Abstract

We present precise and absolute measurements of full complex third-order optical susceptibility on different fused-silica and original glasses composed of tellurium, titanium, and niobium erbium. These materials are designed to be the key point for applications ranging from high-power laser systems to optoelectronics; their nonlinear index of refraction is a major property and thus must be accurately known. A large dispersion (more than 30%) of the nonlinear index of fused-silica glasses was found. Measurements on tellurium glasses have shown strong nonlinearities, to be linked to the configurations of their cations and anions.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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2002 (1)

J. M. Harbold, F. O. Ilday, F. W. Wise, and B. G. Aitken, “Highly nonlinear Ge—As—Se and Ge—As—S—Se glasses for all-optical switching,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 822–824 (2002).

2000 (1)

1999 (2)

S. Smolorz and F. Wise, “Measurement of the nonlinear optical response of optical fiber materials by use of spectrally resolved two-beam coupling,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1103–1105 (1999).

B. Jeansannetas, S. Blanchandin, P. Thomas, P. Marchet, J. C. Champarnaud-Mesjard, T. Merle-Méjean, B. Frit, V. Nazabal, E. Fargin, and G. Le Flem, “Glass structure and optical nonlinearities in thallium (I) Tellurium (IV) oxide glasses,” J. Solid State Chem. 146, 329–335 (1999).

1998 (3)

D. Milan, “Review and assessment of measured values of the nonlinear refractive-index coefficient of fused silica,” Appl. Opt. 37, 546–550 (1998).

M. O. Martin, L. Canioni, and L. Sarger, “Measurements of complex third-order optical susceptibility in a collinear pump–probe experiment,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1874–1876 (1998).

E. Fargin, A. Berthereau, T. Cardinal, J. J. Videau, A. Villesuzanne, and G. Le Flem, “Contribution of theoretical chemistry to the investigation of optical non linearities in glasses,” Ann. Chim. Sci. Mater. 23, 27–32 (1998).

1997 (4)

J. K. Ranka, A. L. Gaeta, A. Baltuska, M. S. Pshenichnikov, and D. A. Wiersma, “Autocorrelation measurement of 6-fs pulses based on the two-photon-induced photocurrent in a GaAsP photodiode,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1344–1346 (1997).

T. Cardinal, E. Fargin, G. Le Flem, and S. Le Boiteux, “Correlations between structural properties of Nb2O5—NaPO3—Na2B4O7 glasses and nonlinear optical activities,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 222, 228–234 (1997).

S. Le Boiteux, P. Segonds, L. Canioni, L. Sarger, T. Cardinal, C. Duchesne, E. Fargin, and G. Le Flem, “Nonlinear optical properties for TiO2 containing phosphate, borophosphate, and silicate glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 1481–1487 (1997).

C. McIntosh, J. Toulouse, and P. Tick, “The Boson peak in alkali silicate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 222, 335–341 (1997).

1996 (1)

A. Berthereau, E. Fargin, A. Villesuzanne, R. Olazcuaga, G. Le Flem, and A. Ducasse, “Determination of local geometries around tellurium in TeO2—Nb2O5 and TeO2—Al2O3 oxide glasses by XANES and EXAFS: investigation of electronic properties of evidenced oxygen clusters by ab initio calculations,” J. Solid State Chem. 126, 143–151 (1996).

1995 (3)

T. Y. F. Tsang, “Optical third-harmonic generation at interfaces,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 4116–4125 (1995).

E. T. J. Nibbering, M. A. Franco, B. S. Prade, G. Grillon, C. Le Blanc, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Measurement of the nonlinear refractive index of transparent materials by spectral analysis after nonlinear propagation,” Opt. Commun. 119, 479–484 (1995).

I. Kang, T. Krauss, F. Wise, B. G. Aitken, and N. F. Borrelli, “Femtosecond measurement of enhanced optical nonlinearities of sulfide glasses and heavy-metal-doped oxide glasses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 2053–2059 (1995).

1992 (3)

1991 (3)

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. C. Hutchings, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Dispersion of bound electron nonlinear refraction in solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1296–1309 (1991).

M. E. Lines, “Oxide glasses for fast photonic switching: a comparative study,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 6876–6884 (1991).

K. Minoshima, M. Taiji, and T. Kobayashi, “Femtosecond time-resolved interferometry for the determination of complex nonlinear susceptibility,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1683–1685 (1991).

1990 (3)

M. E. Lines, “Bond-orbital theory of linear and nonlinear electronic response in ionic crystals. II. Nonlinear response,” Phys. Rev. B 41, 3383–3390 (1990).

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Dispersion and band-gap scaling of the electronic Kerr effect in solids associated with two-photon absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 96–99 (1990).

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).

1989 (1)

1987 (1)

J. E. Sipe, D. J. Moss, and H. M. van Driel, “Phenomenological theory of optical second- and third-harmonic generation from cubic centrosymmetric crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 35, 1129–1141 (1987).

1986 (1)

D. J. Moss, H. M. van Driel, and J. E. Sipe, “Third harmonic generation as a structural diagnostic of ion-implanted amorphous and crystalline silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 1150–1152 (1986).

1978 (1)

N. L. Boling, A. J. Glass, and A. Owyoung, “Empirical relationships for predicting nonlinear refractive index changes in optical solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 14, 601–608 (1978).

1975 (1)

R. W. Hellwarth, J. Cherlow, and T. T. Tang, “Origin and frequency dependence of nonlinear optical susceptibilities of glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 11, 964–967 (1975).

Adair, R.

R. Adair, L. L. Chase, and S. A. Payne, “Dispersion of the nonlinear refractive index of optical crystals,” Opt. Mater. (Amsterdam, Neth.) 1, 185–194 (1992).

Aggarwal, I. D.

Aitken, B. G.

J. M. Harbold, F. O. Ilday, F. W. Wise, and B. G. Aitken, “Highly nonlinear Ge—As—Se and Ge—As—S—Se glasses for all-optical switching,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 822–824 (2002).

I. Kang, T. Krauss, F. Wise, B. G. Aitken, and N. F. Borrelli, “Femtosecond measurement of enhanced optical nonlinearities of sulfide glasses and heavy-metal-doped oxide glasses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 2053–2059 (1995).

Baltuska, A.

Berthereau, A.

E. Fargin, A. Berthereau, T. Cardinal, J. J. Videau, A. Villesuzanne, and G. Le Flem, “Contribution of theoretical chemistry to the investigation of optical non linearities in glasses,” Ann. Chim. Sci. Mater. 23, 27–32 (1998).

A. Berthereau, E. Fargin, A. Villesuzanne, R. Olazcuaga, G. Le Flem, and A. Ducasse, “Determination of local geometries around tellurium in TeO2—Nb2O5 and TeO2—Al2O3 oxide glasses by XANES and EXAFS: investigation of electronic properties of evidenced oxygen clusters by ab initio calculations,” J. Solid State Chem. 126, 143–151 (1996).

Blanchandin, S.

B. Jeansannetas, S. Blanchandin, P. Thomas, P. Marchet, J. C. Champarnaud-Mesjard, T. Merle-Méjean, B. Frit, V. Nazabal, E. Fargin, and G. Le Flem, “Glass structure and optical nonlinearities in thallium (I) Tellurium (IV) oxide glasses,” J. Solid State Chem. 146, 329–335 (1999).

Boling, N. L.

N. L. Boling, A. J. Glass, and A. Owyoung, “Empirical relationships for predicting nonlinear refractive index changes in optical solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 14, 601–608 (1978).

Borrelli, N. F.

Canioni, L.

M. O. Martin, L. Canioni, and L. Sarger, “Measurements of complex third-order optical susceptibility in a collinear pump–probe experiment,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1874–1876 (1998).

S. Le Boiteux, P. Segonds, L. Canioni, L. Sarger, T. Cardinal, C. Duchesne, E. Fargin, and G. Le Flem, “Nonlinear optical properties for TiO2 containing phosphate, borophosphate, and silicate glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 1481–1487 (1997).

Cardinal, T.

E. Fargin, A. Berthereau, T. Cardinal, J. J. Videau, A. Villesuzanne, and G. Le Flem, “Contribution of theoretical chemistry to the investigation of optical non linearities in glasses,” Ann. Chim. Sci. Mater. 23, 27–32 (1998).

S. Le Boiteux, P. Segonds, L. Canioni, L. Sarger, T. Cardinal, C. Duchesne, E. Fargin, and G. Le Flem, “Nonlinear optical properties for TiO2 containing phosphate, borophosphate, and silicate glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 1481–1487 (1997).

T. Cardinal, E. Fargin, G. Le Flem, and S. Le Boiteux, “Correlations between structural properties of Nb2O5—NaPO3—Na2B4O7 glasses and nonlinear optical activities,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 222, 228–234 (1997).

Champarnaud-Mesjard, J. C.

B. Jeansannetas, S. Blanchandin, P. Thomas, P. Marchet, J. C. Champarnaud-Mesjard, T. Merle-Méjean, B. Frit, V. Nazabal, E. Fargin, and G. Le Flem, “Glass structure and optical nonlinearities in thallium (I) Tellurium (IV) oxide glasses,” J. Solid State Chem. 146, 329–335 (1999).

Chase, L. L.

R. Adair, L. L. Chase, and S. A. Payne, “Dispersion of the nonlinear refractive index of optical crystals,” Opt. Mater. (Amsterdam, Neth.) 1, 185–194 (1992).

Cheong, S.-W.

Cherlow, J.

R. W. Hellwarth, J. Cherlow, and T. T. Tang, “Origin and frequency dependence of nonlinear optical susceptibilities of glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 11, 964–967 (1975).

Ducasse, A.

A. Berthereau, E. Fargin, A. Villesuzanne, R. Olazcuaga, G. Le Flem, and A. Ducasse, “Determination of local geometries around tellurium in TeO2—Nb2O5 and TeO2—Al2O3 oxide glasses by XANES and EXAFS: investigation of electronic properties of evidenced oxygen clusters by ab initio calculations,” J. Solid State Chem. 126, 143–151 (1996).

Duchesne, C.

S. Le Boiteux, P. Segonds, L. Canioni, L. Sarger, T. Cardinal, C. Duchesne, E. Fargin, and G. Le Flem, “Nonlinear optical properties for TiO2 containing phosphate, borophosphate, and silicate glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 1481–1487 (1997).

Fargin, E.

B. Jeansannetas, S. Blanchandin, P. Thomas, P. Marchet, J. C. Champarnaud-Mesjard, T. Merle-Méjean, B. Frit, V. Nazabal, E. Fargin, and G. Le Flem, “Glass structure and optical nonlinearities in thallium (I) Tellurium (IV) oxide glasses,” J. Solid State Chem. 146, 329–335 (1999).

E. Fargin, A. Berthereau, T. Cardinal, J. J. Videau, A. Villesuzanne, and G. Le Flem, “Contribution of theoretical chemistry to the investigation of optical non linearities in glasses,” Ann. Chim. Sci. Mater. 23, 27–32 (1998).

T. Cardinal, E. Fargin, G. Le Flem, and S. Le Boiteux, “Correlations between structural properties of Nb2O5—NaPO3—Na2B4O7 glasses and nonlinear optical activities,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 222, 228–234 (1997).

S. Le Boiteux, P. Segonds, L. Canioni, L. Sarger, T. Cardinal, C. Duchesne, E. Fargin, and G. Le Flem, “Nonlinear optical properties for TiO2 containing phosphate, borophosphate, and silicate glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 1481–1487 (1997).

A. Berthereau, E. Fargin, A. Villesuzanne, R. Olazcuaga, G. Le Flem, and A. Ducasse, “Determination of local geometries around tellurium in TeO2—Nb2O5 and TeO2—Al2O3 oxide glasses by XANES and EXAFS: investigation of electronic properties of evidenced oxygen clusters by ab initio calculations,” J. Solid State Chem. 126, 143–151 (1996).

Franco, M. A.

E. T. J. Nibbering, M. A. Franco, B. S. Prade, G. Grillon, C. Le Blanc, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Measurement of the nonlinear refractive index of transparent materials by spectral analysis after nonlinear propagation,” Opt. Commun. 119, 479–484 (1995).

Frit, B.

B. Jeansannetas, S. Blanchandin, P. Thomas, P. Marchet, J. C. Champarnaud-Mesjard, T. Merle-Méjean, B. Frit, V. Nazabal, E. Fargin, and G. Le Flem, “Glass structure and optical nonlinearities in thallium (I) Tellurium (IV) oxide glasses,” J. Solid State Chem. 146, 329–335 (1999).

Gaeta, A. L.

Glass, A. J.

N. L. Boling, A. J. Glass, and A. Owyoung, “Empirical relationships for predicting nonlinear refractive index changes in optical solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 14, 601–608 (1978).

Grillon, G.

E. T. J. Nibbering, M. A. Franco, B. S. Prade, G. Grillon, C. Le Blanc, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Measurement of the nonlinear refractive index of transparent materials by spectral analysis after nonlinear propagation,” Opt. Commun. 119, 479–484 (1995).

Hagan, D. J.

A. A. Said, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, T. H. Wei, J. Wang, J. Young, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Determination of bound-electronic and free-carrier nonlinearities in ZnSe, GaAs, CdTe, and ZnTe,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 405–414 (1992).

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. C. Hutchings, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Dispersion of bound electron nonlinear refraction in solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1296–1309 (1991).

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Dispersion and band-gap scaling of the electronic Kerr effect in solids associated with two-photon absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 96–99 (1990).

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).

Harbold, J. M.

J. M. Harbold, F. O. Ilday, F. W. Wise, and B. G. Aitken, “Highly nonlinear Ge—As—Se and Ge—As—S—Se glasses for all-optical switching,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 822–824 (2002).

Hellwarth, R. W.

R. W. Hellwarth, J. Cherlow, and T. T. Tang, “Origin and frequency dependence of nonlinear optical susceptibilities of glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 11, 964–967 (1975).

Hutchings, D. C.

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. C. Hutchings, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Dispersion of bound electron nonlinear refraction in solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1296–1309 (1991).

Hwang, H. Y.

Ilday, F. O.

J. M. Harbold, F. O. Ilday, F. W. Wise, and B. G. Aitken, “Highly nonlinear Ge—As—Se and Ge—As—S—Se glasses for all-optical switching,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 822–824 (2002).

Jeansannetas, B.

B. Jeansannetas, S. Blanchandin, P. Thomas, P. Marchet, J. C. Champarnaud-Mesjard, T. Merle-Méjean, B. Frit, V. Nazabal, E. Fargin, and G. Le Flem, “Glass structure and optical nonlinearities in thallium (I) Tellurium (IV) oxide glasses,” J. Solid State Chem. 146, 329–335 (1999).

Kang, I.

Katsufuji, T.

Kobayashi, T.

Krauss, T.

Le Blanc, C.

E. T. J. Nibbering, M. A. Franco, B. S. Prade, G. Grillon, C. Le Blanc, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Measurement of the nonlinear refractive index of transparent materials by spectral analysis after nonlinear propagation,” Opt. Commun. 119, 479–484 (1995).

Le Boiteux, S.

T. Cardinal, E. Fargin, G. Le Flem, and S. Le Boiteux, “Correlations between structural properties of Nb2O5—NaPO3—Na2B4O7 glasses and nonlinear optical activities,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 222, 228–234 (1997).

S. Le Boiteux, P. Segonds, L. Canioni, L. Sarger, T. Cardinal, C. Duchesne, E. Fargin, and G. Le Flem, “Nonlinear optical properties for TiO2 containing phosphate, borophosphate, and silicate glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 1481–1487 (1997).

Le Flem, G.

B. Jeansannetas, S. Blanchandin, P. Thomas, P. Marchet, J. C. Champarnaud-Mesjard, T. Merle-Méjean, B. Frit, V. Nazabal, E. Fargin, and G. Le Flem, “Glass structure and optical nonlinearities in thallium (I) Tellurium (IV) oxide glasses,” J. Solid State Chem. 146, 329–335 (1999).

E. Fargin, A. Berthereau, T. Cardinal, J. J. Videau, A. Villesuzanne, and G. Le Flem, “Contribution of theoretical chemistry to the investigation of optical non linearities in glasses,” Ann. Chim. Sci. Mater. 23, 27–32 (1998).

T. Cardinal, E. Fargin, G. Le Flem, and S. Le Boiteux, “Correlations between structural properties of Nb2O5—NaPO3—Na2B4O7 glasses and nonlinear optical activities,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 222, 228–234 (1997).

S. Le Boiteux, P. Segonds, L. Canioni, L. Sarger, T. Cardinal, C. Duchesne, E. Fargin, and G. Le Flem, “Nonlinear optical properties for TiO2 containing phosphate, borophosphate, and silicate glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 1481–1487 (1997).

A. Berthereau, E. Fargin, A. Villesuzanne, R. Olazcuaga, G. Le Flem, and A. Ducasse, “Determination of local geometries around tellurium in TeO2—Nb2O5 and TeO2—Al2O3 oxide glasses by XANES and EXAFS: investigation of electronic properties of evidenced oxygen clusters by ab initio calculations,” J. Solid State Chem. 126, 143–151 (1996).

Lenz, G.

Lines, M. E.

G. Lenz, J. Zimmermann, T. Katsufuji, M. E. Lines, H. Y. Hwang, S. Spälter, R. E. Slusher, S.-W. Cheong, J. S. Sanghera, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Large Kerr effect in bulk Se-based chalcogenide glasses,” Opt. Lett. 25, 254–256 (2000).

M. E. Lines, “Oxide glasses for fast photonic switching: a comparative study,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 6876–6884 (1991).

M. E. Lines, “Bond-orbital theory of linear and nonlinear electronic response in ionic crystals. II. Nonlinear response,” Phys. Rev. B 41, 3383–3390 (1990).

Marchet, P.

B. Jeansannetas, S. Blanchandin, P. Thomas, P. Marchet, J. C. Champarnaud-Mesjard, T. Merle-Méjean, B. Frit, V. Nazabal, E. Fargin, and G. Le Flem, “Glass structure and optical nonlinearities in thallium (I) Tellurium (IV) oxide glasses,” J. Solid State Chem. 146, 329–335 (1999).

Martin, M. O.

McIntosh, C.

C. McIntosh, J. Toulouse, and P. Tick, “The Boson peak in alkali silicate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 222, 335–341 (1997).

Merle-Méjean, T.

B. Jeansannetas, S. Blanchandin, P. Thomas, P. Marchet, J. C. Champarnaud-Mesjard, T. Merle-Méjean, B. Frit, V. Nazabal, E. Fargin, and G. Le Flem, “Glass structure and optical nonlinearities in thallium (I) Tellurium (IV) oxide glasses,” J. Solid State Chem. 146, 329–335 (1999).

Milan, D.

Minoshima, K.

Moss, D. J.

J. E. Sipe, D. J. Moss, and H. M. van Driel, “Phenomenological theory of optical second- and third-harmonic generation from cubic centrosymmetric crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 35, 1129–1141 (1987).

D. J. Moss, H. M. van Driel, and J. E. Sipe, “Third harmonic generation as a structural diagnostic of ion-implanted amorphous and crystalline silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 1150–1152 (1986).

Mysyrowicz, A.

E. T. J. Nibbering, M. A. Franco, B. S. Prade, G. Grillon, C. Le Blanc, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Measurement of the nonlinear refractive index of transparent materials by spectral analysis after nonlinear propagation,” Opt. Commun. 119, 479–484 (1995).

Nazabal, V.

B. Jeansannetas, S. Blanchandin, P. Thomas, P. Marchet, J. C. Champarnaud-Mesjard, T. Merle-Méjean, B. Frit, V. Nazabal, E. Fargin, and G. Le Flem, “Glass structure and optical nonlinearities in thallium (I) Tellurium (IV) oxide glasses,” J. Solid State Chem. 146, 329–335 (1999).

Nibbering, E. T. J.

E. T. J. Nibbering, M. A. Franco, B. S. Prade, G. Grillon, C. Le Blanc, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Measurement of the nonlinear refractive index of transparent materials by spectral analysis after nonlinear propagation,” Opt. Commun. 119, 479–484 (1995).

Olazcuaga, R.

A. Berthereau, E. Fargin, A. Villesuzanne, R. Olazcuaga, G. Le Flem, and A. Ducasse, “Determination of local geometries around tellurium in TeO2—Nb2O5 and TeO2—Al2O3 oxide glasses by XANES and EXAFS: investigation of electronic properties of evidenced oxygen clusters by ab initio calculations,” J. Solid State Chem. 126, 143–151 (1996).

Owyoung, A.

N. L. Boling, A. J. Glass, and A. Owyoung, “Empirical relationships for predicting nonlinear refractive index changes in optical solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 14, 601–608 (1978).

Payne, S. A.

R. Adair, L. L. Chase, and S. A. Payne, “Dispersion of the nonlinear refractive index of optical crystals,” Opt. Mater. (Amsterdam, Neth.) 1, 185–194 (1992).

Prade, B. S.

E. T. J. Nibbering, M. A. Franco, B. S. Prade, G. Grillon, C. Le Blanc, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Measurement of the nonlinear refractive index of transparent materials by spectral analysis after nonlinear propagation,” Opt. Commun. 119, 479–484 (1995).

Pshenichnikov, M. S.

Ranka, J. K.

Said, A. A.

Sanghera, J. S.

Sarger, L.

M. O. Martin, L. Canioni, and L. Sarger, “Measurements of complex third-order optical susceptibility in a collinear pump–probe experiment,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1874–1876 (1998).

S. Le Boiteux, P. Segonds, L. Canioni, L. Sarger, T. Cardinal, C. Duchesne, E. Fargin, and G. Le Flem, “Nonlinear optical properties for TiO2 containing phosphate, borophosphate, and silicate glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 1481–1487 (1997).

Segonds, P.

S. Le Boiteux, P. Segonds, L. Canioni, L. Sarger, T. Cardinal, C. Duchesne, E. Fargin, and G. Le Flem, “Nonlinear optical properties for TiO2 containing phosphate, borophosphate, and silicate glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 1481–1487 (1997).

Sheik-Bahae, M.

A. A. Said, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, T. H. Wei, J. Wang, J. Young, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Determination of bound-electronic and free-carrier nonlinearities in ZnSe, GaAs, CdTe, and ZnTe,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 405–414 (1992).

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. C. Hutchings, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Dispersion of bound electron nonlinear refraction in solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1296–1309 (1991).

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Dispersion and band-gap scaling of the electronic Kerr effect in solids associated with two-photon absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 96–99 (1990).

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, and E. W. Van Stryland, “High-sensitivity, single-beam n2 measurements,” Opt. Lett. 14, 955–957 (1989).

Sipe, J. E.

J. E. Sipe, D. J. Moss, and H. M. van Driel, “Phenomenological theory of optical second- and third-harmonic generation from cubic centrosymmetric crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 35, 1129–1141 (1987).

D. J. Moss, H. M. van Driel, and J. E. Sipe, “Third harmonic generation as a structural diagnostic of ion-implanted amorphous and crystalline silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 1150–1152 (1986).

Slusher, R. E.

Smolorz, S.

Spälter, S.

Stolen, R. H.

Taiji, M.

Tang, T. T.

R. W. Hellwarth, J. Cherlow, and T. T. Tang, “Origin and frequency dependence of nonlinear optical susceptibilities of glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 11, 964–967 (1975).

Thomas, P.

B. Jeansannetas, S. Blanchandin, P. Thomas, P. Marchet, J. C. Champarnaud-Mesjard, T. Merle-Méjean, B. Frit, V. Nazabal, E. Fargin, and G. Le Flem, “Glass structure and optical nonlinearities in thallium (I) Tellurium (IV) oxide glasses,” J. Solid State Chem. 146, 329–335 (1999).

Tick, P.

C. McIntosh, J. Toulouse, and P. Tick, “The Boson peak in alkali silicate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 222, 335–341 (1997).

Tomlinson, W. J.

Toulouse, J.

C. McIntosh, J. Toulouse, and P. Tick, “The Boson peak in alkali silicate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 222, 335–341 (1997).

Tsang, T. Y. F.

T. Y. F. Tsang, “Optical third-harmonic generation at interfaces,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 4116–4125 (1995).

van Driel, H. M.

J. E. Sipe, D. J. Moss, and H. M. van Driel, “Phenomenological theory of optical second- and third-harmonic generation from cubic centrosymmetric crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 35, 1129–1141 (1987).

D. J. Moss, H. M. van Driel, and J. E. Sipe, “Third harmonic generation as a structural diagnostic of ion-implanted amorphous and crystalline silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 1150–1152 (1986).

Van Stryland, E. W.

A. A. Said, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, T. H. Wei, J. Wang, J. Young, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Determination of bound-electronic and free-carrier nonlinearities in ZnSe, GaAs, CdTe, and ZnTe,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 405–414 (1992).

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. C. Hutchings, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Dispersion of bound electron nonlinear refraction in solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1296–1309 (1991).

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Dispersion and band-gap scaling of the electronic Kerr effect in solids associated with two-photon absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 96–99 (1990).

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, and E. W. Van Stryland, “High-sensitivity, single-beam n2 measurements,” Opt. Lett. 14, 955–957 (1989).

Videau, J. J.

E. Fargin, A. Berthereau, T. Cardinal, J. J. Videau, A. Villesuzanne, and G. Le Flem, “Contribution of theoretical chemistry to the investigation of optical non linearities in glasses,” Ann. Chim. Sci. Mater. 23, 27–32 (1998).

Villesuzanne, A.

E. Fargin, A. Berthereau, T. Cardinal, J. J. Videau, A. Villesuzanne, and G. Le Flem, “Contribution of theoretical chemistry to the investigation of optical non linearities in glasses,” Ann. Chim. Sci. Mater. 23, 27–32 (1998).

A. Berthereau, E. Fargin, A. Villesuzanne, R. Olazcuaga, G. Le Flem, and A. Ducasse, “Determination of local geometries around tellurium in TeO2—Nb2O5 and TeO2—Al2O3 oxide glasses by XANES and EXAFS: investigation of electronic properties of evidenced oxygen clusters by ab initio calculations,” J. Solid State Chem. 126, 143–151 (1996).

Wang, J.

Wei, T.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).

Wei, T. H.

Wiersma, D. A.

Wise, F.

Wise, F. W.

J. M. Harbold, F. O. Ilday, F. W. Wise, and B. G. Aitken, “Highly nonlinear Ge—As—Se and Ge—As—S—Se glasses for all-optical switching,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 822–824 (2002).

Young, J.

Zimmermann, J.

Ann. Chim. Sci. Mater. (1)

E. Fargin, A. Berthereau, T. Cardinal, J. J. Videau, A. Villesuzanne, and G. Le Flem, “Contribution of theoretical chemistry to the investigation of optical non linearities in glasses,” Ann. Chim. Sci. Mater. 23, 27–32 (1998).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

D. J. Moss, H. M. van Driel, and J. E. Sipe, “Third harmonic generation as a structural diagnostic of ion-implanted amorphous and crystalline silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 1150–1152 (1986).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (3)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. C. Hutchings, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Dispersion of bound electron nonlinear refraction in solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1296–1309 (1991).

N. L. Boling, A. J. Glass, and A. Owyoung, “Empirical relationships for predicting nonlinear refractive index changes in optical solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 14, 601–608 (1978).

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

J. M. Harbold, F. O. Ilday, F. W. Wise, and B. G. Aitken, “Highly nonlinear Ge—As—Se and Ge—As—S—Se glasses for all-optical switching,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 822–824 (2002).

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

M. E. Lines, “Oxide glasses for fast photonic switching: a comparative study,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 6876–6884 (1991).

S. Le Boiteux, P. Segonds, L. Canioni, L. Sarger, T. Cardinal, C. Duchesne, E. Fargin, and G. Le Flem, “Nonlinear optical properties for TiO2 containing phosphate, borophosphate, and silicate glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 1481–1487 (1997).

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (2)

T. Cardinal, E. Fargin, G. Le Flem, and S. Le Boiteux, “Correlations between structural properties of Nb2O5—NaPO3—Na2B4O7 glasses and nonlinear optical activities,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 222, 228–234 (1997).

C. McIntosh, J. Toulouse, and P. Tick, “The Boson peak in alkali silicate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 222, 335–341 (1997).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (3)

J. Solid State Chem. (2)

A. Berthereau, E. Fargin, A. Villesuzanne, R. Olazcuaga, G. Le Flem, and A. Ducasse, “Determination of local geometries around tellurium in TeO2—Nb2O5 and TeO2—Al2O3 oxide glasses by XANES and EXAFS: investigation of electronic properties of evidenced oxygen clusters by ab initio calculations,” J. Solid State Chem. 126, 143–151 (1996).

B. Jeansannetas, S. Blanchandin, P. Thomas, P. Marchet, J. C. Champarnaud-Mesjard, T. Merle-Méjean, B. Frit, V. Nazabal, E. Fargin, and G. Le Flem, “Glass structure and optical nonlinearities in thallium (I) Tellurium (IV) oxide glasses,” J. Solid State Chem. 146, 329–335 (1999).

Opt. Commun. (1)

E. T. J. Nibbering, M. A. Franco, B. S. Prade, G. Grillon, C. Le Blanc, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Measurement of the nonlinear refractive index of transparent materials by spectral analysis after nonlinear propagation,” Opt. Commun. 119, 479–484 (1995).

Opt. Lett. (6)

Opt. Mater. (Amsterdam, Neth.) (1)

R. Adair, L. L. Chase, and S. A. Payne, “Dispersion of the nonlinear refractive index of optical crystals,” Opt. Mater. (Amsterdam, Neth.) 1, 185–194 (1992).

Phys. Rev. A (1)

T. Y. F. Tsang, “Optical third-harmonic generation at interfaces,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 4116–4125 (1995).

Phys. Rev. B (3)

R. W. Hellwarth, J. Cherlow, and T. T. Tang, “Origin and frequency dependence of nonlinear optical susceptibilities of glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 11, 964–967 (1975).

J. E. Sipe, D. J. Moss, and H. M. van Driel, “Phenomenological theory of optical second- and third-harmonic generation from cubic centrosymmetric crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 35, 1129–1141 (1987).

M. E. Lines, “Bond-orbital theory of linear and nonlinear electronic response in ionic crystals. II. Nonlinear response,” Phys. Rev. B 41, 3383–3390 (1990).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Dispersion and band-gap scaling of the electronic Kerr effect in solids associated with two-photon absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 96–99 (1990).

Other (4)

S. Montant, “Second and third order nonlinear studies in glasses,” Ph.D. thesis (University of Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France, 1999).

R. W. Hellwarth, Third-Order Susceptibilities of Liquids and Solids, Part I of Vol. 5 of Monographs: Progress in Quantum Electronics, J. H. Sanders and S. Stenholm, eds. (Pergamon, New York, 1977).

A. Owyoung, “The origins of the nonlinear refractive indices of liquids and glasses,” Ph.D. dissertation (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif., 1971).

L. Canioni, “Liquids and glasses nonlinearities properties analyzed by femtosecond interferometry,” Ph.D. thesis (University of Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France, 1994).

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