Abstract

A longitudinal magneto-optical Kerr effect and magnetization-induced second-harmonic generation (MSHG) of light (at 2ω) have been measured in a SiO2/Fe96Si4/Dy30Fe58Co12/glass exchange-coupled magnetic bilayer system with competitive anisotropies. Theoretical MSHG predictions in this structure that give rise to an effect proportional to magnetization components and that are allowed by an electric dipole mechanism are reported and discussed. The magnitude of the MSHG effect depends on the electric field of the incoming radiation at each interface and on the corresponding incoming (at ω) and outgoing (at 2ω) Fresnel coefficients. It is demonstrated that transverse pp MSHG selectively probes the magnetization of the first SiO2/Fe96Si4 interface, while transverse sp and longitudinal ps MSHG is sensitive, but less selectively, to the Fe96Si4/Dy30Fe58Co12 interface that supports a planar magnetic domain wall. (p and s are the usual parallel and perpendicular polarizations to the plane of incidence.) The contribution to MSHG by gradient magnetization terms is negligible.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  29. J. Hamrle, J. Ferré, M. Nyvlt, and S. Visnovsky, "In-depth resolution of the magneto-optical Kerr effect in ferromagnetic multilayers," Phys. Rev. B 66, 224423 (2002).
    [CrossRef]

2004 (1)

L. C. Sampaio, J. Hamrle, A. Mougin, J. Ferré, F. Garcia, F. Fettar, B. Dieny, and A. Brun, "In-depth sensitivity and magnetic second-harmonic generation of light in a multi-layer structure," Phys. Rev. B 70, 104403 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

L. C. Sampaio, A. Mougin, J. Ferré, P. Georges, A. Brun, H. Bernas, S. Poppe, T. Mewes, J. Fassbender, and B. Hillebrands, "Probing interface magnetism in the FeMn/NiFe exchange bias system using magnetic second harmonic generation," Europhys. Lett. 63, 819-825 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Hamrle, L. Polerecky, and J. Ferré, "Theory of second-harmonic generation from multilayer systems based on electric point-dipole radiation: application to magnetic multilayers," Phys. Rev. B 68, 144401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (4)

J. Güdde, J. Hohlfeld, and E. Matthias, "About the depth sensitivity of second-harmonic radiation in ultra-thin metal films," Appl. Phys. B 74, 691-695 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Atkinson and N. F. Kubrakov, "Boundary conditions in the simplest model of linear and second harmonic magneto-optical effects," Phys. Rev. B 65, 014432 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Hamrle, J. Ferré, M. Nyvlt, and S. Visnovsky, "In-depth resolution of the magneto-optical Kerr effect in ferromagnetic multilayers," Phys. Rev. B 66, 224423 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Kirilyuk, "Nonlinear optics in application to magnetic surfaces and thin films," J. Phys. D 35, R189-R207 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

O. Pletzsch, A. Kubetzka, M. Bode, and R. Wiesendanger, "Observation of magnetic hysteresis at the nanometer scale by spin-polarized scanning tunneling spectroscopy," Science 292, 2053-2056 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Z. Wu, R. Vollmer, H. Regensburger, X.-F. Jin, and J. Kirshner, "Magnetization-induced second harmonic generation from the Ni/Cu interface in multilayers on Cu(001)," Phys. Rev. B 63, 054401 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Pavlov, J. Ferré, P. Meyer, G. Tessier, P. Georges, A. Brun, P. Beauvillain, and V. Mathet, "Linear and nonlinear magneto-optical studies of Pt/Co/Pt thin films," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 13, 9867-9878 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

R. Allenspach, "Spin-polarized scanning electron microscopy," IBM J. Res. Dev. 44, 553-570 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

A. Kirilyuk, Th. Rasing, M. A. M. Haast, and J. C. Lodder, "Probing structure and magnetism of CoNi/Pt interfaces by nonlinear magneto-optics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2331-2333 (1998).
[CrossRef]

O. Redon and P. P. Freitas, "Mechanism of exchange anisotropy and thermal stability of spin valves biased with ultrathin TbCo layers," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 2851-2856 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

R. Sbiaa, H. Le Gall, O. Koshkina, and M. El Harfaoui, "Theoretical investigation of temperature induced phase transition in exchange coupled double layers," J. Appl. Phys. 81, 5236-5238 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Petukhov, I. L. Lyubchanskii, and Th. Rasing, "Theory of nonlinear magneto-optical imaging of magnetic domains and domain walls," Phys. Rev. B 56, 2680-2687 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

N. Nishimura and S. Tsunashima, "MSR media using in-plane magnetization layers without a readout bias magnet," J. Magn. Soc. Jpn. 20, 97-102 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Straub, R. Vollmer, and J. Kirshner, "Surface magnetism of ultrathin gamma-Fe films investigated by nonlinear magneto-optical Kerr effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 743-746 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (3)

H. A. Wieranga, W. de Jong, M. W. J. Prins, Th. Rasing, R. Vollmer, A. Kirilyuk, H. Schwabe, and J. Kirshner, "Interface magnetism and possible quantum well oscillations in ultrathin Co/Cu films observed by magnetization-inducedsecond harmonic generation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1462-1465 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Wierenga, M. W. J. Prins, and Th. Rasing, "Magnetization-induced optical second harmonic generation from magnetic multilayers," Physica B 204, 281-286 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Petukhov and A. Liebsch, "Surface anisotropy in optical second harmonic generation. I. Al(111)," Surf. Sci. 334, 195-208 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

K. Grzelakowski, T. Duden, E. Bauer, H. Poppa, and S. Chiang, "A new surface microscope for magnetic imaging," IEEE Trans. Magn. 30, 4500-4502 (1994).
[CrossRef]

X. Hu and Y. Kawazoe, "Theory of the capping effect in magnetic double-film systems," Phys. Rev. B 49, 3294-3302 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

G. Spiering, V. Koustos, H. Wierenga, M. Prins, D. Abraham, and T. Rasing, "Interface magnetism studied by optical second harmonic generation," J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 121, 109-111 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

J. Reif, J. C. Zink, C.-M. Schneider, and J. Kirshner, "Effects of surface magnetism on optical second-harmonic generation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2878-2881 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

R.-P. Pan, H. D. Wei, and Y. R. Shen, "Optical second-harmonic generation from magnetized surfaces," Phys. Rev. B 39, 1229-1234 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

T. Kobayashi, H. Tsuji, S. Tsunashima, and S. Uchiyama, "Magnetization process of exchange-coupled ferrimagnetic double-layered films," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. , 20, 2089-2095 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Abraham, D.

G. Spiering, V. Koustos, H. Wierenga, M. Prins, D. Abraham, and T. Rasing, "Interface magnetism studied by optical second harmonic generation," J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 121, 109-111 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Allenspach, R.

R. Allenspach, "Spin-polarized scanning electron microscopy," IBM J. Res. Dev. 44, 553-570 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Atkinson , R.

R. Atkinson and N. F. Kubrakov, "Boundary conditions in the simplest model of linear and second harmonic magneto-optical effects," Phys. Rev. B 65, 014432 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bauer, E.

K. Grzelakowski, T. Duden, E. Bauer, H. Poppa, and S. Chiang, "A new surface microscope for magnetic imaging," IEEE Trans. Magn. 30, 4500-4502 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Beauvillain, P.

V. V. Pavlov, J. Ferré, P. Meyer, G. Tessier, P. Georges, A. Brun, P. Beauvillain, and V. Mathet, "Linear and nonlinear magneto-optical studies of Pt/Co/Pt thin films," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 13, 9867-9878 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bernas, H.

L. C. Sampaio, A. Mougin, J. Ferré, P. Georges, A. Brun, H. Bernas, S. Poppe, T. Mewes, J. Fassbender, and B. Hillebrands, "Probing interface magnetism in the FeMn/NiFe exchange bias system using magnetic second harmonic generation," Europhys. Lett. 63, 819-825 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bode, M.

O. Pletzsch, A. Kubetzka, M. Bode, and R. Wiesendanger, "Observation of magnetic hysteresis at the nanometer scale by spin-polarized scanning tunneling spectroscopy," Science 292, 2053-2056 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Brun, A.

L. C. Sampaio, J. Hamrle, A. Mougin, J. Ferré, F. Garcia, F. Fettar, B. Dieny, and A. Brun, "In-depth sensitivity and magnetic second-harmonic generation of light in a multi-layer structure," Phys. Rev. B 70, 104403 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. C. Sampaio, A. Mougin, J. Ferré, P. Georges, A. Brun, H. Bernas, S. Poppe, T. Mewes, J. Fassbender, and B. Hillebrands, "Probing interface magnetism in the FeMn/NiFe exchange bias system using magnetic second harmonic generation," Europhys. Lett. 63, 819-825 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Pavlov, J. Ferré, P. Meyer, G. Tessier, P. Georges, A. Brun, P. Beauvillain, and V. Mathet, "Linear and nonlinear magneto-optical studies of Pt/Co/Pt thin films," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 13, 9867-9878 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chiang, S.

K. Grzelakowski, T. Duden, E. Bauer, H. Poppa, and S. Chiang, "A new surface microscope for magnetic imaging," IEEE Trans. Magn. 30, 4500-4502 (1994).
[CrossRef]

de Jong, W.

H. A. Wieranga, W. de Jong, M. W. J. Prins, Th. Rasing, R. Vollmer, A. Kirilyuk, H. Schwabe, and J. Kirshner, "Interface magnetism and possible quantum well oscillations in ultrathin Co/Cu films observed by magnetization-inducedsecond harmonic generation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1462-1465 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dieny, B.

L. C. Sampaio, J. Hamrle, A. Mougin, J. Ferré, F. Garcia, F. Fettar, B. Dieny, and A. Brun, "In-depth sensitivity and magnetic second-harmonic generation of light in a multi-layer structure," Phys. Rev. B 70, 104403 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Duden, T.

K. Grzelakowski, T. Duden, E. Bauer, H. Poppa, and S. Chiang, "A new surface microscope for magnetic imaging," IEEE Trans. Magn. 30, 4500-4502 (1994).
[CrossRef]

El Harfaoui, M.

R. Sbiaa, H. Le Gall, O. Koshkina, and M. El Harfaoui, "Theoretical investigation of temperature induced phase transition in exchange coupled double layers," J. Appl. Phys. 81, 5236-5238 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fassbender, J.

L. C. Sampaio, A. Mougin, J. Ferré, P. Georges, A. Brun, H. Bernas, S. Poppe, T. Mewes, J. Fassbender, and B. Hillebrands, "Probing interface magnetism in the FeMn/NiFe exchange bias system using magnetic second harmonic generation," Europhys. Lett. 63, 819-825 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ferré, J.

L. C. Sampaio, J. Hamrle, A. Mougin, J. Ferré, F. Garcia, F. Fettar, B. Dieny, and A. Brun, "In-depth sensitivity and magnetic second-harmonic generation of light in a multi-layer structure," Phys. Rev. B 70, 104403 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Hamrle, L. Polerecky, and J. Ferré, "Theory of second-harmonic generation from multilayer systems based on electric point-dipole radiation: application to magnetic multilayers," Phys. Rev. B 68, 144401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. C. Sampaio, A. Mougin, J. Ferré, P. Georges, A. Brun, H. Bernas, S. Poppe, T. Mewes, J. Fassbender, and B. Hillebrands, "Probing interface magnetism in the FeMn/NiFe exchange bias system using magnetic second harmonic generation," Europhys. Lett. 63, 819-825 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Hamrle, J. Ferré, M. Nyvlt, and S. Visnovsky, "In-depth resolution of the magneto-optical Kerr effect in ferromagnetic multilayers," Phys. Rev. B 66, 224423 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Pavlov, J. Ferré, P. Meyer, G. Tessier, P. Georges, A. Brun, P. Beauvillain, and V. Mathet, "Linear and nonlinear magneto-optical studies of Pt/Co/Pt thin films," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 13, 9867-9878 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fettar, F.

L. C. Sampaio, J. Hamrle, A. Mougin, J. Ferré, F. Garcia, F. Fettar, B. Dieny, and A. Brun, "In-depth sensitivity and magnetic second-harmonic generation of light in a multi-layer structure," Phys. Rev. B 70, 104403 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Freitas, P. P.

O. Redon and P. P. Freitas, "Mechanism of exchange anisotropy and thermal stability of spin valves biased with ultrathin TbCo layers," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 2851-2856 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Garcia, F.

L. C. Sampaio, J. Hamrle, A. Mougin, J. Ferré, F. Garcia, F. Fettar, B. Dieny, and A. Brun, "In-depth sensitivity and magnetic second-harmonic generation of light in a multi-layer structure," Phys. Rev. B 70, 104403 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Georges, P.

L. C. Sampaio, A. Mougin, J. Ferré, P. Georges, A. Brun, H. Bernas, S. Poppe, T. Mewes, J. Fassbender, and B. Hillebrands, "Probing interface magnetism in the FeMn/NiFe exchange bias system using magnetic second harmonic generation," Europhys. Lett. 63, 819-825 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Pavlov, J. Ferré, P. Meyer, G. Tessier, P. Georges, A. Brun, P. Beauvillain, and V. Mathet, "Linear and nonlinear magneto-optical studies of Pt/Co/Pt thin films," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 13, 9867-9878 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Grzelakowski, K.

K. Grzelakowski, T. Duden, E. Bauer, H. Poppa, and S. Chiang, "A new surface microscope for magnetic imaging," IEEE Trans. Magn. 30, 4500-4502 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Güdde, J.

J. Güdde, J. Hohlfeld, and E. Matthias, "About the depth sensitivity of second-harmonic radiation in ultra-thin metal films," Appl. Phys. B 74, 691-695 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Haast, M. A. M.

A. Kirilyuk, Th. Rasing, M. A. M. Haast, and J. C. Lodder, "Probing structure and magnetism of CoNi/Pt interfaces by nonlinear magneto-optics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2331-2333 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hamrle, J.

L. C. Sampaio, J. Hamrle, A. Mougin, J. Ferré, F. Garcia, F. Fettar, B. Dieny, and A. Brun, "In-depth sensitivity and magnetic second-harmonic generation of light in a multi-layer structure," Phys. Rev. B 70, 104403 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Hamrle, L. Polerecky, and J. Ferré, "Theory of second-harmonic generation from multilayer systems based on electric point-dipole radiation: application to magnetic multilayers," Phys. Rev. B 68, 144401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Hamrle, J. Ferré, M. Nyvlt, and S. Visnovsky, "In-depth resolution of the magneto-optical Kerr effect in ferromagnetic multilayers," Phys. Rev. B 66, 224423 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hillebrands, B.

L. C. Sampaio, A. Mougin, J. Ferré, P. Georges, A. Brun, H. Bernas, S. Poppe, T. Mewes, J. Fassbender, and B. Hillebrands, "Probing interface magnetism in the FeMn/NiFe exchange bias system using magnetic second harmonic generation," Europhys. Lett. 63, 819-825 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hohlfeld, J.

J. Güdde, J. Hohlfeld, and E. Matthias, "About the depth sensitivity of second-harmonic radiation in ultra-thin metal films," Appl. Phys. B 74, 691-695 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hu , X.

X. Hu and Y. Kawazoe, "Theory of the capping effect in magnetic double-film systems," Phys. Rev. B 49, 3294-3302 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jin, X.-F.

Y. Z. Wu, R. Vollmer, H. Regensburger, X.-F. Jin, and J. Kirshner, "Magnetization-induced second harmonic generation from the Ni/Cu interface in multilayers on Cu(001)," Phys. Rev. B 63, 054401 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kawazoe, Y.

X. Hu and Y. Kawazoe, "Theory of the capping effect in magnetic double-film systems," Phys. Rev. B 49, 3294-3302 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kirilyuk, A.

A. Kirilyuk, "Nonlinear optics in application to magnetic surfaces and thin films," J. Phys. D 35, R189-R207 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Kirilyuk, Th. Rasing, M. A. M. Haast, and J. C. Lodder, "Probing structure and magnetism of CoNi/Pt interfaces by nonlinear magneto-optics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2331-2333 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Wieranga, W. de Jong, M. W. J. Prins, Th. Rasing, R. Vollmer, A. Kirilyuk, H. Schwabe, and J. Kirshner, "Interface magnetism and possible quantum well oscillations in ultrathin Co/Cu films observed by magnetization-inducedsecond harmonic generation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1462-1465 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kirshner, J.

Y. Z. Wu, R. Vollmer, H. Regensburger, X.-F. Jin, and J. Kirshner, "Magnetization-induced second harmonic generation from the Ni/Cu interface in multilayers on Cu(001)," Phys. Rev. B 63, 054401 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Straub, R. Vollmer, and J. Kirshner, "Surface magnetism of ultrathin gamma-Fe films investigated by nonlinear magneto-optical Kerr effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 743-746 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. A. Wieranga, W. de Jong, M. W. J. Prins, Th. Rasing, R. Vollmer, A. Kirilyuk, H. Schwabe, and J. Kirshner, "Interface magnetism and possible quantum well oscillations in ultrathin Co/Cu films observed by magnetization-inducedsecond harmonic generation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1462-1465 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Reif, J. C. Zink, C.-M. Schneider, and J. Kirshner, "Effects of surface magnetism on optical second-harmonic generation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2878-2881 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kobayashi, T.

T. Kobayashi, H. Tsuji, S. Tsunashima, and S. Uchiyama, "Magnetization process of exchange-coupled ferrimagnetic double-layered films," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. , 20, 2089-2095 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Koshkina, O.

R. Sbiaa, H. Le Gall, O. Koshkina, and M. El Harfaoui, "Theoretical investigation of temperature induced phase transition in exchange coupled double layers," J. Appl. Phys. 81, 5236-5238 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Koustos, V.

G. Spiering, V. Koustos, H. Wierenga, M. Prins, D. Abraham, and T. Rasing, "Interface magnetism studied by optical second harmonic generation," J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 121, 109-111 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kubetzka, A.

O. Pletzsch, A. Kubetzka, M. Bode, and R. Wiesendanger, "Observation of magnetic hysteresis at the nanometer scale by spin-polarized scanning tunneling spectroscopy," Science 292, 2053-2056 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kubrakov, N. F.

R. Atkinson and N. F. Kubrakov, "Boundary conditions in the simplest model of linear and second harmonic magneto-optical effects," Phys. Rev. B 65, 014432 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Le Gall, H.

R. Sbiaa, H. Le Gall, O. Koshkina, and M. El Harfaoui, "Theoretical investigation of temperature induced phase transition in exchange coupled double layers," J. Appl. Phys. 81, 5236-5238 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Liebsch, A.

A. Petukhov and A. Liebsch, "Surface anisotropy in optical second harmonic generation. I. Al(111)," Surf. Sci. 334, 195-208 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lodder, J. C.

A. Kirilyuk, Th. Rasing, M. A. M. Haast, and J. C. Lodder, "Probing structure and magnetism of CoNi/Pt interfaces by nonlinear magneto-optics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2331-2333 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lyubchanskii, I. L.

A. V. Petukhov, I. L. Lyubchanskii, and Th. Rasing, "Theory of nonlinear magneto-optical imaging of magnetic domains and domain walls," Phys. Rev. B 56, 2680-2687 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mathet, V.

V. V. Pavlov, J. Ferré, P. Meyer, G. Tessier, P. Georges, A. Brun, P. Beauvillain, and V. Mathet, "Linear and nonlinear magneto-optical studies of Pt/Co/Pt thin films," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 13, 9867-9878 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Matthias, E.

J. Güdde, J. Hohlfeld, and E. Matthias, "About the depth sensitivity of second-harmonic radiation in ultra-thin metal films," Appl. Phys. B 74, 691-695 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mewes, T.

L. C. Sampaio, A. Mougin, J. Ferré, P. Georges, A. Brun, H. Bernas, S. Poppe, T. Mewes, J. Fassbender, and B. Hillebrands, "Probing interface magnetism in the FeMn/NiFe exchange bias system using magnetic second harmonic generation," Europhys. Lett. 63, 819-825 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, P.

V. V. Pavlov, J. Ferré, P. Meyer, G. Tessier, P. Georges, A. Brun, P. Beauvillain, and V. Mathet, "Linear and nonlinear magneto-optical studies of Pt/Co/Pt thin films," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 13, 9867-9878 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mougin, A.

L. C. Sampaio, J. Hamrle, A. Mougin, J. Ferré, F. Garcia, F. Fettar, B. Dieny, and A. Brun, "In-depth sensitivity and magnetic second-harmonic generation of light in a multi-layer structure," Phys. Rev. B 70, 104403 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. C. Sampaio, A. Mougin, J. Ferré, P. Georges, A. Brun, H. Bernas, S. Poppe, T. Mewes, J. Fassbender, and B. Hillebrands, "Probing interface magnetism in the FeMn/NiFe exchange bias system using magnetic second harmonic generation," Europhys. Lett. 63, 819-825 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nishimura , N.

N. Nishimura and S. Tsunashima, "MSR media using in-plane magnetization layers without a readout bias magnet," J. Magn. Soc. Jpn. 20, 97-102 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nyvlt, M.

J. Hamrle, J. Ferré, M. Nyvlt, and S. Visnovsky, "In-depth resolution of the magneto-optical Kerr effect in ferromagnetic multilayers," Phys. Rev. B 66, 224423 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pan, R.-P.

R.-P. Pan, H. D. Wei, and Y. R. Shen, "Optical second-harmonic generation from magnetized surfaces," Phys. Rev. B 39, 1229-1234 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Pavlov, V. V.

V. V. Pavlov, J. Ferré, P. Meyer, G. Tessier, P. Georges, A. Brun, P. Beauvillain, and V. Mathet, "Linear and nonlinear magneto-optical studies of Pt/Co/Pt thin films," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 13, 9867-9878 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Petukhov , A.

A. Petukhov and A. Liebsch, "Surface anisotropy in optical second harmonic generation. I. Al(111)," Surf. Sci. 334, 195-208 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Petukhov, A. V.

A. V. Petukhov, I. L. Lyubchanskii, and Th. Rasing, "Theory of nonlinear magneto-optical imaging of magnetic domains and domain walls," Phys. Rev. B 56, 2680-2687 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pletzsch, O.

O. Pletzsch, A. Kubetzka, M. Bode, and R. Wiesendanger, "Observation of magnetic hysteresis at the nanometer scale by spin-polarized scanning tunneling spectroscopy," Science 292, 2053-2056 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Polerecky, L.

J. Hamrle, L. Polerecky, and J. Ferré, "Theory of second-harmonic generation from multilayer systems based on electric point-dipole radiation: application to magnetic multilayers," Phys. Rev. B 68, 144401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Poppa, H.

K. Grzelakowski, T. Duden, E. Bauer, H. Poppa, and S. Chiang, "A new surface microscope for magnetic imaging," IEEE Trans. Magn. 30, 4500-4502 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Poppe, S.

L. C. Sampaio, A. Mougin, J. Ferré, P. Georges, A. Brun, H. Bernas, S. Poppe, T. Mewes, J. Fassbender, and B. Hillebrands, "Probing interface magnetism in the FeMn/NiFe exchange bias system using magnetic second harmonic generation," Europhys. Lett. 63, 819-825 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Prins, M.

G. Spiering, V. Koustos, H. Wierenga, M. Prins, D. Abraham, and T. Rasing, "Interface magnetism studied by optical second harmonic generation," J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 121, 109-111 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Prins, M. W. J.

H. A. Wieranga, W. de Jong, M. W. J. Prins, Th. Rasing, R. Vollmer, A. Kirilyuk, H. Schwabe, and J. Kirshner, "Interface magnetism and possible quantum well oscillations in ultrathin Co/Cu films observed by magnetization-inducedsecond harmonic generation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1462-1465 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Wierenga, M. W. J. Prins, and Th. Rasing, "Magnetization-induced optical second harmonic generation from magnetic multilayers," Physica B 204, 281-286 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rasing, T.

G. Spiering, V. Koustos, H. Wierenga, M. Prins, D. Abraham, and T. Rasing, "Interface magnetism studied by optical second harmonic generation," J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 121, 109-111 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rasing, Th.

A. Kirilyuk, Th. Rasing, M. A. M. Haast, and J. C. Lodder, "Probing structure and magnetism of CoNi/Pt interfaces by nonlinear magneto-optics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2331-2333 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Petukhov, I. L. Lyubchanskii, and Th. Rasing, "Theory of nonlinear magneto-optical imaging of magnetic domains and domain walls," Phys. Rev. B 56, 2680-2687 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Wierenga, M. W. J. Prins, and Th. Rasing, "Magnetization-induced optical second harmonic generation from magnetic multilayers," Physica B 204, 281-286 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Wieranga, W. de Jong, M. W. J. Prins, Th. Rasing, R. Vollmer, A. Kirilyuk, H. Schwabe, and J. Kirshner, "Interface magnetism and possible quantum well oscillations in ultrathin Co/Cu films observed by magnetization-inducedsecond harmonic generation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1462-1465 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Redon , O.

O. Redon and P. P. Freitas, "Mechanism of exchange anisotropy and thermal stability of spin valves biased with ultrathin TbCo layers," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 2851-2856 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Regensburger, H.

Y. Z. Wu, R. Vollmer, H. Regensburger, X.-F. Jin, and J. Kirshner, "Magnetization-induced second harmonic generation from the Ni/Cu interface in multilayers on Cu(001)," Phys. Rev. B 63, 054401 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Reif, J.

J. Reif, J. C. Zink, C.-M. Schneider, and J. Kirshner, "Effects of surface magnetism on optical second-harmonic generation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2878-2881 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sampaio, L. C.

L. C. Sampaio, J. Hamrle, A. Mougin, J. Ferré, F. Garcia, F. Fettar, B. Dieny, and A. Brun, "In-depth sensitivity and magnetic second-harmonic generation of light in a multi-layer structure," Phys. Rev. B 70, 104403 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. C. Sampaio, A. Mougin, J. Ferré, P. Georges, A. Brun, H. Bernas, S. Poppe, T. Mewes, J. Fassbender, and B. Hillebrands, "Probing interface magnetism in the FeMn/NiFe exchange bias system using magnetic second harmonic generation," Europhys. Lett. 63, 819-825 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sbiaa, R.

R. Sbiaa, H. Le Gall, O. Koshkina, and M. El Harfaoui, "Theoretical investigation of temperature induced phase transition in exchange coupled double layers," J. Appl. Phys. 81, 5236-5238 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, C.-M.

J. Reif, J. C. Zink, C.-M. Schneider, and J. Kirshner, "Effects of surface magnetism on optical second-harmonic generation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2878-2881 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwabe, H.

H. A. Wieranga, W. de Jong, M. W. J. Prins, Th. Rasing, R. Vollmer, A. Kirilyuk, H. Schwabe, and J. Kirshner, "Interface magnetism and possible quantum well oscillations in ultrathin Co/Cu films observed by magnetization-inducedsecond harmonic generation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1462-1465 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Y. R.

R.-P. Pan, H. D. Wei, and Y. R. Shen, "Optical second-harmonic generation from magnetized surfaces," Phys. Rev. B 39, 1229-1234 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Spiering, G.

G. Spiering, V. Koustos, H. Wierenga, M. Prins, D. Abraham, and T. Rasing, "Interface magnetism studied by optical second harmonic generation," J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 121, 109-111 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Straub, M.

M. Straub, R. Vollmer, and J. Kirshner, "Surface magnetism of ultrathin gamma-Fe films investigated by nonlinear magneto-optical Kerr effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 743-746 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tessier, G.

V. V. Pavlov, J. Ferré, P. Meyer, G. Tessier, P. Georges, A. Brun, P. Beauvillain, and V. Mathet, "Linear and nonlinear magneto-optical studies of Pt/Co/Pt thin films," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 13, 9867-9878 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tsuji, H.

T. Kobayashi, H. Tsuji, S. Tsunashima, and S. Uchiyama, "Magnetization process of exchange-coupled ferrimagnetic double-layered films," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. , 20, 2089-2095 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Tsunashima, S.

N. Nishimura and S. Tsunashima, "MSR media using in-plane magnetization layers without a readout bias magnet," J. Magn. Soc. Jpn. 20, 97-102 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. Kobayashi, H. Tsuji, S. Tsunashima, and S. Uchiyama, "Magnetization process of exchange-coupled ferrimagnetic double-layered films," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. , 20, 2089-2095 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Uchiyama, S.

T. Kobayashi, H. Tsuji, S. Tsunashima, and S. Uchiyama, "Magnetization process of exchange-coupled ferrimagnetic double-layered films," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. , 20, 2089-2095 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Visnovsky, S.

J. Hamrle, J. Ferré, M. Nyvlt, and S. Visnovsky, "In-depth resolution of the magneto-optical Kerr effect in ferromagnetic multilayers," Phys. Rev. B 66, 224423 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vollmer, R.

Y. Z. Wu, R. Vollmer, H. Regensburger, X.-F. Jin, and J. Kirshner, "Magnetization-induced second harmonic generation from the Ni/Cu interface in multilayers on Cu(001)," Phys. Rev. B 63, 054401 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Straub, R. Vollmer, and J. Kirshner, "Surface magnetism of ultrathin gamma-Fe films investigated by nonlinear magneto-optical Kerr effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 743-746 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. A. Wieranga, W. de Jong, M. W. J. Prins, Th. Rasing, R. Vollmer, A. Kirilyuk, H. Schwabe, and J. Kirshner, "Interface magnetism and possible quantum well oscillations in ultrathin Co/Cu films observed by magnetization-inducedsecond harmonic generation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1462-1465 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wei, H. D.

R.-P. Pan, H. D. Wei, and Y. R. Shen, "Optical second-harmonic generation from magnetized surfaces," Phys. Rev. B 39, 1229-1234 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Wieranga, H. A.

H. A. Wieranga, W. de Jong, M. W. J. Prins, Th. Rasing, R. Vollmer, A. Kirilyuk, H. Schwabe, and J. Kirshner, "Interface magnetism and possible quantum well oscillations in ultrathin Co/Cu films observed by magnetization-inducedsecond harmonic generation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1462-1465 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wierenga, H.

G. Spiering, V. Koustos, H. Wierenga, M. Prins, D. Abraham, and T. Rasing, "Interface magnetism studied by optical second harmonic generation," J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 121, 109-111 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wierenga, H. A.

H. A. Wierenga, M. W. J. Prins, and Th. Rasing, "Magnetization-induced optical second harmonic generation from magnetic multilayers," Physica B 204, 281-286 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wiesendanger, R.

O. Pletzsch, A. Kubetzka, M. Bode, and R. Wiesendanger, "Observation of magnetic hysteresis at the nanometer scale by spin-polarized scanning tunneling spectroscopy," Science 292, 2053-2056 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y. Z.

Y. Z. Wu, R. Vollmer, H. Regensburger, X.-F. Jin, and J. Kirshner, "Magnetization-induced second harmonic generation from the Ni/Cu interface in multilayers on Cu(001)," Phys. Rev. B 63, 054401 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zink, J. C.

J. Reif, J. C. Zink, C.-M. Schneider, and J. Kirshner, "Effects of surface magnetism on optical second-harmonic generation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2878-2881 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

J. Güdde, J. Hohlfeld, and E. Matthias, "About the depth sensitivity of second-harmonic radiation in ultra-thin metal films," Appl. Phys. B 74, 691-695 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. Kirilyuk, Th. Rasing, M. A. M. Haast, and J. C. Lodder, "Probing structure and magnetism of CoNi/Pt interfaces by nonlinear magneto-optics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2331-2333 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Europhys. Lett. (1)

L. C. Sampaio, A. Mougin, J. Ferré, P. Georges, A. Brun, H. Bernas, S. Poppe, T. Mewes, J. Fassbender, and B. Hillebrands, "Probing interface magnetism in the FeMn/NiFe exchange bias system using magnetic second harmonic generation," Europhys. Lett. 63, 819-825 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IBM J. Res. Dev. (1)

R. Allenspach, "Spin-polarized scanning electron microscopy," IBM J. Res. Dev. 44, 553-570 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Magn. (1)

K. Grzelakowski, T. Duden, E. Bauer, H. Poppa, and S. Chiang, "A new surface microscope for magnetic imaging," IEEE Trans. Magn. 30, 4500-4502 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

O. Redon and P. P. Freitas, "Mechanism of exchange anisotropy and thermal stability of spin valves biased with ultrathin TbCo layers," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 2851-2856 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Sbiaa, H. Le Gall, O. Koshkina, and M. El Harfaoui, "Theoretical investigation of temperature induced phase transition in exchange coupled double layers," J. Appl. Phys. 81, 5236-5238 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Magn. Magn. Mater. (1)

G. Spiering, V. Koustos, H. Wierenga, M. Prins, D. Abraham, and T. Rasing, "Interface magnetism studied by optical second harmonic generation," J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 121, 109-111 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Magn. Soc. Jpn. (1)

N. Nishimura and S. Tsunashima, "MSR media using in-plane magnetization layers without a readout bias magnet," J. Magn. Soc. Jpn. 20, 97-102 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Condens. Matter (1)

V. V. Pavlov, J. Ferré, P. Meyer, G. Tessier, P. Georges, A. Brun, P. Beauvillain, and V. Mathet, "Linear and nonlinear magneto-optical studies of Pt/Co/Pt thin films," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 13, 9867-9878 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D (1)

A. Kirilyuk, "Nonlinear optics in application to magnetic surfaces and thin films," J. Phys. D 35, R189-R207 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Kobayashi, H. Tsuji, S. Tsunashima, and S. Uchiyama, "Magnetization process of exchange-coupled ferrimagnetic double-layered films," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. , 20, 2089-2095 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (8)

R. Atkinson and N. F. Kubrakov, "Boundary conditions in the simplest model of linear and second harmonic magneto-optical effects," Phys. Rev. B 65, 014432 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Hamrle, J. Ferré, M. Nyvlt, and S. Visnovsky, "In-depth resolution of the magneto-optical Kerr effect in ferromagnetic multilayers," Phys. Rev. B 66, 224423 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Hamrle, L. Polerecky, and J. Ferré, "Theory of second-harmonic generation from multilayer systems based on electric point-dipole radiation: application to magnetic multilayers," Phys. Rev. B 68, 144401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R.-P. Pan, H. D. Wei, and Y. R. Shen, "Optical second-harmonic generation from magnetized surfaces," Phys. Rev. B 39, 1229-1234 (1989).
[CrossRef]

X. Hu and Y. Kawazoe, "Theory of the capping effect in magnetic double-film systems," Phys. Rev. B 49, 3294-3302 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Y. Z. Wu, R. Vollmer, H. Regensburger, X.-F. Jin, and J. Kirshner, "Magnetization-induced second harmonic generation from the Ni/Cu interface in multilayers on Cu(001)," Phys. Rev. B 63, 054401 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. C. Sampaio, J. Hamrle, A. Mougin, J. Ferré, F. Garcia, F. Fettar, B. Dieny, and A. Brun, "In-depth sensitivity and magnetic second-harmonic generation of light in a multi-layer structure," Phys. Rev. B 70, 104403 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Petukhov, I. L. Lyubchanskii, and Th. Rasing, "Theory of nonlinear magneto-optical imaging of magnetic domains and domain walls," Phys. Rev. B 56, 2680-2687 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

J. Reif, J. C. Zink, C.-M. Schneider, and J. Kirshner, "Effects of surface magnetism on optical second-harmonic generation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2878-2881 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. A. Wieranga, W. de Jong, M. W. J. Prins, Th. Rasing, R. Vollmer, A. Kirilyuk, H. Schwabe, and J. Kirshner, "Interface magnetism and possible quantum well oscillations in ultrathin Co/Cu films observed by magnetization-inducedsecond harmonic generation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1462-1465 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Straub, R. Vollmer, and J. Kirshner, "Surface magnetism of ultrathin gamma-Fe films investigated by nonlinear magneto-optical Kerr effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 743-746 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Physica B (1)

H. A. Wierenga, M. W. J. Prins, and Th. Rasing, "Magnetization-induced optical second harmonic generation from magnetic multilayers," Physica B 204, 281-286 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

O. Pletzsch, A. Kubetzka, M. Bode, and R. Wiesendanger, "Observation of magnetic hysteresis at the nanometer scale by spin-polarized scanning tunneling spectroscopy," Science 292, 2053-2056 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Surf. Sci. (1)

A. Petukhov and A. Liebsch, "Surface anisotropy in optical second harmonic generation. I. Al(111)," Surf. Sci. 334, 195-208 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

M. J. Donahue and D. G. Porter, "OOMMF Users' Guide, version 1.0," NIST interagency rep. NISTIR 6376 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Md., 1999) (http://math.nist.gov/oommf).

R.-H. Benneman, ed., Non-Linear Optics in Metals , Vol. 98 of International Series of Monographs on Physics (Oxford U. Press, Oxford, UK, 1998).

J. Ferré, "Linear and non-linear magneto-optical effects," in Magnetism and Synchrotron radiation , E. Beaurepaire, F. Scheurer, G. Krill, and J.-P. Kappler, eds., Vol. 565 of Lecture Notes in Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2001), pp. 316-335.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Sample structure: fs, femtosecond; SHG, second-harmonic generation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

In-depth variation of deviation angle of magnetization Φ with respect to the film normal. The depth was measured from the air–SiO2 interface.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

In-depth profile of the amplitude of electric field components |Ez(ω)| (incident unitary p wave, solid curve), |Ey(ω)| (incident unitary p wave, dotted–dashed curve), and |Ey(ω)| (incident unitary s wave, short-dashed curve) in the SiO2 (10-nm)/Fe96Si4 (5-nm)/Dy30Fe58Co12 (30-nm)/glass structure at a photon wavelength of 800 nm and for an incidence angle of 45°.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Polar representation of the incoming Fresnel elements Xxs,v(ω), Xyp,v(ω), and Xzp,v(ω) for each interface v for the SiO2 (10-nm)/Fe96Si4 (5-nm)/Dy30Fe58Co12 (30-nm)/glass structure at a photon wavelength of 800 nm and for an incidence angle of 45°. The plotted quantity is Nz,0(2ω). Note that absolute values of X are identical to those of the electric fields that are present on each interface as represented in Fig. 3.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Polar representation of the outgoing Fresnel elements Zxs,v,-(2ω), Zyp,v,-(2ω), and Zzp,v,-(2ω) coming from each interface v for the SiO2 (10-nm)/Fe96Si4 (5-nm)/Dy30Fe58Co12×(30-nm)/glass structure at a photon wavelength of 400 nm and for light radiated at an angle of 45°. The light intensity is proportional to |Nz,0(2ω)Zij,v,-(2ω)|, i.e., the modulus of the quantity plotted along the x axis.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

MOKE and MSHG loops of the Fe96Si4 (5-nm)/Dy30Fe58Co12 structure measured in the same thermal conditions: (a) in the LMOKE, (b) in transverse pp MSHG, (c) in transverse sp MSHG, and (d) in longitudinal ps MSHG.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

MOKE and MSHG loops of the Fe96Si4 (10-nm)/Dy30Fe58Co12 structure measured in the same thermal conditions: (a) in the LMOKE, (b) in transverse pp MSHG, and (c) in longitudinal ps MSHG.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Selection Rules for Magnetic and Nonmagnetic Termsa

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Ev(ω)=Xv(ω)J0(ω),
μv(2ω)=χvEv(ω)Ev(ω),
s,v(2ω)p,v(2ω)=Zsx,v(2ω)000Zpy,v(2ω)Zpz,v(2ω)μx,v(2ω)μy,v(2ω)μz,v(2ω),
,tot(2ω)=v,v(2ω).
Itot(2ω)|Nz(2ω)|2[|s,tot(2ω)|2+|p,tot(2ω)|2],
I,tot(2ω)(m)2|Nz(2ω)|2vR{,v(2ω)(m)[,tot(2ω)(nm)]},

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