Abstract

Second-harmonic (SH) generation at the ferromagnetic Gd(0001) surface was investigated with 35-fs laser pulses and photon energies between 1.44 and 1.68 eV. In pump–probe mode the SH field was measured during the first 3 ps, and the time evolution, including contributions from coherent phonons and magnons, was analyzed. All data reveal strong changes with wavelength, which correlate with the SH magnetic contrast and can be well explained by the Gd(0001) exchange-split surface state. In SH interferometry an energy splitting of 13 meV was found that is attributed to a frequency modulation of the surface state by coherent phonons of approximately 3 THz.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A. V. Fedorov, T. Valla, F. Liu, P. D. Johnson, M. Weinert, and P. B. Allen, "Spin-resolved photoemission study of photohole lifetimes in ferromagnetic gadolinium," Phys. Rev. B 65, 212409 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  2. E. Weschke, C. Schüssler-Langeheine, R. Meier, A. V. Fedorov, K. Starke, F. Hübinger, and G. Kaindl, "Temperature dependence of the exchange splitting of the surface state on Gd(0001): evidence against spin-mixing behavior," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3415-3418 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. A. Rehbein, D. Wegner, G. Kaindl, and A. Bauer, "Temper-a ture dependence of lifetimes of Gd(0001) surface states," Phys. Rev. B 67, 033403 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Bode, M. Getzlaff, S. Heinze, R. Pascal, and R. Wiesendanger, "Magnetic exchange splitting of the Gd(0001) surface state studied by variable-temperature scanning tunneling spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. A 66, 121-124 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Maiti, M. C. Malagoli, A. Dallmeyer, and C. Carbone, "Finite temperature magnetism in Gd: evidence against a stoner behavior," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 167205 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. Getzlaff, M. Bode, S. Heinze, R. Pascal, and R. Wiesendanger, "Temperature-dependent exchange splitting of the magnetic Gd(0001) surface state," J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 184, 155-165 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. I. Turek, J. Kudrnovsky, G. Bihlmayer, and S. Blügel, "Ab initio theory of exchange interactions and the Curie temperature of bulk Gd," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 15, 2771-2782 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Melnikov, I. Radu, U. Bovensiepen, O. Krupin, K. Starke, E. Matthias, and M. Wolf, "Coherent optical phonons and parametrically coupled magnons induced by femtosecond laser excitation of the Gd(0001) surface," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 227403 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. U. Bovensiepen, A. Melnikov, I. Radu, O. Krupin, K. Starke, M. Wolf, and E. Matthias, "Coherent surface and bulk vibrations induced by femtosecond laser excitation of the Gd(0001) surface state," Phys. Rev. B 69, 235417 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Melnikov, O. Krupin, U. Bovensiepen, K. Starke, M. Wolf, and E. Matthias, "SHG on ferromagnetic Gd films: indication of surface-state effects," Appl. Phys. B 74, 723-727 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R.-P. Pan, H. D. Wei, and Y. R. Shen, "Optical second-harmonic generation from magnetized surfaces," Phys. Rev. B 39, 1229-1234 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. Aspelmeier, F. Gerhardter, and K. Baberschke, "Magnetism and structure of ultrathin Gd films," J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 132, 22-30 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  13. E. D. Tober, R. X. Ynzunza, C. Westphal, and C. S. Fadley, "Relationship between morphology and magnetic behavior for Gd thin films on W(110)," Phys. Rev. B 53, 5444-5448 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  14. U. Pustogowa, W. Hübner, and K. H. Bennemann, "Theory for the nonlinear magneto-optical Kerr effect at ferromagnetic transition-metal surfaces," Surf. Sci. 307-309, 1129-1133 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  15. U. Conrad, J. Güdde, V. Jähnke, and E. Matthias, "Ultrafast electron and magnetization dynamics of thin Ni and Co films on Cu(001) observed by time-resolved SHG," Appl. Phys. B 68, 511-517 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. V. Melnikov, J. Güdde, and E. Matthias, "Demagnetization following optical excitation in nickel and permalloy films," Appl. Phys. B 74, 735-740 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  17. K. J. Veenstra, A. V. Petukhov, A. P. de Boer, and Th. Rasing, "Phase-sensitive detection technique for surface nonlinear optics," Phys. Rev. B 58, R16020-R16023 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  18. U. Conrad, J. Güdde, V. Jähnke, and E. Matthias, "Phase effects in magnetic second-harmonic generation on ultrathin Ni and Co films on Cu(001)," Phys. Rev. B 63, 144417 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  19. A. Melnikov, U. Bovensiepen, I. Radu, O. Krupin, K. Starke, E. Matthias, and M. Wolf, "Picosecond magnetization dynamics of the Gd(0001) surface," J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 272-276, 1001-1002 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. Hohlfeld, E. Matthias, R. Knorren, and K. H. Bennemann, "Nonequilibrium magnetization dynamics of nickel," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4861-4864 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  21. E. Beaurepaire, J.-C. Merle, A. Daunois, and J.-Y. Bigot, "Ultrafast spin dynamics in ferromagnetic nickel," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4250-4253 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. M. Lisowski, Freie Universität Berlin, Fachbereich Physik, Arnimallee 14, 14195 Berlin, Germany (personal communication, 2004).
  23. J. Hohlfeld, J. Güdde, U. Conrad, O. Dühr, G. Horn, and E. Matthias, "Ultrafast magnetization dynamics of nickel," Appl. Phys. B 68, 505-510 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  24. L. Guidoni, E. Beaurepaire, and J.-Y. Bigot, "Magneto-optics in the ultrafast regime: thermalization of spin populations in ferromagnetic films," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 017401 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. A. Vaterlaus, T. Beutler, and F. Meier, "Spin-lattice relaxation time of ferromagnetic gadolinium determined with time-resolved spin-polarized photoemission," Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3314-3317 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. An asymmetric excitation of the surface state occurs when the density of photoinduced holes in the spin-up component exceeds the density of photoinduced electrons in the spin-down one.

2004

U. Bovensiepen, A. Melnikov, I. Radu, O. Krupin, K. Starke, M. Wolf, and E. Matthias, "Coherent surface and bulk vibrations induced by femtosecond laser excitation of the Gd(0001) surface state," Phys. Rev. B 69, 235417 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Melnikov, U. Bovensiepen, I. Radu, O. Krupin, K. Starke, E. Matthias, and M. Wolf, "Picosecond magnetization dynamics of the Gd(0001) surface," J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 272-276, 1001-1002 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

A. Rehbein, D. Wegner, G. Kaindl, and A. Bauer, "Temper-a ture dependence of lifetimes of Gd(0001) surface states," Phys. Rev. B 67, 033403 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. Turek, J. Kudrnovsky, G. Bihlmayer, and S. Blügel, "Ab initio theory of exchange interactions and the Curie temperature of bulk Gd," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 15, 2771-2782 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Melnikov, I. Radu, U. Bovensiepen, O. Krupin, K. Starke, E. Matthias, and M. Wolf, "Coherent optical phonons and parametrically coupled magnons induced by femtosecond laser excitation of the Gd(0001) surface," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 227403 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

K. Maiti, M. C. Malagoli, A. Dallmeyer, and C. Carbone, "Finite temperature magnetism in Gd: evidence against a stoner behavior," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 167205 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Fedorov, T. Valla, F. Liu, P. D. Johnson, M. Weinert, and P. B. Allen, "Spin-resolved photoemission study of photohole lifetimes in ferromagnetic gadolinium," Phys. Rev. B 65, 212409 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Melnikov, O. Krupin, U. Bovensiepen, K. Starke, M. Wolf, and E. Matthias, "SHG on ferromagnetic Gd films: indication of surface-state effects," Appl. Phys. B 74, 723-727 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Melnikov, J. Güdde, and E. Matthias, "Demagnetization following optical excitation in nickel and permalloy films," Appl. Phys. B 74, 735-740 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Guidoni, E. Beaurepaire, and J.-Y. Bigot, "Magneto-optics in the ultrafast regime: thermalization of spin populations in ferromagnetic films," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 017401 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

U. Conrad, J. Güdde, V. Jähnke, and E. Matthias, "Phase effects in magnetic second-harmonic generation on ultrathin Ni and Co films on Cu(001)," Phys. Rev. B 63, 144417 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

J. Hohlfeld, J. Güdde, U. Conrad, O. Dühr, G. Horn, and E. Matthias, "Ultrafast magnetization dynamics of nickel," Appl. Phys. B 68, 505-510 (1999).
[CrossRef]

U. Conrad, J. Güdde, V. Jähnke, and E. Matthias, "Ultrafast electron and magnetization dynamics of thin Ni and Co films on Cu(001) observed by time-resolved SHG," Appl. Phys. B 68, 511-517 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

K. J. Veenstra, A. V. Petukhov, A. P. de Boer, and Th. Rasing, "Phase-sensitive detection technique for surface nonlinear optics," Phys. Rev. B 58, R16020-R16023 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Bode, M. Getzlaff, S. Heinze, R. Pascal, and R. Wiesendanger, "Magnetic exchange splitting of the Gd(0001) surface state studied by variable-temperature scanning tunneling spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. A 66, 121-124 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Getzlaff, M. Bode, S. Heinze, R. Pascal, and R. Wiesendanger, "Temperature-dependent exchange splitting of the magnetic Gd(0001) surface state," J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 184, 155-165 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

J. Hohlfeld, E. Matthias, R. Knorren, and K. H. Bennemann, "Nonequilibrium magnetization dynamics of nickel," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4861-4864 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

E. Beaurepaire, J.-C. Merle, A. Daunois, and J.-Y. Bigot, "Ultrafast spin dynamics in ferromagnetic nickel," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4250-4253 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Weschke, C. Schüssler-Langeheine, R. Meier, A. V. Fedorov, K. Starke, F. Hübinger, and G. Kaindl, "Temperature dependence of the exchange splitting of the surface state on Gd(0001): evidence against spin-mixing behavior," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3415-3418 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. D. Tober, R. X. Ynzunza, C. Westphal, and C. S. Fadley, "Relationship between morphology and magnetic behavior for Gd thin films on W(110)," Phys. Rev. B 53, 5444-5448 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994

U. Pustogowa, W. Hübner, and K. H. Bennemann, "Theory for the nonlinear magneto-optical Kerr effect at ferromagnetic transition-metal surfaces," Surf. Sci. 307-309, 1129-1133 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Aspelmeier, F. Gerhardter, and K. Baberschke, "Magnetism and structure of ultrathin Gd films," J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 132, 22-30 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991

A. Vaterlaus, T. Beutler, and F. Meier, "Spin-lattice relaxation time of ferromagnetic gadolinium determined with time-resolved spin-polarized photoemission," Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3314-3317 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989

R.-P. Pan, H. D. Wei, and Y. R. Shen, "Optical second-harmonic generation from magnetized surfaces," Phys. Rev. B 39, 1229-1234 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Allen, P. B.

A. V. Fedorov, T. Valla, F. Liu, P. D. Johnson, M. Weinert, and P. B. Allen, "Spin-resolved photoemission study of photohole lifetimes in ferromagnetic gadolinium," Phys. Rev. B 65, 212409 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Aspelmeier, A.

A. Aspelmeier, F. Gerhardter, and K. Baberschke, "Magnetism and structure of ultrathin Gd films," J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 132, 22-30 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Baberschke, K.

A. Aspelmeier, F. Gerhardter, and K. Baberschke, "Magnetism and structure of ultrathin Gd films," J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 132, 22-30 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bauer, A.

A. Rehbein, D. Wegner, G. Kaindl, and A. Bauer, "Temper-a ture dependence of lifetimes of Gd(0001) surface states," Phys. Rev. B 67, 033403 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Beaurepaire, E.

L. Guidoni, E. Beaurepaire, and J.-Y. Bigot, "Magneto-optics in the ultrafast regime: thermalization of spin populations in ferromagnetic films," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 017401 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Beaurepaire, J.-C. Merle, A. Daunois, and J.-Y. Bigot, "Ultrafast spin dynamics in ferromagnetic nickel," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4250-4253 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bennemann, K. H.

J. Hohlfeld, E. Matthias, R. Knorren, and K. H. Bennemann, "Nonequilibrium magnetization dynamics of nickel," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4861-4864 (1997).
[CrossRef]

U. Pustogowa, W. Hübner, and K. H. Bennemann, "Theory for the nonlinear magneto-optical Kerr effect at ferromagnetic transition-metal surfaces," Surf. Sci. 307-309, 1129-1133 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Beutler, T.

A. Vaterlaus, T. Beutler, and F. Meier, "Spin-lattice relaxation time of ferromagnetic gadolinium determined with time-resolved spin-polarized photoemission," Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3314-3317 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bigot, J.-Y.

L. Guidoni, E. Beaurepaire, and J.-Y. Bigot, "Magneto-optics in the ultrafast regime: thermalization of spin populations in ferromagnetic films," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 017401 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Beaurepaire, J.-C. Merle, A. Daunois, and J.-Y. Bigot, "Ultrafast spin dynamics in ferromagnetic nickel," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4250-4253 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bihlmayer, G.

I. Turek, J. Kudrnovsky, G. Bihlmayer, and S. Blügel, "Ab initio theory of exchange interactions and the Curie temperature of bulk Gd," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 15, 2771-2782 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Blügel, S.

I. Turek, J. Kudrnovsky, G. Bihlmayer, and S. Blügel, "Ab initio theory of exchange interactions and the Curie temperature of bulk Gd," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 15, 2771-2782 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bode, M.

M. Getzlaff, M. Bode, S. Heinze, R. Pascal, and R. Wiesendanger, "Temperature-dependent exchange splitting of the magnetic Gd(0001) surface state," J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 184, 155-165 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Bode, M. Getzlaff, S. Heinze, R. Pascal, and R. Wiesendanger, "Magnetic exchange splitting of the Gd(0001) surface state studied by variable-temperature scanning tunneling spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. A 66, 121-124 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bovensiepen, U.

U. Bovensiepen, A. Melnikov, I. Radu, O. Krupin, K. Starke, M. Wolf, and E. Matthias, "Coherent surface and bulk vibrations induced by femtosecond laser excitation of the Gd(0001) surface state," Phys. Rev. B 69, 235417 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Melnikov, U. Bovensiepen, I. Radu, O. Krupin, K. Starke, E. Matthias, and M. Wolf, "Picosecond magnetization dynamics of the Gd(0001) surface," J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 272-276, 1001-1002 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Melnikov, I. Radu, U. Bovensiepen, O. Krupin, K. Starke, E. Matthias, and M. Wolf, "Coherent optical phonons and parametrically coupled magnons induced by femtosecond laser excitation of the Gd(0001) surface," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 227403 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Melnikov, O. Krupin, U. Bovensiepen, K. Starke, M. Wolf, and E. Matthias, "SHG on ferromagnetic Gd films: indication of surface-state effects," Appl. Phys. B 74, 723-727 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Carbone, C.

K. Maiti, M. C. Malagoli, A. Dallmeyer, and C. Carbone, "Finite temperature magnetism in Gd: evidence against a stoner behavior," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 167205 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Conrad, U.

U. Conrad, J. Güdde, V. Jähnke, and E. Matthias, "Phase effects in magnetic second-harmonic generation on ultrathin Ni and Co films on Cu(001)," Phys. Rev. B 63, 144417 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Hohlfeld, J. Güdde, U. Conrad, O. Dühr, G. Horn, and E. Matthias, "Ultrafast magnetization dynamics of nickel," Appl. Phys. B 68, 505-510 (1999).
[CrossRef]

U. Conrad, J. Güdde, V. Jähnke, and E. Matthias, "Ultrafast electron and magnetization dynamics of thin Ni and Co films on Cu(001) observed by time-resolved SHG," Appl. Phys. B 68, 511-517 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dallmeyer, A.

K. Maiti, M. C. Malagoli, A. Dallmeyer, and C. Carbone, "Finite temperature magnetism in Gd: evidence against a stoner behavior," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 167205 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Daunois, A.

E. Beaurepaire, J.-C. Merle, A. Daunois, and J.-Y. Bigot, "Ultrafast spin dynamics in ferromagnetic nickel," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4250-4253 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Boer, A. P.

K. J. Veenstra, A. V. Petukhov, A. P. de Boer, and Th. Rasing, "Phase-sensitive detection technique for surface nonlinear optics," Phys. Rev. B 58, R16020-R16023 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dühr, O.

J. Hohlfeld, J. Güdde, U. Conrad, O. Dühr, G. Horn, and E. Matthias, "Ultrafast magnetization dynamics of nickel," Appl. Phys. B 68, 505-510 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fadley, C. S.

E. D. Tober, R. X. Ynzunza, C. Westphal, and C. S. Fadley, "Relationship between morphology and magnetic behavior for Gd thin films on W(110)," Phys. Rev. B 53, 5444-5448 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fedorov, A. V.

A. V. Fedorov, T. Valla, F. Liu, P. D. Johnson, M. Weinert, and P. B. Allen, "Spin-resolved photoemission study of photohole lifetimes in ferromagnetic gadolinium," Phys. Rev. B 65, 212409 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. Weschke, C. Schüssler-Langeheine, R. Meier, A. V. Fedorov, K. Starke, F. Hübinger, and G. Kaindl, "Temperature dependence of the exchange splitting of the surface state on Gd(0001): evidence against spin-mixing behavior," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3415-3418 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gerhardter, F.

A. Aspelmeier, F. Gerhardter, and K. Baberschke, "Magnetism and structure of ultrathin Gd films," J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 132, 22-30 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Getzlaff, M.

M. Getzlaff, M. Bode, S. Heinze, R. Pascal, and R. Wiesendanger, "Temperature-dependent exchange splitting of the magnetic Gd(0001) surface state," J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 184, 155-165 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Bode, M. Getzlaff, S. Heinze, R. Pascal, and R. Wiesendanger, "Magnetic exchange splitting of the Gd(0001) surface state studied by variable-temperature scanning tunneling spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. A 66, 121-124 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Güdde, J.

A. V. Melnikov, J. Güdde, and E. Matthias, "Demagnetization following optical excitation in nickel and permalloy films," Appl. Phys. B 74, 735-740 (2002).
[CrossRef]

U. Conrad, J. Güdde, V. Jähnke, and E. Matthias, "Phase effects in magnetic second-harmonic generation on ultrathin Ni and Co films on Cu(001)," Phys. Rev. B 63, 144417 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Hohlfeld, J. Güdde, U. Conrad, O. Dühr, G. Horn, and E. Matthias, "Ultrafast magnetization dynamics of nickel," Appl. Phys. B 68, 505-510 (1999).
[CrossRef]

U. Conrad, J. Güdde, V. Jähnke, and E. Matthias, "Ultrafast electron and magnetization dynamics of thin Ni and Co films on Cu(001) observed by time-resolved SHG," Appl. Phys. B 68, 511-517 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Guidoni, L.

L. Guidoni, E. Beaurepaire, and J.-Y. Bigot, "Magneto-optics in the ultrafast regime: thermalization of spin populations in ferromagnetic films," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 017401 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heinze, S.

M. Bode, M. Getzlaff, S. Heinze, R. Pascal, and R. Wiesendanger, "Magnetic exchange splitting of the Gd(0001) surface state studied by variable-temperature scanning tunneling spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. A 66, 121-124 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Getzlaff, M. Bode, S. Heinze, R. Pascal, and R. Wiesendanger, "Temperature-dependent exchange splitting of the magnetic Gd(0001) surface state," J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 184, 155-165 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hohlfeld, J.

J. Hohlfeld, J. Güdde, U. Conrad, O. Dühr, G. Horn, and E. Matthias, "Ultrafast magnetization dynamics of nickel," Appl. Phys. B 68, 505-510 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Hohlfeld, E. Matthias, R. Knorren, and K. H. Bennemann, "Nonequilibrium magnetization dynamics of nickel," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4861-4864 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Horn, G.

J. Hohlfeld, J. Güdde, U. Conrad, O. Dühr, G. Horn, and E. Matthias, "Ultrafast magnetization dynamics of nickel," Appl. Phys. B 68, 505-510 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hübinger, F.

E. Weschke, C. Schüssler-Langeheine, R. Meier, A. V. Fedorov, K. Starke, F. Hübinger, and G. Kaindl, "Temperature dependence of the exchange splitting of the surface state on Gd(0001): evidence against spin-mixing behavior," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3415-3418 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hübner, W.

U. Pustogowa, W. Hübner, and K. H. Bennemann, "Theory for the nonlinear magneto-optical Kerr effect at ferromagnetic transition-metal surfaces," Surf. Sci. 307-309, 1129-1133 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jähnke, V.

U. Conrad, J. Güdde, V. Jähnke, and E. Matthias, "Phase effects in magnetic second-harmonic generation on ultrathin Ni and Co films on Cu(001)," Phys. Rev. B 63, 144417 (2001).
[CrossRef]

U. Conrad, J. Güdde, V. Jähnke, and E. Matthias, "Ultrafast electron and magnetization dynamics of thin Ni and Co films on Cu(001) observed by time-resolved SHG," Appl. Phys. B 68, 511-517 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, P. D.

A. V. Fedorov, T. Valla, F. Liu, P. D. Johnson, M. Weinert, and P. B. Allen, "Spin-resolved photoemission study of photohole lifetimes in ferromagnetic gadolinium," Phys. Rev. B 65, 212409 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kaindl, G.

A. Rehbein, D. Wegner, G. Kaindl, and A. Bauer, "Temper-a ture dependence of lifetimes of Gd(0001) surface states," Phys. Rev. B 67, 033403 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Weschke, C. Schüssler-Langeheine, R. Meier, A. V. Fedorov, K. Starke, F. Hübinger, and G. Kaindl, "Temperature dependence of the exchange splitting of the surface state on Gd(0001): evidence against spin-mixing behavior," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3415-3418 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knorren, R.

J. Hohlfeld, E. Matthias, R. Knorren, and K. H. Bennemann, "Nonequilibrium magnetization dynamics of nickel," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4861-4864 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Krupin, O.

A. Melnikov, U. Bovensiepen, I. Radu, O. Krupin, K. Starke, E. Matthias, and M. Wolf, "Picosecond magnetization dynamics of the Gd(0001) surface," J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 272-276, 1001-1002 (2004).
[CrossRef]

U. Bovensiepen, A. Melnikov, I. Radu, O. Krupin, K. Starke, M. Wolf, and E. Matthias, "Coherent surface and bulk vibrations induced by femtosecond laser excitation of the Gd(0001) surface state," Phys. Rev. B 69, 235417 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Melnikov, I. Radu, U. Bovensiepen, O. Krupin, K. Starke, E. Matthias, and M. Wolf, "Coherent optical phonons and parametrically coupled magnons induced by femtosecond laser excitation of the Gd(0001) surface," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 227403 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Melnikov, O. Krupin, U. Bovensiepen, K. Starke, M. Wolf, and E. Matthias, "SHG on ferromagnetic Gd films: indication of surface-state effects," Appl. Phys. B 74, 723-727 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kudrnovsky, J.

I. Turek, J. Kudrnovsky, G. Bihlmayer, and S. Blügel, "Ab initio theory of exchange interactions and the Curie temperature of bulk Gd," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 15, 2771-2782 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liu, F.

A. V. Fedorov, T. Valla, F. Liu, P. D. Johnson, M. Weinert, and P. B. Allen, "Spin-resolved photoemission study of photohole lifetimes in ferromagnetic gadolinium," Phys. Rev. B 65, 212409 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Maiti, K.

K. Maiti, M. C. Malagoli, A. Dallmeyer, and C. Carbone, "Finite temperature magnetism in Gd: evidence against a stoner behavior," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 167205 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malagoli, M. C.

K. Maiti, M. C. Malagoli, A. Dallmeyer, and C. Carbone, "Finite temperature magnetism in Gd: evidence against a stoner behavior," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 167205 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matthias, E.

U. Bovensiepen, A. Melnikov, I. Radu, O. Krupin, K. Starke, M. Wolf, and E. Matthias, "Coherent surface and bulk vibrations induced by femtosecond laser excitation of the Gd(0001) surface state," Phys. Rev. B 69, 235417 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Melnikov, U. Bovensiepen, I. Radu, O. Krupin, K. Starke, E. Matthias, and M. Wolf, "Picosecond magnetization dynamics of the Gd(0001) surface," J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 272-276, 1001-1002 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Melnikov, I. Radu, U. Bovensiepen, O. Krupin, K. Starke, E. Matthias, and M. Wolf, "Coherent optical phonons and parametrically coupled magnons induced by femtosecond laser excitation of the Gd(0001) surface," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 227403 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Melnikov, J. Güdde, and E. Matthias, "Demagnetization following optical excitation in nickel and permalloy films," Appl. Phys. B 74, 735-740 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Melnikov, O. Krupin, U. Bovensiepen, K. Starke, M. Wolf, and E. Matthias, "SHG on ferromagnetic Gd films: indication of surface-state effects," Appl. Phys. B 74, 723-727 (2002).
[CrossRef]

U. Conrad, J. Güdde, V. Jähnke, and E. Matthias, "Phase effects in magnetic second-harmonic generation on ultrathin Ni and Co films on Cu(001)," Phys. Rev. B 63, 144417 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Hohlfeld, J. Güdde, U. Conrad, O. Dühr, G. Horn, and E. Matthias, "Ultrafast magnetization dynamics of nickel," Appl. Phys. B 68, 505-510 (1999).
[CrossRef]

U. Conrad, J. Güdde, V. Jähnke, and E. Matthias, "Ultrafast electron and magnetization dynamics of thin Ni and Co films on Cu(001) observed by time-resolved SHG," Appl. Phys. B 68, 511-517 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Hohlfeld, E. Matthias, R. Knorren, and K. H. Bennemann, "Nonequilibrium magnetization dynamics of nickel," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4861-4864 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Meier, F.

A. Vaterlaus, T. Beutler, and F. Meier, "Spin-lattice relaxation time of ferromagnetic gadolinium determined with time-resolved spin-polarized photoemission," Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3314-3317 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meier, R.

E. Weschke, C. Schüssler-Langeheine, R. Meier, A. V. Fedorov, K. Starke, F. Hübinger, and G. Kaindl, "Temperature dependence of the exchange splitting of the surface state on Gd(0001): evidence against spin-mixing behavior," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3415-3418 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Melnikov, A.

U. Bovensiepen, A. Melnikov, I. Radu, O. Krupin, K. Starke, M. Wolf, and E. Matthias, "Coherent surface and bulk vibrations induced by femtosecond laser excitation of the Gd(0001) surface state," Phys. Rev. B 69, 235417 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Melnikov, U. Bovensiepen, I. Radu, O. Krupin, K. Starke, E. Matthias, and M. Wolf, "Picosecond magnetization dynamics of the Gd(0001) surface," J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 272-276, 1001-1002 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Melnikov, I. Radu, U. Bovensiepen, O. Krupin, K. Starke, E. Matthias, and M. Wolf, "Coherent optical phonons and parametrically coupled magnons induced by femtosecond laser excitation of the Gd(0001) surface," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 227403 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Melnikov, O. Krupin, U. Bovensiepen, K. Starke, M. Wolf, and E. Matthias, "SHG on ferromagnetic Gd films: indication of surface-state effects," Appl. Phys. B 74, 723-727 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Melnikov, A. V.

A. V. Melnikov, J. Güdde, and E. Matthias, "Demagnetization following optical excitation in nickel and permalloy films," Appl. Phys. B 74, 735-740 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Merle, J.-C.

E. Beaurepaire, J.-C. Merle, A. Daunois, and J.-Y. Bigot, "Ultrafast spin dynamics in ferromagnetic nickel," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4250-4253 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pan, R.-P.

R.-P. Pan, H. D. Wei, and Y. R. Shen, "Optical second-harmonic generation from magnetized surfaces," Phys. Rev. B 39, 1229-1234 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Pascal, R.

M. Getzlaff, M. Bode, S. Heinze, R. Pascal, and R. Wiesendanger, "Temperature-dependent exchange splitting of the magnetic Gd(0001) surface state," J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 184, 155-165 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Bode, M. Getzlaff, S. Heinze, R. Pascal, and R. Wiesendanger, "Magnetic exchange splitting of the Gd(0001) surface state studied by variable-temperature scanning tunneling spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. A 66, 121-124 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Petukhov, A. V.

K. J. Veenstra, A. V. Petukhov, A. P. de Boer, and Th. Rasing, "Phase-sensitive detection technique for surface nonlinear optics," Phys. Rev. B 58, R16020-R16023 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pustogowa, U.

U. Pustogowa, W. Hübner, and K. H. Bennemann, "Theory for the nonlinear magneto-optical Kerr effect at ferromagnetic transition-metal surfaces," Surf. Sci. 307-309, 1129-1133 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Radu, I.

U. Bovensiepen, A. Melnikov, I. Radu, O. Krupin, K. Starke, M. Wolf, and E. Matthias, "Coherent surface and bulk vibrations induced by femtosecond laser excitation of the Gd(0001) surface state," Phys. Rev. B 69, 235417 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Melnikov, U. Bovensiepen, I. Radu, O. Krupin, K. Starke, E. Matthias, and M. Wolf, "Picosecond magnetization dynamics of the Gd(0001) surface," J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 272-276, 1001-1002 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Melnikov, I. Radu, U. Bovensiepen, O. Krupin, K. Starke, E. Matthias, and M. Wolf, "Coherent optical phonons and parametrically coupled magnons induced by femtosecond laser excitation of the Gd(0001) surface," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 227403 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rasing, Th.

K. J. Veenstra, A. V. Petukhov, A. P. de Boer, and Th. Rasing, "Phase-sensitive detection technique for surface nonlinear optics," Phys. Rev. B 58, R16020-R16023 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rehbein, A.

A. Rehbein, D. Wegner, G. Kaindl, and A. Bauer, "Temper-a ture dependence of lifetimes of Gd(0001) surface states," Phys. Rev. B 67, 033403 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schüssler-Langeheine, C.

E. Weschke, C. Schüssler-Langeheine, R. Meier, A. V. Fedorov, K. Starke, F. Hübinger, and G. Kaindl, "Temperature dependence of the exchange splitting of the surface state on Gd(0001): evidence against spin-mixing behavior," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3415-3418 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, Y. R.

R.-P. Pan, H. D. Wei, and Y. R. Shen, "Optical second-harmonic generation from magnetized surfaces," Phys. Rev. B 39, 1229-1234 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Starke, K.

U. Bovensiepen, A. Melnikov, I. Radu, O. Krupin, K. Starke, M. Wolf, and E. Matthias, "Coherent surface and bulk vibrations induced by femtosecond laser excitation of the Gd(0001) surface state," Phys. Rev. B 69, 235417 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Melnikov, U. Bovensiepen, I. Radu, O. Krupin, K. Starke, E. Matthias, and M. Wolf, "Picosecond magnetization dynamics of the Gd(0001) surface," J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 272-276, 1001-1002 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Melnikov, I. Radu, U. Bovensiepen, O. Krupin, K. Starke, E. Matthias, and M. Wolf, "Coherent optical phonons and parametrically coupled magnons induced by femtosecond laser excitation of the Gd(0001) surface," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 227403 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Melnikov, O. Krupin, U. Bovensiepen, K. Starke, M. Wolf, and E. Matthias, "SHG on ferromagnetic Gd films: indication of surface-state effects," Appl. Phys. B 74, 723-727 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. Weschke, C. Schüssler-Langeheine, R. Meier, A. V. Fedorov, K. Starke, F. Hübinger, and G. Kaindl, "Temperature dependence of the exchange splitting of the surface state on Gd(0001): evidence against spin-mixing behavior," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3415-3418 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tober, E. D.

E. D. Tober, R. X. Ynzunza, C. Westphal, and C. S. Fadley, "Relationship between morphology and magnetic behavior for Gd thin films on W(110)," Phys. Rev. B 53, 5444-5448 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Turek, I.

I. Turek, J. Kudrnovsky, G. Bihlmayer, and S. Blügel, "Ab initio theory of exchange interactions and the Curie temperature of bulk Gd," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 15, 2771-2782 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Valla, T.

A. V. Fedorov, T. Valla, F. Liu, P. D. Johnson, M. Weinert, and P. B. Allen, "Spin-resolved photoemission study of photohole lifetimes in ferromagnetic gadolinium," Phys. Rev. B 65, 212409 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vaterlaus, A.

A. Vaterlaus, T. Beutler, and F. Meier, "Spin-lattice relaxation time of ferromagnetic gadolinium determined with time-resolved spin-polarized photoemission," Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3314-3317 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Veenstra, K. J.

K. J. Veenstra, A. V. Petukhov, A. P. de Boer, and Th. Rasing, "Phase-sensitive detection technique for surface nonlinear optics," Phys. Rev. B 58, R16020-R16023 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wegner, D.

A. Rehbein, D. Wegner, G. Kaindl, and A. Bauer, "Temper-a ture dependence of lifetimes of Gd(0001) surface states," Phys. Rev. B 67, 033403 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wei, H. D.

R.-P. Pan, H. D. Wei, and Y. R. Shen, "Optical second-harmonic generation from magnetized surfaces," Phys. Rev. B 39, 1229-1234 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Weinert, M.

A. V. Fedorov, T. Valla, F. Liu, P. D. Johnson, M. Weinert, and P. B. Allen, "Spin-resolved photoemission study of photohole lifetimes in ferromagnetic gadolinium," Phys. Rev. B 65, 212409 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Weschke, E.

E. Weschke, C. Schüssler-Langeheine, R. Meier, A. V. Fedorov, K. Starke, F. Hübinger, and G. Kaindl, "Temperature dependence of the exchange splitting of the surface state on Gd(0001): evidence against spin-mixing behavior," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3415-3418 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Westphal, C.

E. D. Tober, R. X. Ynzunza, C. Westphal, and C. S. Fadley, "Relationship between morphology and magnetic behavior for Gd thin films on W(110)," Phys. Rev. B 53, 5444-5448 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wiesendanger, R.

M. Getzlaff, M. Bode, S. Heinze, R. Pascal, and R. Wiesendanger, "Temperature-dependent exchange splitting of the magnetic Gd(0001) surface state," J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 184, 155-165 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Bode, M. Getzlaff, S. Heinze, R. Pascal, and R. Wiesendanger, "Magnetic exchange splitting of the Gd(0001) surface state studied by variable-temperature scanning tunneling spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. A 66, 121-124 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, M.

U. Bovensiepen, A. Melnikov, I. Radu, O. Krupin, K. Starke, M. Wolf, and E. Matthias, "Coherent surface and bulk vibrations induced by femtosecond laser excitation of the Gd(0001) surface state," Phys. Rev. B 69, 235417 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Melnikov, U. Bovensiepen, I. Radu, O. Krupin, K. Starke, E. Matthias, and M. Wolf, "Picosecond magnetization dynamics of the Gd(0001) surface," J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 272-276, 1001-1002 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Melnikov, I. Radu, U. Bovensiepen, O. Krupin, K. Starke, E. Matthias, and M. Wolf, "Coherent optical phonons and parametrically coupled magnons induced by femtosecond laser excitation of the Gd(0001) surface," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 227403 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Melnikov, O. Krupin, U. Bovensiepen, K. Starke, M. Wolf, and E. Matthias, "SHG on ferromagnetic Gd films: indication of surface-state effects," Appl. Phys. B 74, 723-727 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ynzunza, R. X.

E. D. Tober, R. X. Ynzunza, C. Westphal, and C. S. Fadley, "Relationship between morphology and magnetic behavior for Gd thin films on W(110)," Phys. Rev. B 53, 5444-5448 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. A

M. Bode, M. Getzlaff, S. Heinze, R. Pascal, and R. Wiesendanger, "Magnetic exchange splitting of the Gd(0001) surface state studied by variable-temperature scanning tunneling spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. A 66, 121-124 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B

A. Melnikov, O. Krupin, U. Bovensiepen, K. Starke, M. Wolf, and E. Matthias, "SHG on ferromagnetic Gd films: indication of surface-state effects," Appl. Phys. B 74, 723-727 (2002).
[CrossRef]

U. Conrad, J. Güdde, V. Jähnke, and E. Matthias, "Ultrafast electron and magnetization dynamics of thin Ni and Co films on Cu(001) observed by time-resolved SHG," Appl. Phys. B 68, 511-517 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Melnikov, J. Güdde, and E. Matthias, "Demagnetization following optical excitation in nickel and permalloy films," Appl. Phys. B 74, 735-740 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Hohlfeld, J. Güdde, U. Conrad, O. Dühr, G. Horn, and E. Matthias, "Ultrafast magnetization dynamics of nickel," Appl. Phys. B 68, 505-510 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Magn. Magn. Mater.

A. Melnikov, U. Bovensiepen, I. Radu, O. Krupin, K. Starke, E. Matthias, and M. Wolf, "Picosecond magnetization dynamics of the Gd(0001) surface," J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 272-276, 1001-1002 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Aspelmeier, F. Gerhardter, and K. Baberschke, "Magnetism and structure of ultrathin Gd films," J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 132, 22-30 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Getzlaff, M. Bode, S. Heinze, R. Pascal, and R. Wiesendanger, "Temperature-dependent exchange splitting of the magnetic Gd(0001) surface state," J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 184, 155-165 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Condens. Matter

I. Turek, J. Kudrnovsky, G. Bihlmayer, and S. Blügel, "Ab initio theory of exchange interactions and the Curie temperature of bulk Gd," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 15, 2771-2782 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

A. Rehbein, D. Wegner, G. Kaindl, and A. Bauer, "Temper-a ture dependence of lifetimes of Gd(0001) surface states," Phys. Rev. B 67, 033403 (2003).
[CrossRef]

U. Bovensiepen, A. Melnikov, I. Radu, O. Krupin, K. Starke, M. Wolf, and E. Matthias, "Coherent surface and bulk vibrations induced by femtosecond laser excitation of the Gd(0001) surface state," Phys. Rev. B 69, 235417 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Fedorov, T. Valla, F. Liu, P. D. Johnson, M. Weinert, and P. B. Allen, "Spin-resolved photoemission study of photohole lifetimes in ferromagnetic gadolinium," Phys. Rev. B 65, 212409 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. D. Tober, R. X. Ynzunza, C. Westphal, and C. S. Fadley, "Relationship between morphology and magnetic behavior for Gd thin films on W(110)," Phys. Rev. B 53, 5444-5448 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R.-P. Pan, H. D. Wei, and Y. R. Shen, "Optical second-harmonic generation from magnetized surfaces," Phys. Rev. B 39, 1229-1234 (1989).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Veenstra, A. V. Petukhov, A. P. de Boer, and Th. Rasing, "Phase-sensitive detection technique for surface nonlinear optics," Phys. Rev. B 58, R16020-R16023 (1998).
[CrossRef]

U. Conrad, J. Güdde, V. Jähnke, and E. Matthias, "Phase effects in magnetic second-harmonic generation on ultrathin Ni and Co films on Cu(001)," Phys. Rev. B 63, 144417 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

E. Weschke, C. Schüssler-Langeheine, R. Meier, A. V. Fedorov, K. Starke, F. Hübinger, and G. Kaindl, "Temperature dependence of the exchange splitting of the surface state on Gd(0001): evidence against spin-mixing behavior," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3415-3418 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Maiti, M. C. Malagoli, A. Dallmeyer, and C. Carbone, "Finite temperature magnetism in Gd: evidence against a stoner behavior," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 167205 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Melnikov, I. Radu, U. Bovensiepen, O. Krupin, K. Starke, E. Matthias, and M. Wolf, "Coherent optical phonons and parametrically coupled magnons induced by femtosecond laser excitation of the Gd(0001) surface," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 227403 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hohlfeld, E. Matthias, R. Knorren, and K. H. Bennemann, "Nonequilibrium magnetization dynamics of nickel," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4861-4864 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. Beaurepaire, J.-C. Merle, A. Daunois, and J.-Y. Bigot, "Ultrafast spin dynamics in ferromagnetic nickel," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4250-4253 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Guidoni, E. Beaurepaire, and J.-Y. Bigot, "Magneto-optics in the ultrafast regime: thermalization of spin populations in ferromagnetic films," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 017401 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Vaterlaus, T. Beutler, and F. Meier, "Spin-lattice relaxation time of ferromagnetic gadolinium determined with time-resolved spin-polarized photoemission," Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3314-3317 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Surf. Sci.

U. Pustogowa, W. Hübner, and K. H. Bennemann, "Theory for the nonlinear magneto-optical Kerr effect at ferromagnetic transition-metal surfaces," Surf. Sci. 307-309, 1129-1133 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Other

An asymmetric excitation of the surface state occurs when the density of photoinduced holes in the spin-up component exceeds the density of photoinduced electrons in the spin-down one.

M. Lisowski, Freie Universität Berlin, Fachbereich Physik, Arnimallee 14, 14195 Berlin, Germany (personal communication, 2004).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic representation of optical transitions at the Gd(0001) surface shown by arrows in combination with photoemission spectra for E<EF and data from literature2,3 for E>EF. To illustrate the pump and second-harmonic-probe dependence on photon energy, transitions at 1.45 and 1.65 eV are indicated. Heavy arrows indicate transitions involved in both pump and probe processes. For B and S transitions, only the first step is indicated with dashed arrows, whereas for B and S all three steps of the second-harmonic-generation process are shown. Vertical arrows show the spin orientation of the states.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Magnetic contrast [see expressions (2)] recorded with different spectral resolutions: for solid circles, Δλ=13 nm, limited by the pulse width, and 0.2 nm for the solid curve, determined by the monochromator resolution. The gray curve represents the fit with Lorentzian according expression (13), giving E=1.7 eV and d=0.3 eV. (b) Relative phase (dashed curve) and amplitude ratio (solid curve) of odd to even fields [see Eqs. (5) and (6)] derived from interference patterns generated with a reference SH signal.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Pump-induced variations of SH fields during the first 3 ps for various wavelengths. All data are normalized to zero at negative delays. (a) The even SH field represents the electronic excitation and relaxation superimposed by coherent phonons. The solid curve represents the dependence of the linear reflectivity, which is independent of wavelength. (b) The odd field is a measure of the spin polarization at the Gd(0001) surface including coherent magnons.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Coherent (a) even and (b) odd SH fields obtained from Fig. 3 by subtraction of the incoherent background. The solid curves represent a fit of the data by Eq. (14). The inset displays the Fourier transform of the oscillations. FFT, fast Fourier transform.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Variation of the incoherent even SH contribution with photon energy is compared with the magnetic contrast (solid circles). The data recorded at 80 fs (open circles) agree well with the magnetic contrast, and data for a delay of 3 ps (squares) reflect the electron–phonon relaxation. (b) The difference between the incoherent even SH components at these two delay times is illustrated as a function of photon energy. Solid curves are to guide the eye.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Change of the coherent phonon amplitude (solid circles and black curve) with photon energy is compared with that of the incoherent even SH field (open circles and gray curve). (b) Solid circles and black curve, as well as open circles and gray curve, display the photon energy dependence of the amplitudes of coherent even (phonons) and odd (magnons) fields, respectively. Solid curves represent a parabolic fit to the data used to show the main trend and to guide the eye.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Variation of (a) decay times and (b) frequencies with photon energy is shown for coherent even (solid circles and black curve) and odd (open circles and gray curve) SH fields. Solid curves represent a parabolic fit to the data used to show the main trend and to guide the eye.

Equations (16)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I(2ω)|Eeven(2ω)|2+|Eodd(2ω)|2±2|Eeven(2ω)||Eodd(2ω)|cos ϕ,
ρ=I-II+I2|Eodd(2ω)||Eeven(2ω)|cos ϕ=2|χodd(2)(ω, M)||χeven(2)(ω)|cos ϕ(ω).
ρ2|χodd(3)(ω)||χeven(2)(ω)|M cos ϕ(ω).
Pi(2ω)=[χeven(2)(ω)]ijkEj(ω)Ek(ω)+[χodd(2)(ω, M)]ijkEj(ω)Ek(ω),
[χodd(2)(ω, M)]ijk[χodd(3)(ω)]ijklMl.
cos ϕ=1-I/I[(1+I/I)2-4(I/I)cos2 Ө]1/2,
|Eodd||Eeven|=1+I/I-2I/Icos Ө1+I/I+2I/Icos Ө1/2.
R(t)±=I(t)±I(t)I(t0)±I(t0).
Eeven(t)Eeven(t0)=R+(t),
Eodd(t)cos ϕ(t)Eodd(t0)cos ϕ(t0)=R-(t)R+(t).
Δeven(t)R+(t)-1Eeven(t)Eeven(t0)-1,
Δodd(t)R-(t)R+(t)-1|Eodd(t)||Eodd(t0)|cos ϕ(t)cos ϕ(t0)-1.
Δodd(t)α(ω, t)M(t)M(t0)-1,
α(ω, t)|χodd(3)(t)||χodd(3)(t0)|cos ϕ(t)cos ϕ(t0).
ρ(ω)const-NB(E)PS(E+ω)dE.
F(t)=A exp(-t/τ)cos(Ωt+bt2+β).

Metrics