross and S. Haroche, "Superradiance: an essay on the theory of collective spontaneous emission," Phys. Rep. 93, 302-396 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Hunter, L.

M. A. Bouchiat, J. Guéna, L. Hunter, and L. Pottier, "Observation of a parity violation in cesium," Phys. Lett. B 117, 358-364 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Hunter, L. R.

R. Conti, P. Bucksbaum, S. Chu, E. D. Commins, and L. R. Hunter, "Preliminary observation of parity violation in atomic thallium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 343-346 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Jacquier, Ph.

J. Guéna, D. Chauvat, Ph. Jacquier, E. Jahier, M. Lintz, S. Sanguinetti, A. Wasan, M.-A. Bouchiat, A. V. Papoyan, and D. Sarkisyan, "New manifestation of Atomic Parity Violation in cesium: A chiral optical gain induced by linearly polarized 6S-7S excitation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 143001 1-4 (2003).

E. Jahier, J. Guéna, M. Lintz, Ph. Jacquier, and M.-A. Bouchiat, "Exploration d'une expérience PV en champ électrique transverse, exploitant la détection par émission stimulée," J. Phys. IV 12, 159-161 (2002).

E. Jahier, J. Guéna, Ph. Jacquier, M. Lintz, and M.-A. Bouchiat, "Implementation of a sapphire cell with external electrodes for laser excitation of a forbidden atomic transition in a pulsed E-field," Eur. Phys. J. D 13, 221-229 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Jahier, J. Guéna, Ph. Jacquier, M. Lintz, A. V. Papoyan, and M.-A. Bouchiat, "Temperature-tunable sapphire windows for reflection-loss-free operation of vapor cells," Appl. Phys. B 71, 561-565 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Chauvat, J. Guéna, Ph. Jacquier, M. Lintz, and M.-A. Bouchiat, "Amplification of atomic L-R asymmetries by stimulated emission: experimental demonstration of sensitivity enhancement valuable for parity violation measurements," Eur. Phys. J. D 1, 169-177 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Guéna, D. Chauvat, Ph. Jacquier, M. Lintz, M. D. Plimmer, and M.-A. Bouchiat, "Sensitive pulsed pump-probe atomic polarimetry for parity-violation measurements in caesium," Quantum Semiclassic. Opt. 10, 733-752 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Guéna, D. Chauvat, Ph. Jacquier, M. Lintz, M. D. Plimmer, and M.-A. Bouchiat, "Differential-mode atomic polarimetry with pulsed lasers: high-precision zero adjustment," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 271-284 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M.-A. Bouchiat, D. Chauvat, J. Guéna, Ph. Jacquier, M. Lintz, and M. D. Plimmer, "High precision balanced mode polarimetry with a pulsed laser beam," Opt. Commun. 119, 403-414 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Bouchiat, J. Guéna, Ph. Jacquier, M. Lintz, and L. Pottier, "From linear amplification to triggered superradiance: illustrative examples of stimulated emission and polarization spectroscopy for sensitive detection of a pulsed excited forbidden transition," J. Phys. II 2, 727-747 (1992).

M. A. Bouchiat, Ph. Jacquier, M. Lintz, and L. Pottier, "Parity violation in forbidden transitions: detection of the electroweak alignment or polarization in the upper state by stimulated emission," Opt. Commun. 56, 100-106 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Jahier, E.

J. Guéna, D. Chauvat, Ph. Jacquier, E. Jahier, M. Lintz, S. Sanguinetti, A. Wasan, M.-A. Bouchiat, A. V. Papoyan, and D. Sarkisyan, "New manifestation of Atomic Parity Violation in cesium: A chiral optical gain induced by linearly polarized 6S-7S excitation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 143001 1-4 (2003).

E. Jahier, J. Guéna, M. Lintz, Ph. Jacquier, and M.-A. Bouchiat, "Exploration d'une expérience PV en champ électrique transverse, exploitant la détection par émission stimulée," J. Phys. IV 12, 159-161 (2002).

E. Jahier, J. Guéna, Ph. Jacquier, M. Lintz, and M.-A. Bouchiat, "Implementation of a sapphire cell with external electrodes for laser excitation of a forbidden atomic transition in a pulsed E-field," Eur. Phys. J. D 13, 221-229 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Jahier, J. Guéna, Ph. Jacquier, M. Lintz, A. V. Papoyan, and M.-A. Bouchiat, "Temperature-tunable sapphire windows for reflection-loss-free operation of vapor cells," Appl. Phys. B 71, 561-565 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, W. R.

W. R. Johnson, M. S. Safronova, and U. I. Safronova, "Combined effect of coherent Z exchange and the hyperfine interaction in the atomic parity-nonconserving interaction," Phys. Rev. A 67, 062106-1-9 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Blundell, J. Sapirstein, and W. R. Johnson, "High-accuracy calculation of parity nonconservation in cesium and implications for particle physics," Phys. Rev. D 45, 1602-1623 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kimball, D. F.

D. Budker, W. Gawlik, D. F. Kimball, S. M. Rochester, V. V. Yashchuk, and A. Weis, "Resonant nonlinear magneto-optical effects in atoms," Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 1153-1204 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lintz, M.

M.-A. Bouchiat, J. Guéna, and M. Lintz, "Cylindrical symmetry discrimination of magnetoelectric optical systematic effects in a pump-probe atomic parity violation experiment," Eur. Phys. J. D 28, 331-349 (2004); e-print arXiv:physics/0311101.
[CrossRef]

J. Guéna, D. Chauvat, Ph. Jacquier, E. Jahier, M. Lintz, S. Sanguinetti, A. Wasan, M.-A. Bouchiat, A. V. Papoyan, and D. Sarkisyan, "New manifestation of Atomic Parity Violation in cesium: A chiral optical gain induced by linearly polarized 6S-7S excitation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 143001 1-4 (2003).

E. Jahier, J. Guéna, M. Lintz, Ph. Jacquier, and M.-A. Bouchiat, "Exploration d'une expérience PV en champ électrique transverse, exploitant la détection par émission stimulée," J. Phys. IV 12, 159-161 (2002).

E. Jahier, J. Guéna, Ph. Jacquier, M. Lintz, and M.-A. Bouchiat, "Implementation of a sapphire cell with external electrodes for laser excitation of a forbidden atomic transition in a pulsed E-field," Eur. Phys. J. D 13, 221-229 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Jahier, J. Guéna, Ph. Jacquier, M. Lintz, A. V. Papoyan, and M.-A. Bouchiat, "Temperature-tunable sapphire windows for reflection-loss-free operation of vapor cells," Appl. Phys. B 71, 561-565 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Chauvat, J. Guéna, Ph. Jacquier, M. Lintz, and M.-A. Bouchiat, "Amplification of atomic L-R asymmetries by stimulated emission: experimental demonstration of sensitivity enhancement valuable for parity violation measurements," Eur. Phys. J. D 1, 169-177 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Guéna, D. Chauvat, Ph. Jacquier, M. Lintz, M. D. Plimmer, and M.-A. Bouchiat, "Sensitive pulsed pump-probe atomic polarimetry for parity-violation measurements in caesium," Quantum Semiclassic. Opt. 10, 733-752 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Guéna, D. Chauvat, Ph. Jacquier, M. Lintz, M. D. Plimmer, and M.-A. Bouchiat, "Differential-mode atomic polarimetry with pulsed lasers: high-precision zero adjustment," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 271-284 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M.-A. Bouchiat, D. Chauvat, J. Guéna, Ph. Jacquier, M. Lintz, and M. D. Plimmer, "High precision balanced mode polarimetry with a pulsed laser beam," Opt. Commun. 119, 403-414 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Bouchiat, J. Guéna, Ph. Jacquier, M. Lintz, and L. Pottier, "From linear amplification to triggered superradiance: illustrative examples of stimulated emission and polarization spectroscopy for sensitive detection of a pulsed excited forbidden transition," J. Phys. II 2, 727-747 (1992).

M. A. Bouchiat, Ph. Jacquier, M. Lintz, and L. Pottier, "Parity violation in forbidden transitions: detection of the electroweak alignment or polarization in the upper state by stimulated emission," Opt. Commun. 56, 100-106 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Masterson, B. P.

C. S. Wood, S. C. Bennett, D. Cho, B. P. Masterson, J. L. Roberts, C. E. Tanner, and C. E. Wieman, "Measurement of parity nonconservation and an anapole moment in cesium," Science 275, 1759-1763 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Melkonyan, A. V.

D. G. Sarkisyan and A. V. Melkonyan, "T-shaped leucosapphire cell for vapors of alkali-metal atoms," Instrum. Exp. Tech. 32, 485-486 (1989),

Milstein , A. I.

A. I. Milstein and O. P. Sushkov, "Parity nonconservation in heavy atoms: The radiative correction enhanced by the strong electric field of the nucleus," Phys. Rev. A 66, 022108 1-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Papoyan, A. V.

J. Guéna, D. Chauvat, Ph. Jacquier, E. Jahier, M. Lintz, S. Sanguinetti, A. Wasan, M.-A. Bouchiat, A. V. Papoyan, and D. Sarkisyan, "New manifestation of Atomic Parity Violation in cesium: A chiral optical gain induced by linearly polarized 6S-7S excitation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 143001 1-4 (2003).

E. Jahier, J. Guéna, Ph. Jacquier, M. Lintz, A. V. Papoyan, and M.-A. Bouchiat, "Temperature-tunable sapphire windows for reflection-loss-free operation of vapor cells," Appl. Phys. B 71, 561-565 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Piketty, C. A.

C. Bouchiat and C. A. Piketty, "Nuclear-spin-dependent atomic parity violation, nuclear anapole moments, and the hadronic axial neutral current," Z. Phys. C 49, 91-107 (1991).
[CrossRef]

C. Bouchiat and C. A. Piketty, "Magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole amplitudes induced by the hyperfine interaction in the cesium 6S-7S transition and the parity violation calibration," J. Phys. (France) 49, 1851-1856 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Plimmer, M. D.

J. Guéna, D. Chauvat, Ph. Jacquier, M. Lintz, M. D. Plimmer, and M.-A. Bouchiat, "Sensitive pulsed pump-probe atomic polarimetry for parity-violation measurements in caesium," Quantum Semiclassic. Opt. 10, 733-752 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Guéna, D. Chauvat, Ph. Jacquier, M. Lintz, M. D. Plimmer, and M.-A. Bouchiat, "Differential-mode atomic polarimetry with pulsed lasers: high-precision zero adjustment," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 271-284 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M.-A. Bouchiat, D. Chauvat, J. Guéna, Ph. Jacquier, M. Lintz, and M. D. Plimmer, "High precision balanced mode polarimetry with a pulsed laser beam," Opt. Commun. 119, 403-414 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pottier, L.

M. A. Bouchiat, J. Guéna, Ph. Jacquier, M. Lintz, and L. Pottier, "From linear amplification to triggered superradiance: illustrative examples of stimulated emission and polarization spectroscopy for sensitive detection of a pulsed excited forbidden transition," J. Phys. II 2, 727-747 (1992).

M. A. Bouchiat, J. Guéna, and L. Pottier, "Atomic parity violation measurements in the highly forbidden 6S1/2-7S1/2 caesium transition. II. Analysis and control of systematic effects," J. Phys. (France) 47, 1175-1202 (1986).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Bouchiat, Ph. Jacquier, M. Lintz, and L. Pottier, "Parity violation in forbidden transitions: detection of the electroweak alignment or polarization in the upper state by stimulated emission," Opt. Commun. 56, 100-106 (1985).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Bouchiat, J. Guéna, L. Hunter, and L. Pottier, "Observation of a parity violation in cesium," Phys. Lett. B 117, 358-364 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, J. L.

C. S. Wood, S. C. Bennett, D. Cho, B. P. Masterson, J. L. Roberts, C. E. Tanner, and C. E. Wieman, "Measurement of parity nonconservation and an anapole moment in cesium," Science 275, 1759-1763 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rochester, S. M.

D. Budker, W. Gawlik, D. F. Kimball, S. M. Rochester, V. V. Yashchuk, and A. Weis, "Resonant nonlinear magneto-optical effects in atoms," Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 1153-1204 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Safronova, M. S.

W. R. Johnson, M. S. Safronova, and U. I. Safronova, "Combined effect of coherent Z exchange and the hyperfine interaction in the atomic parity-nonconserving interaction," Phys. Rev. A 67, 062106-1-9 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Safronova, U. I.

W. R. Johnson, M. S. Safronova, and U. I. Safronova, "Combined effect of coherent Z exchange and the hyperfine interaction in the atomic parity-nonconserving interaction," Phys. Rev. A 67, 062106-1-9 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sanguinetti, S.

J. Guéna, D. Chauvat, Ph. Jacquier, E. Jahier, M. Lintz, S. Sanguinetti, A. Wasan, M.-A. Bouchiat, A. V. Papoyan, and D. Sarkisyan, "New manifestation of Atomic Parity Violation in cesium: A chiral optical gain induced by linearly polarized 6S-7S excitation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 143001 1-4 (2003).

Sapirstein, J.

S. A. Blundell, J. Sapirstein, and W. R. Johnson, "High-accuracy calculation of parity nonconservation in cesium and implications for particle physics," Phys. Rev. D 45, 1602-1623 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sarkisyan, D.

J. Guéna, D. Chauvat, Ph. Jacquier, E. Jahier, M. Lintz, S. Sanguinetti, A. Wasan, M.-A. Bouchiat, A. V. Papoyan, and D. Sarkisyan, "New manifestation of Atomic Parity Violation in cesium: A chiral optical gain induced by linearly polarized 6S-7S excitation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 143001 1-4 (2003).

Sarkisyan , D. G.

D. G. Sarkisyan and A. V. Melkonyan, "T-shaped leucosapphire cell for vapors of alkali-metal atoms," Instrum. Exp. Tech. 32, 485-486 (1989),

Stalnaker, J. E.

D. Budker and J. E. Stalnaker, "Magnetoelectric Jones dichroism in atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 263901 1-4 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Stalnaker, D. Budker, D. P. DeMille, S. J. Freedman, and V. V. Yashchuk, "Measurement of the forbidden 6s21S0-->5d6s3D1 magnetic-dipole transition amplitude in atomic ytterbium," Phys. Rev. A 66, 031403 (R) 1-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sushkov, O. P.

A. I. Milstein and O. P. Sushkov, "Parity nonconservation in heavy atoms: The radiative correction enhanced by the strong electric field of the nucleus," Phys. Rev. A 66, 022108 1-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Dzuba, V. V. Flambaum, and O. P. Sushkov, "Summation of the high orders of perturbation theory for the parity nonconserving E1-amplitude of the 6s-7s transition in the caesium atom," Phys. Lett. A 141, 147-153 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Tanner, C. E.

C. S. Wood, S. C. Bennett, D. Cho, B. P. Masterson, J. L. Roberts, C. E. Tanner, and C. E. Wieman, "Measurement of parity nonconservation and an anapole moment in cesium," Science 275, 1759-1763 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wasan, A.

J. Guéna, D. Chauvat, Ph. Jacquier, E. Jahier, M. Lintz, S. Sanguinetti, A. Wasan, M.-A. Bouchiat, A. V. Papoyan, and D. Sarkisyan, "New manifestation of Atomic Parity Violation in cesium: A chiral optical gain induced by linearly polarized 6S-7S excitation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 143001 1-4 (2003).

Weis, A.

D. Budker, W. Gawlik, D. F. Kimball, S. M. Rochester, V. V. Yashchuk, and A. Weis, "Resonant nonlinear magneto-optical effects in atoms," Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 1153-1204 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wieman, C. E.

S. C. Bennett and C. E. Wieman, "Measurement of the 6S-->7S transition polarizability in atomic cesium and an improved test of the standard model," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2484-2487 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Wood, S. C. Bennett, D. Cho, B. P. Masterson, J. L. Roberts, C. E. Tanner, and C. E. Wieman, "Measurement of parity nonconservation and an anapole moment in cesium," Science 275, 1759-1763 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wood, C. S.

C. S. Wood, S. C. Bennett, D. Cho, B. P. Masterson, J. L. Roberts, C. E. Tanner, and C. E. Wieman, "Measurement of parity nonconservation and an anapole moment in cesium," Science 275, 1759-1763 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yashchuk, V. V.

D. Budker, W. Gawlik, D. F. Kimball, S. M. Rochester, V. V. Yashchuk, and A. Weis, "Resonant nonlinear magneto-optical effects in atoms," Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 1153-1204 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Stalnaker, D. Budker, D. P. DeMille, S. J. Freedman, and V. V. Yashchuk, "Measurement of the forbidden 6s21S0-->5d6s3D1 magnetic-dipole transition amplitude in atomic ytterbium," Phys. Rev. A 66, 031403 (R) 1-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

E. Jahier, J. Guéna, Ph. Jacquier, M. Lintz, A. V. Papoyan, and M.-A. Bouchiat, "Temperature-tunable sapphire windows for reflection-loss-free operation of vapor cells," Appl. Phys. B 71, 561-565 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Phys. J. D (3)

E. Jahier, J. Guéna, Ph. Jacquier, M. Lintz, and M.-A. Bouchiat, "Implementation of a sapphire cell with external electrodes for laser excitation of a forbidden atomic transition in a pulsed E-field," Eur. Phys. J. D 13, 221-229 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M.-A. Bouchiat, J. Guéna, and M. Lintz, "Cylindrical symmetry discrimination of magnetoelectric optical systematic effects in a pump-probe atomic parity violation experiment," Eur. Phys. J. D 28, 331-349 (2004); e-print arXiv:physics/0311101.
[CrossRef]

D. Chauvat, J. Guéna, Ph. Jacquier, M. Lintz, and M.-A. Bouchiat, "Amplification of atomic L-R asymmetries by stimulated emission: experimental demonstration of sensitivity enhancement valuable for parity violation measurements," Eur. Phys. J. D 1, 169-177 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Instrum. Exp. Tech. (1)

D. G. Sarkisyan and A. V. Melkonyan, "T-shaped leucosapphire cell for vapors of alkali-metal atoms," Instrum. Exp. Tech. 32, 485-486 (1989),

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. (France) (4)

M. A. Bouchiat, J. Guéna, and L. Pottier, "Atomic parity violation measurements in the highly forbidden 6S1/2-7S1/2 caesium transition. II. Analysis and control of systematic effects," J. Phys. (France) 47, 1175-1202 (1986).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Bouchiat and C. Bouchiat, "Parity violation induced by weak neutral currents in atomic physics," J. Phys. (France) 35, 899-927 (1974).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Bouchiat and J. Guéna, "The E2 6S-7S amplitude in cesium and its importance in a precise calibration of E1pv," J. Phys. (France) 49, 2037-2044 (1988).
[CrossRef]

C. Bouchiat and C. A. Piketty, "Magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole amplitudes induced by the hyperfine interaction in the cesium 6S-7S transition and the parity violation calibration," J. Phys. (France) 49, 1851-1856 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. II (1)

M. A. Bouchiat, J. Guéna, Ph. Jacquier, M. Lintz, and L. Pottier, "From linear amplification to triggered superradiance: illustrative examples of stimulated emission and polarization spectroscopy for sensitive detection of a pulsed excited forbidden transition," J. Phys. II 2, 727-747 (1992).

J. Phys. IV (1)

E. Jahier, J. Guéna, M. Lintz, Ph. Jacquier, and M.-A. Bouchiat, "Exploration d'une expérience PV en champ électrique transverse, exploitant la détection par émission stimulée," J. Phys. IV 12, 159-161 (2002).

Opt. Commun. (2)

M. A. Bouchiat, Ph. Jacquier, M. Lintz, and L. Pottier, "Parity violation in forbidden transitions: detection of the electroweak alignment or polarization in the upper state by stimulated emission," Opt. Commun. 56, 100-106 (1985).
[CrossRef]

M.-A. Bouchiat, D. Chauvat, J. Guéna, Ph. Jacquier, M. Lintz, and M. D. Plimmer, "High precision balanced mode polarimetry with a pulsed laser beam," Opt. Commun. 119, 403-414 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Lett. A (1)

V. A. Dzuba, V. V. Flambaum, and O. P. Sushkov, "Summation of the high orders of perturbation theory for the parity nonconserving E1-amplitude of the 6s-7s transition in the caesium atom," Phys. Lett. A 141, 147-153 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Lett. B (1)

M. A. Bouchiat, J. Guéna, L. Hunter, and L. Pottier, "Observation of a parity violation in cesium," Phys. Lett. B 117, 358-364 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rep. (2)

J. S. M. Ginges and V. V. Flambaum, "Violation of fundamental symmetries in atoms and tests of unification theories of elementary particles," Phys. Rep. 397, 63-154 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Gross and S. Haroche, "Superradiance: an essay on the theory of collective spontaneous emission," Phys. Rep. 93, 302-396 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (1)

R. H. Dicke, "Coherence in spontaneous radiation processes," Phys. Rev. 93, 99-110 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (3)

J. E. Stalnaker, D. Budker, D. P. DeMille, S. J. Freedman, and V. V. Yashchuk, "Measurement of the forbidden 6s21S0-->5d6s3D1 magnetic-dipole transition amplitude in atomic ytterbium," Phys. Rev. A 66, 031403 (R) 1-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. I. Milstein and O. P. Sushkov, "Parity nonconservation in heavy atoms: The radiative correction enhanced by the strong electric field of the nucleus," Phys. Rev. A 66, 022108 1-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Johnson, M. S. Safronova, and U. I. Safronova, "Combined effect of coherent Z exchange and the hyperfine interaction in the atomic parity-nonconserving interaction," Phys. Rev. A 67, 062106-1-9 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. D (2)

V. A. Dzuba, V. V. Flambaum, and J. S. M. Ginges, "High precision calculation of parity nonconservation in cesium and test of the standard model," Phys. Rev. D 66, 076013 1-11 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Blundell, J. Sapirstein, and W. R. Johnson, "High-accuracy calculation of parity nonconservation in cesium and implications for particle physics," Phys. Rev. D 45, 1602-1623 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

A. Derevianko, "Reconciliation of the meaasurement of parity nonconservation in Cs with the standard model," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1618-1621 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Bennett and C. E. Wieman, "Measurement of the 6S-->7S transition polarizability in atomic cesium and an improved test of the standard model," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2484-2487 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Conti, P. Bucksbaum, S. Chu, E. D. Commins, and L. R. Hunter, "Preliminary observation of parity violation in atomic thallium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 343-346 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Guéna, D. Chauvat, Ph. Jacquier, E. Jahier, M. Lintz, S. Sanguinetti, A. Wasan, M.-A. Bouchiat, A. V. Papoyan, and D. Sarkisyan, "New manifestation of Atomic Parity Violation in cesium: A chiral optical gain induced by linearly polarized 6S-7S excitation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 143001 1-4 (2003).

D. Budker and J. E. Stalnaker, "Magnetoelectric Jones dichroism in atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 263901 1-4 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Quantum Semiclassic. Opt. (1)

J. Guéna, D. Chauvat, Ph. Jacquier, M. Lintz, M. D. Plimmer, and M.-A. Bouchiat, "Sensitive pulsed pump-probe atomic polarimetry for parity-violation measurements in caesium," Quantum Semiclassic. Opt. 10, 733-752 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

M. A. Bouchiat and C. Bouchiat, "Parity violation in atoms," Rep. Prog. Phys. 60, 1351-1396 (1997), for a complete list of references.
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

D. Budker, W. Gawlik, D. F. Kimball, S. M. Rochester, V. V. Yashchuk, and A. Weis, "Resonant nonlinear magneto-optical effects in atoms," Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 1153-1204 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

C. S. Wood, S. C. Bennett, D. Cho, B. P. Masterson, J. L. Roberts, C. E. Tanner, and C. E. Wieman, "Measurement of parity nonconservation and an anapole moment in cesium," Science 275, 1759-1763 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Phys. C (1)

C. Bouchiat and C. A. Piketty, "Nuclear-spin-dependent atomic parity violation, nuclear anapole moments, and the hadronic axial neutral current," Z. Phys. C 49, 91-107 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Z. Phys. D (1)

C. Bouchiat and M. A. Bouchiat, "Amplification of the electroweak left-right asymmetry in atoms by stimulated emission," Z. Phys. D 36, 105-117 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Other (11)

By triggering the probe beam several times after each excitation pulse, the photon shot noise on the reference measurements can be made negligible and will be ignored.

This of course does not hold any longer when the excited medium approaches the conditions of spontaneous superradiance, a situation in which spontaneous emission causes additional noise as discussed in Section 3.C.

For matching the two beam intensities, a simple procedure might rely on a highly parallel glass plate serving as a temperature-tunable Fabry-Perot29 close to normal incidence on the path of a single beam. The range over which the transmission can be adjusted is wide (85 to 100%). Proper operating conditions can be achieved with temperature stabilization.

E. Jahier, "Voies ouvertes par des cellules à césium en saphir pour des expériences de violation de parité détectée par émission stimulée," Ph.D thesis (University of Paris VI, 2001), http://theses-en-ligne.in2p3.fr/view-thes-phys- atom_fr.html.

For the misalignment of E and B the measurement principle is based on the detection of the orientation induced by interference between the M1 and the scalar Stark amplitudes with a single excitation beam and a linear excitation polarization proportional to Re{(E⋅epsilonex )(epsilonex* k )} oriented at 45° to B . After precession in the B field, it gives rise to a longitudinal orientation that - choosing coordinate axes x and z along B and k , respectively - we can write as Re {epsilonx epsilony* }deltaEy Bxk . This is odd under the insertion of a lambda/2 plate that reverses the sign of Re {epsilon x epsilon y* }. Thus it can easily be compared with the component |epsilonex |2 Ex Bxk , which is even under this reversal. The ratio between the two signals yields directly 〈deltaEy 〉/Ex , i.e., the misalignment defect.

The transverse and longitudinal field experiments that we consider here differ not only in the field direction, but in the polarization of the excitation beam, circular versus linear, and the hyperfine transitions involved, 6SF=4 -->7SF=4 -->6P3/2,F=5 versus 6SF=3 -->7SF=4 -->6P3/2,F=4 . But it turns out that the overall change in the k coefficient is small and can be neglected.

We have chosen to make here a comparison between two situations differing by the magnitude of L , but such that the APV asymmetries are of equal size |Ppv |= |thetapv |. Indeed, it is not identical to increase A by increasing L rather than the field magnitude. Increasing the field magnitude increases A at the expense of a reduction of Ppv or thetapv . This reinforces the risks of systematic effects arising for instance from stray fields, which are amplified like the APV asymmetry.

Particle Data Group, "Review of particle physics," Phys. Rev. D 66, 010001-1 (2002), http://pdg.lbl.gov/, Sect. 10.

Ph. Jacquier, "Vers des mesures précises de violation de la parité dans le césium: construction d'une expérience nouvelle utilisant une détection active par émission induite," Ph.D. thesis (University of Paris VI, 1991).

Hyperfine mixing of the wave functions also contributes to this effect but to a smaller extent, leading to a distortion of the line near the center (circular dichroism) or in the wings (optical rotation).

L. Mandel and E. Wolf, Optical Coherence and Quantum Optics (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1995), Chap. 16.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the optical arrangement allowing for the cancellation of P(1): Two counterpropagating excitation beams are made collinear to the probe beam by dichroic mirrors (M1, M2); their extinction is monitored by two independent shutters. The birefringences on the two paths are corrected by adjusting the axis orientation and the tilt of two wave plates.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Larmor precession of P(1) and P(2) in a magnetic field B parallel to E observed in real time with a single excitation beam; the pump–probe delay is kept fixed at 20 ns and the magnitude of the field is varied. P(1)·k (diamonds, right scale) and P(2)·k (dots, left scale) are deduced from the contributions to Dat/A (for definitions see the text), respectively, ξex even, E odd, B odd; ξex odd, E even, B even. [E=185 V/cm, excitation pulse 0.9 mJ, resonant for 6SF=47SF=4, beam diameter 1.8 mm, probe pulse 4×107 linearly polarized (‖B) photons, resonant for 7SF=46P3/2,F=5]. 31

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Electrode arrangement inside a cylindrical cell allowing one to rotate the transverse electric field in increments of 45°. We have shown by numerical simulation that by adjusting the potential ratio V1/V0 we could make the field very homogeneous close to the axis. The side arm is to be connected to the Cs reservoir (not shown).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Example of a triggered superradiant pulse: dashed curve, the probe pulse (unamplified) in the absence of excited atoms; dotted curve, in the presence of excited atoms the probe pulse is amplified. The experimental conditions (nCs=1.8×1014 atoms/cm3, E=400 V/cm, L=25 mm) are such that the optical density is large. Note that a nonzero intensity is observable even before the probe gate is opened. This is due to photon leakage (a few 10-3) through the “closed” probe gate, which prepares the buildup of the coherence between the atomic dipoles. When the probe gate is opened (80 µW, 20 ns) full triggering of the superradiance occurs without any delay.41

Equations (10)

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dALR/dθ=2ηavAav
with Aav=(A+A)/2,ηav=α-αα+α,
(NEQA)-1=(nin)1/2 exp(Aav/2)Aav,
P=56M1+ξex Im E1pvαE(kE)P(1)+Ppv,
(NEQP)-1=(nin)1/2 exp[A(E)/2]dALR/dP.
ALRDat=1/2[exp(AζP)-exp(-AζP)]
SNR(E)=|Ppv|×(NEQP)-1,=k Im E1pvαEL expk2α2E2Lnin1/2,
SNR(E)=|θpv|(NEQA)-1,=k Im E1pvβEL expk2β2E2Lnin1/2.
SNR(E)=408 expA(E)2-A(E)2SNR(E).
τD=8π3a2Nλ2Γ log N.

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