Abstract

The dispersive broadening of a single optical pulse traveling within a Fabry–Pérot semiconductor laser was measured for propagation over 58 round trips of the cavity, a distance of 352 mm. The interference between two copropagating pulses with variable relative phase (stabilized to within 2π×0.02 rad) was used to relate the group-velocity dispersion to the gain curvature. With both single- and double-pulse propagation measurements, the complex group-velocity dispersion (including gain curvature) was found to be 8.7+5.9i ps2/m at twice the laser-threshold bias current. When the laser bias was increased from 1.4 to 2 times the laser threshold, the gain curvature decreased by 2.8%, and the group-velocity dispersion showed less than 0.1% variation.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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2000 (3)

T. Simoyama, H. Kuwatsuka, B. E. Little, M. Matsuda, Y. Kotaki, and H. Ishikawa, “High-efficiency wavelength conversion using FWM in an SOA integrated DFB laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 576–578 (2000).

P. Borri, F. Romstad, W. Langbein, A. E. Kelly, J. Mørk, and J. M. Hvam, “Separation of coherent and incoherent nonlin-earities in a heterodyne pump–probe experiment,” Opt. Express 3, 107–112 (2000).

H. A. Haus, “Mode-locking of lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 6, 1173–1185 (2000).

1999 (3)

P. E. Selbmann, T. P. Hessler, J. L. Pleumeekers, M. A. Dupertuis, B. Deveaud, B. Dagens, and J. Y. Emery, “Observation of dark-pulse formation in gain-clamped semiconductor optical amplifiers by cross-gain modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3760–3762 (1999).

P. J. Delfyett, H. Shi, S. Gee, I. Nitta, J. C. Connolly, and G. A. Alphonse, “Joint time–frequency measurements of mode-locked semiconductor diode lasers and dynamics using frequency-resolved optical gating,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 487–500 (1999).

D. Cotter, R. J. Manning, K. J. Blow, A. D. Ellis, A. E. Kelly, D. Nesset, I. D. Phillips, A. J. Poustie, and D. C. Rogers, “Nonlinear optics for high-speed digital information processing,” Science 286, 1523–1528 (1999).

1998 (2)

M. Kauer, J. R. A. Cleaver, J. J. Baumberg, and A. P. Heberle, “Femtosecond dynamics in semiconductor lasers: dark pulse formation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1626–1628 (1998).

S. Haacke, R. A. Taylor, I. Bar-Joseph, M. J. S. P. Brasil, M. Hartig, and B. Deveaud, “Improving the signal-to-noise ratio of femtosecond luminescence upconversion by multichannel detection,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1410–1417 (1998).

1997 (3)

H. Kuwatsuka, H. Shoji, M. Matsuda, and H. Ishikawa, “Nondegenerate four-wave mixing in long-cavity λ/4-shifted DFB laser using its lasing beam as pump beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 2002–2010 (1997).

J. W. D. Chi, K. A. Shore, and J. Le Bihan, “Highly nondegenerate four-wave mixing in uniform λ/4-shifted DFB lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 2011–2020 (1997).

T. Hessler, S. Haacke, J. L. Pleumeekers, P. E. Selbmann, M. A. Dupertuis, B. Deveaud, R. A. Taylor, P. Doussiere, M. Bachmann, T. Ducellier, and J. Y. Emery, “Time-resolved relaxation oscillations in gain-clamped semiconductor optical amplifiers by pump and probe measurements,” Quantum Semiclassic. Opt. 9, 675–679 (1997).

1996 (2)

M. Bachmann, P. Doussiere, J. Y. Emery, R. NGo, F. Pommereau, L. Goldstein, G. Soulage, and A. Jourdan, “Polarisation-insensitive clamped-gain SOA with integrated spot-size convertor and DBR gratings for WDM applications at 1.55 μm wavelength,” Electron. Lett. 32, 2076–2078 (1996).

J. Mørk and A. Mecozzi, “Theory of the ultrafast optical response of active semiconductor waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 1803–1816 (1996).

1994 (2)

K. L. Hall, G. Lenz, A. M. Darwish, and E. P. Ippen, “Sub-picosecond gain and index nonlinearities in InGaAsP diode lasers,” Opt. Commun. 111, 589–612 (1994).

B. Bauer, F. Henry, and R. Schimpe, “Gain stabilization of a semiconductor optical amplifier by distributed-feedback,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 182–185 (1994).

1990 (1)

M. P. Kesler and C. Harder, “Gain and index measurements in GaAlAs quantum-well lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 464–466 (1990).

1989 (1)

M. P. Kesler and E. P. Ippen, “Femtosecond time-domain measurements of group velocity dispersion in AlGaAs diode lasers,” Electron. Lett. 25, 640–642 (1989).

1988 (1)

J. Shah, “Ultrafast luminescence spectroscopy using sum frequency generation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 276–288 (1988).

1983 (1)

J. P. van der Ziel and R. A. Logan, “Dispersion of the group velocity refractive index in GaAs double heterostructure lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 19, 164–168 (1983).

1975 (1)

B. W. Hakki and T. L. Paoli, “Gain spectra in GaAs double-heterostructure injection lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 46, 1299–1306 (1975).

Alphonse, G. A.

P. J. Delfyett, H. Shi, S. Gee, I. Nitta, J. C. Connolly, and G. A. Alphonse, “Joint time–frequency measurements of mode-locked semiconductor diode lasers and dynamics using frequency-resolved optical gating,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 487–500 (1999).

Bachmann, M.

T. Hessler, S. Haacke, J. L. Pleumeekers, P. E. Selbmann, M. A. Dupertuis, B. Deveaud, R. A. Taylor, P. Doussiere, M. Bachmann, T. Ducellier, and J. Y. Emery, “Time-resolved relaxation oscillations in gain-clamped semiconductor optical amplifiers by pump and probe measurements,” Quantum Semiclassic. Opt. 9, 675–679 (1997).

M. Bachmann, P. Doussiere, J. Y. Emery, R. NGo, F. Pommereau, L. Goldstein, G. Soulage, and A. Jourdan, “Polarisation-insensitive clamped-gain SOA with integrated spot-size convertor and DBR gratings for WDM applications at 1.55 μm wavelength,” Electron. Lett. 32, 2076–2078 (1996).

Bar-Joseph, I.

Bauer, B.

B. Bauer, F. Henry, and R. Schimpe, “Gain stabilization of a semiconductor optical amplifier by distributed-feedback,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 182–185 (1994).

Baumberg, J. J.

M. Kauer, J. R. A. Cleaver, J. J. Baumberg, and A. P. Heberle, “Femtosecond dynamics in semiconductor lasers: dark pulse formation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1626–1628 (1998).

Blow, K. J.

D. Cotter, R. J. Manning, K. J. Blow, A. D. Ellis, A. E. Kelly, D. Nesset, I. D. Phillips, A. J. Poustie, and D. C. Rogers, “Nonlinear optics for high-speed digital information processing,” Science 286, 1523–1528 (1999).

Borri, P.

P. Borri, F. Romstad, W. Langbein, A. E. Kelly, J. Mørk, and J. M. Hvam, “Separation of coherent and incoherent nonlin-earities in a heterodyne pump–probe experiment,” Opt. Express 3, 107–112 (2000).

Brasil, M. J. S. P.

Chi, J. W. D.

J. W. D. Chi, K. A. Shore, and J. Le Bihan, “Highly nondegenerate four-wave mixing in uniform λ/4-shifted DFB lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 2011–2020 (1997).

Cleaver, J. R. A.

M. Kauer, J. R. A. Cleaver, J. J. Baumberg, and A. P. Heberle, “Femtosecond dynamics in semiconductor lasers: dark pulse formation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1626–1628 (1998).

Connolly, J. C.

P. J. Delfyett, H. Shi, S. Gee, I. Nitta, J. C. Connolly, and G. A. Alphonse, “Joint time–frequency measurements of mode-locked semiconductor diode lasers and dynamics using frequency-resolved optical gating,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 487–500 (1999).

Cotter, D.

D. Cotter, R. J. Manning, K. J. Blow, A. D. Ellis, A. E. Kelly, D. Nesset, I. D. Phillips, A. J. Poustie, and D. C. Rogers, “Nonlinear optics for high-speed digital information processing,” Science 286, 1523–1528 (1999).

Dagens, B.

P. E. Selbmann, T. P. Hessler, J. L. Pleumeekers, M. A. Dupertuis, B. Deveaud, B. Dagens, and J. Y. Emery, “Observation of dark-pulse formation in gain-clamped semiconductor optical amplifiers by cross-gain modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3760–3762 (1999).

Darwish, A. M.

K. L. Hall, G. Lenz, A. M. Darwish, and E. P. Ippen, “Sub-picosecond gain and index nonlinearities in InGaAsP diode lasers,” Opt. Commun. 111, 589–612 (1994).

Delfyett, P. J.

P. J. Delfyett, H. Shi, S. Gee, I. Nitta, J. C. Connolly, and G. A. Alphonse, “Joint time–frequency measurements of mode-locked semiconductor diode lasers and dynamics using frequency-resolved optical gating,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 487–500 (1999).

Deveaud, B.

P. E. Selbmann, T. P. Hessler, J. L. Pleumeekers, M. A. Dupertuis, B. Deveaud, B. Dagens, and J. Y. Emery, “Observation of dark-pulse formation in gain-clamped semiconductor optical amplifiers by cross-gain modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3760–3762 (1999).

S. Haacke, R. A. Taylor, I. Bar-Joseph, M. J. S. P. Brasil, M. Hartig, and B. Deveaud, “Improving the signal-to-noise ratio of femtosecond luminescence upconversion by multichannel detection,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1410–1417 (1998).

T. Hessler, S. Haacke, J. L. Pleumeekers, P. E. Selbmann, M. A. Dupertuis, B. Deveaud, R. A. Taylor, P. Doussiere, M. Bachmann, T. Ducellier, and J. Y. Emery, “Time-resolved relaxation oscillations in gain-clamped semiconductor optical amplifiers by pump and probe measurements,” Quantum Semiclassic. Opt. 9, 675–679 (1997).

Doussiere, P.

T. Hessler, S. Haacke, J. L. Pleumeekers, P. E. Selbmann, M. A. Dupertuis, B. Deveaud, R. A. Taylor, P. Doussiere, M. Bachmann, T. Ducellier, and J. Y. Emery, “Time-resolved relaxation oscillations in gain-clamped semiconductor optical amplifiers by pump and probe measurements,” Quantum Semiclassic. Opt. 9, 675–679 (1997).

M. Bachmann, P. Doussiere, J. Y. Emery, R. NGo, F. Pommereau, L. Goldstein, G. Soulage, and A. Jourdan, “Polarisation-insensitive clamped-gain SOA with integrated spot-size convertor and DBR gratings for WDM applications at 1.55 μm wavelength,” Electron. Lett. 32, 2076–2078 (1996).

Ducellier, T.

T. Hessler, S. Haacke, J. L. Pleumeekers, P. E. Selbmann, M. A. Dupertuis, B. Deveaud, R. A. Taylor, P. Doussiere, M. Bachmann, T. Ducellier, and J. Y. Emery, “Time-resolved relaxation oscillations in gain-clamped semiconductor optical amplifiers by pump and probe measurements,” Quantum Semiclassic. Opt. 9, 675–679 (1997).

Dupertuis, M. A.

P. E. Selbmann, T. P. Hessler, J. L. Pleumeekers, M. A. Dupertuis, B. Deveaud, B. Dagens, and J. Y. Emery, “Observation of dark-pulse formation in gain-clamped semiconductor optical amplifiers by cross-gain modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3760–3762 (1999).

T. Hessler, S. Haacke, J. L. Pleumeekers, P. E. Selbmann, M. A. Dupertuis, B. Deveaud, R. A. Taylor, P. Doussiere, M. Bachmann, T. Ducellier, and J. Y. Emery, “Time-resolved relaxation oscillations in gain-clamped semiconductor optical amplifiers by pump and probe measurements,” Quantum Semiclassic. Opt. 9, 675–679 (1997).

Ellis, A. D.

D. Cotter, R. J. Manning, K. J. Blow, A. D. Ellis, A. E. Kelly, D. Nesset, I. D. Phillips, A. J. Poustie, and D. C. Rogers, “Nonlinear optics for high-speed digital information processing,” Science 286, 1523–1528 (1999).

Emery, J. Y.

P. E. Selbmann, T. P. Hessler, J. L. Pleumeekers, M. A. Dupertuis, B. Deveaud, B. Dagens, and J. Y. Emery, “Observation of dark-pulse formation in gain-clamped semiconductor optical amplifiers by cross-gain modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3760–3762 (1999).

T. Hessler, S. Haacke, J. L. Pleumeekers, P. E. Selbmann, M. A. Dupertuis, B. Deveaud, R. A. Taylor, P. Doussiere, M. Bachmann, T. Ducellier, and J. Y. Emery, “Time-resolved relaxation oscillations in gain-clamped semiconductor optical amplifiers by pump and probe measurements,” Quantum Semiclassic. Opt. 9, 675–679 (1997).

M. Bachmann, P. Doussiere, J. Y. Emery, R. NGo, F. Pommereau, L. Goldstein, G. Soulage, and A. Jourdan, “Polarisation-insensitive clamped-gain SOA with integrated spot-size convertor and DBR gratings for WDM applications at 1.55 μm wavelength,” Electron. Lett. 32, 2076–2078 (1996).

Gee, S.

P. J. Delfyett, H. Shi, S. Gee, I. Nitta, J. C. Connolly, and G. A. Alphonse, “Joint time–frequency measurements of mode-locked semiconductor diode lasers and dynamics using frequency-resolved optical gating,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 487–500 (1999).

Goldstein, L.

M. Bachmann, P. Doussiere, J. Y. Emery, R. NGo, F. Pommereau, L. Goldstein, G. Soulage, and A. Jourdan, “Polarisation-insensitive clamped-gain SOA with integrated spot-size convertor and DBR gratings for WDM applications at 1.55 μm wavelength,” Electron. Lett. 32, 2076–2078 (1996).

Haacke, S.

S. Haacke, R. A. Taylor, I. Bar-Joseph, M. J. S. P. Brasil, M. Hartig, and B. Deveaud, “Improving the signal-to-noise ratio of femtosecond luminescence upconversion by multichannel detection,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1410–1417 (1998).

T. Hessler, S. Haacke, J. L. Pleumeekers, P. E. Selbmann, M. A. Dupertuis, B. Deveaud, R. A. Taylor, P. Doussiere, M. Bachmann, T. Ducellier, and J. Y. Emery, “Time-resolved relaxation oscillations in gain-clamped semiconductor optical amplifiers by pump and probe measurements,” Quantum Semiclassic. Opt. 9, 675–679 (1997).

Hakki, B. W.

B. W. Hakki and T. L. Paoli, “Gain spectra in GaAs double-heterostructure injection lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 46, 1299–1306 (1975).

Hall, K. L.

K. L. Hall, G. Lenz, A. M. Darwish, and E. P. Ippen, “Sub-picosecond gain and index nonlinearities in InGaAsP diode lasers,” Opt. Commun. 111, 589–612 (1994).

Harder, C.

M. P. Kesler and C. Harder, “Gain and index measurements in GaAlAs quantum-well lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 464–466 (1990).

Hartig, M.

Haus, H. A.

H. A. Haus, “Mode-locking of lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 6, 1173–1185 (2000).

Heberle, A. P.

M. Kauer, J. R. A. Cleaver, J. J. Baumberg, and A. P. Heberle, “Femtosecond dynamics in semiconductor lasers: dark pulse formation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1626–1628 (1998).

Henry, F.

B. Bauer, F. Henry, and R. Schimpe, “Gain stabilization of a semiconductor optical amplifier by distributed-feedback,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 182–185 (1994).

Hessler, T.

T. Hessler, S. Haacke, J. L. Pleumeekers, P. E. Selbmann, M. A. Dupertuis, B. Deveaud, R. A. Taylor, P. Doussiere, M. Bachmann, T. Ducellier, and J. Y. Emery, “Time-resolved relaxation oscillations in gain-clamped semiconductor optical amplifiers by pump and probe measurements,” Quantum Semiclassic. Opt. 9, 675–679 (1997).

Hessler, T. P.

P. E. Selbmann, T. P. Hessler, J. L. Pleumeekers, M. A. Dupertuis, B. Deveaud, B. Dagens, and J. Y. Emery, “Observation of dark-pulse formation in gain-clamped semiconductor optical amplifiers by cross-gain modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3760–3762 (1999).

Hvam, J. M.

P. Borri, F. Romstad, W. Langbein, A. E. Kelly, J. Mørk, and J. M. Hvam, “Separation of coherent and incoherent nonlin-earities in a heterodyne pump–probe experiment,” Opt. Express 3, 107–112 (2000).

Ippen, E. P.

K. L. Hall, G. Lenz, A. M. Darwish, and E. P. Ippen, “Sub-picosecond gain and index nonlinearities in InGaAsP diode lasers,” Opt. Commun. 111, 589–612 (1994).

M. P. Kesler and E. P. Ippen, “Femtosecond time-domain measurements of group velocity dispersion in AlGaAs diode lasers,” Electron. Lett. 25, 640–642 (1989).

Ishikawa, H.

T. Simoyama, H. Kuwatsuka, B. E. Little, M. Matsuda, Y. Kotaki, and H. Ishikawa, “High-efficiency wavelength conversion using FWM in an SOA integrated DFB laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 576–578 (2000).

H. Kuwatsuka, H. Shoji, M. Matsuda, and H. Ishikawa, “Nondegenerate four-wave mixing in long-cavity λ/4-shifted DFB laser using its lasing beam as pump beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 2002–2010 (1997).

Jourdan, A.

M. Bachmann, P. Doussiere, J. Y. Emery, R. NGo, F. Pommereau, L. Goldstein, G. Soulage, and A. Jourdan, “Polarisation-insensitive clamped-gain SOA with integrated spot-size convertor and DBR gratings for WDM applications at 1.55 μm wavelength,” Electron. Lett. 32, 2076–2078 (1996).

Kauer, M.

M. Kauer, J. R. A. Cleaver, J. J. Baumberg, and A. P. Heberle, “Femtosecond dynamics in semiconductor lasers: dark pulse formation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1626–1628 (1998).

Kelly, A. E.

P. Borri, F. Romstad, W. Langbein, A. E. Kelly, J. Mørk, and J. M. Hvam, “Separation of coherent and incoherent nonlin-earities in a heterodyne pump–probe experiment,” Opt. Express 3, 107–112 (2000).

D. Cotter, R. J. Manning, K. J. Blow, A. D. Ellis, A. E. Kelly, D. Nesset, I. D. Phillips, A. J. Poustie, and D. C. Rogers, “Nonlinear optics for high-speed digital information processing,” Science 286, 1523–1528 (1999).

Kesler, M. P.

M. P. Kesler and C. Harder, “Gain and index measurements in GaAlAs quantum-well lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 464–466 (1990).

M. P. Kesler and E. P. Ippen, “Femtosecond time-domain measurements of group velocity dispersion in AlGaAs diode lasers,” Electron. Lett. 25, 640–642 (1989).

Kotaki, Y.

T. Simoyama, H. Kuwatsuka, B. E. Little, M. Matsuda, Y. Kotaki, and H. Ishikawa, “High-efficiency wavelength conversion using FWM in an SOA integrated DFB laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 576–578 (2000).

Kuwatsuka, H.

T. Simoyama, H. Kuwatsuka, B. E. Little, M. Matsuda, Y. Kotaki, and H. Ishikawa, “High-efficiency wavelength conversion using FWM in an SOA integrated DFB laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 576–578 (2000).

H. Kuwatsuka, H. Shoji, M. Matsuda, and H. Ishikawa, “Nondegenerate four-wave mixing in long-cavity λ/4-shifted DFB laser using its lasing beam as pump beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 2002–2010 (1997).

Langbein, W.

P. Borri, F. Romstad, W. Langbein, A. E. Kelly, J. Mørk, and J. M. Hvam, “Separation of coherent and incoherent nonlin-earities in a heterodyne pump–probe experiment,” Opt. Express 3, 107–112 (2000).

Le Bihan, J.

J. W. D. Chi, K. A. Shore, and J. Le Bihan, “Highly nondegenerate four-wave mixing in uniform λ/4-shifted DFB lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 2011–2020 (1997).

Lenz, G.

K. L. Hall, G. Lenz, A. M. Darwish, and E. P. Ippen, “Sub-picosecond gain and index nonlinearities in InGaAsP diode lasers,” Opt. Commun. 111, 589–612 (1994).

Little, B. E.

T. Simoyama, H. Kuwatsuka, B. E. Little, M. Matsuda, Y. Kotaki, and H. Ishikawa, “High-efficiency wavelength conversion using FWM in an SOA integrated DFB laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 576–578 (2000).

Logan, R. A.

J. P. van der Ziel and R. A. Logan, “Dispersion of the group velocity refractive index in GaAs double heterostructure lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 19, 164–168 (1983).

Manning, R. J.

D. Cotter, R. J. Manning, K. J. Blow, A. D. Ellis, A. E. Kelly, D. Nesset, I. D. Phillips, A. J. Poustie, and D. C. Rogers, “Nonlinear optics for high-speed digital information processing,” Science 286, 1523–1528 (1999).

Matsuda, M.

T. Simoyama, H. Kuwatsuka, B. E. Little, M. Matsuda, Y. Kotaki, and H. Ishikawa, “High-efficiency wavelength conversion using FWM in an SOA integrated DFB laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 576–578 (2000).

H. Kuwatsuka, H. Shoji, M. Matsuda, and H. Ishikawa, “Nondegenerate four-wave mixing in long-cavity λ/4-shifted DFB laser using its lasing beam as pump beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 2002–2010 (1997).

Mecozzi, A.

Mørk, J.

P. Borri, F. Romstad, W. Langbein, A. E. Kelly, J. Mørk, and J. M. Hvam, “Separation of coherent and incoherent nonlin-earities in a heterodyne pump–probe experiment,” Opt. Express 3, 107–112 (2000).

J. Mørk and A. Mecozzi, “Theory of the ultrafast optical response of active semiconductor waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 1803–1816 (1996).

Nesset, D.

D. Cotter, R. J. Manning, K. J. Blow, A. D. Ellis, A. E. Kelly, D. Nesset, I. D. Phillips, A. J. Poustie, and D. C. Rogers, “Nonlinear optics for high-speed digital information processing,” Science 286, 1523–1528 (1999).

NGo, R.

M. Bachmann, P. Doussiere, J. Y. Emery, R. NGo, F. Pommereau, L. Goldstein, G. Soulage, and A. Jourdan, “Polarisation-insensitive clamped-gain SOA with integrated spot-size convertor and DBR gratings for WDM applications at 1.55 μm wavelength,” Electron. Lett. 32, 2076–2078 (1996).

Nitta, I.

P. J. Delfyett, H. Shi, S. Gee, I. Nitta, J. C. Connolly, and G. A. Alphonse, “Joint time–frequency measurements of mode-locked semiconductor diode lasers and dynamics using frequency-resolved optical gating,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 487–500 (1999).

Paoli, T. L.

B. W. Hakki and T. L. Paoli, “Gain spectra in GaAs double-heterostructure injection lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 46, 1299–1306 (1975).

Phillips, I. D.

D. Cotter, R. J. Manning, K. J. Blow, A. D. Ellis, A. E. Kelly, D. Nesset, I. D. Phillips, A. J. Poustie, and D. C. Rogers, “Nonlinear optics for high-speed digital information processing,” Science 286, 1523–1528 (1999).

Pleumeekers, J. L.

P. E. Selbmann, T. P. Hessler, J. L. Pleumeekers, M. A. Dupertuis, B. Deveaud, B. Dagens, and J. Y. Emery, “Observation of dark-pulse formation in gain-clamped semiconductor optical amplifiers by cross-gain modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3760–3762 (1999).

T. Hessler, S. Haacke, J. L. Pleumeekers, P. E. Selbmann, M. A. Dupertuis, B. Deveaud, R. A. Taylor, P. Doussiere, M. Bachmann, T. Ducellier, and J. Y. Emery, “Time-resolved relaxation oscillations in gain-clamped semiconductor optical amplifiers by pump and probe measurements,” Quantum Semiclassic. Opt. 9, 675–679 (1997).

Pommereau, F.

M. Bachmann, P. Doussiere, J. Y. Emery, R. NGo, F. Pommereau, L. Goldstein, G. Soulage, and A. Jourdan, “Polarisation-insensitive clamped-gain SOA with integrated spot-size convertor and DBR gratings for WDM applications at 1.55 μm wavelength,” Electron. Lett. 32, 2076–2078 (1996).

Poustie, A. J.

D. Cotter, R. J. Manning, K. J. Blow, A. D. Ellis, A. E. Kelly, D. Nesset, I. D. Phillips, A. J. Poustie, and D. C. Rogers, “Nonlinear optics for high-speed digital information processing,” Science 286, 1523–1528 (1999).

Rogers, D. C.

D. Cotter, R. J. Manning, K. J. Blow, A. D. Ellis, A. E. Kelly, D. Nesset, I. D. Phillips, A. J. Poustie, and D. C. Rogers, “Nonlinear optics for high-speed digital information processing,” Science 286, 1523–1528 (1999).

Romstad, F.

P. Borri, F. Romstad, W. Langbein, A. E. Kelly, J. Mørk, and J. M. Hvam, “Separation of coherent and incoherent nonlin-earities in a heterodyne pump–probe experiment,” Opt. Express 3, 107–112 (2000).

Schimpe, R.

B. Bauer, F. Henry, and R. Schimpe, “Gain stabilization of a semiconductor optical amplifier by distributed-feedback,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 182–185 (1994).

Selbmann, P. E.

P. E. Selbmann, T. P. Hessler, J. L. Pleumeekers, M. A. Dupertuis, B. Deveaud, B. Dagens, and J. Y. Emery, “Observation of dark-pulse formation in gain-clamped semiconductor optical amplifiers by cross-gain modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3760–3762 (1999).

T. Hessler, S. Haacke, J. L. Pleumeekers, P. E. Selbmann, M. A. Dupertuis, B. Deveaud, R. A. Taylor, P. Doussiere, M. Bachmann, T. Ducellier, and J. Y. Emery, “Time-resolved relaxation oscillations in gain-clamped semiconductor optical amplifiers by pump and probe measurements,” Quantum Semiclassic. Opt. 9, 675–679 (1997).

Shah, J.

J. Shah, “Ultrafast luminescence spectroscopy using sum frequency generation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 276–288 (1988).

Shi, H.

P. J. Delfyett, H. Shi, S. Gee, I. Nitta, J. C. Connolly, and G. A. Alphonse, “Joint time–frequency measurements of mode-locked semiconductor diode lasers and dynamics using frequency-resolved optical gating,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 487–500 (1999).

Shoji, H.

H. Kuwatsuka, H. Shoji, M. Matsuda, and H. Ishikawa, “Nondegenerate four-wave mixing in long-cavity λ/4-shifted DFB laser using its lasing beam as pump beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 2002–2010 (1997).

Shore, K. A.

J. W. D. Chi, K. A. Shore, and J. Le Bihan, “Highly nondegenerate four-wave mixing in uniform λ/4-shifted DFB lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 2011–2020 (1997).

Simoyama, T.

T. Simoyama, H. Kuwatsuka, B. E. Little, M. Matsuda, Y. Kotaki, and H. Ishikawa, “High-efficiency wavelength conversion using FWM in an SOA integrated DFB laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 576–578 (2000).

Soulage, G.

M. Bachmann, P. Doussiere, J. Y. Emery, R. NGo, F. Pommereau, L. Goldstein, G. Soulage, and A. Jourdan, “Polarisation-insensitive clamped-gain SOA with integrated spot-size convertor and DBR gratings for WDM applications at 1.55 μm wavelength,” Electron. Lett. 32, 2076–2078 (1996).

Taylor, R. A.

S. Haacke, R. A. Taylor, I. Bar-Joseph, M. J. S. P. Brasil, M. Hartig, and B. Deveaud, “Improving the signal-to-noise ratio of femtosecond luminescence upconversion by multichannel detection,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1410–1417 (1998).

T. Hessler, S. Haacke, J. L. Pleumeekers, P. E. Selbmann, M. A. Dupertuis, B. Deveaud, R. A. Taylor, P. Doussiere, M. Bachmann, T. Ducellier, and J. Y. Emery, “Time-resolved relaxation oscillations in gain-clamped semiconductor optical amplifiers by pump and probe measurements,” Quantum Semiclassic. Opt. 9, 675–679 (1997).

van der Ziel, J. P.

J. P. van der Ziel and R. A. Logan, “Dispersion of the group velocity refractive index in GaAs double heterostructure lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 19, 164–168 (1983).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

M. Kauer, J. R. A. Cleaver, J. J. Baumberg, and A. P. Heberle, “Femtosecond dynamics in semiconductor lasers: dark pulse formation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1626–1628 (1998).

P. E. Selbmann, T. P. Hessler, J. L. Pleumeekers, M. A. Dupertuis, B. Deveaud, B. Dagens, and J. Y. Emery, “Observation of dark-pulse formation in gain-clamped semiconductor optical amplifiers by cross-gain modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3760–3762 (1999).

Electron. Lett. (2)

M. Bachmann, P. Doussiere, J. Y. Emery, R. NGo, F. Pommereau, L. Goldstein, G. Soulage, and A. Jourdan, “Polarisation-insensitive clamped-gain SOA with integrated spot-size convertor and DBR gratings for WDM applications at 1.55 μm wavelength,” Electron. Lett. 32, 2076–2078 (1996).

M. P. Kesler and E. P. Ippen, “Femtosecond time-domain measurements of group velocity dispersion in AlGaAs diode lasers,” Electron. Lett. 25, 640–642 (1989).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (6)

J. P. van der Ziel and R. A. Logan, “Dispersion of the group velocity refractive index in GaAs double heterostructure lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 19, 164–168 (1983).

H. Kuwatsuka, H. Shoji, M. Matsuda, and H. Ishikawa, “Nondegenerate four-wave mixing in long-cavity λ/4-shifted DFB laser using its lasing beam as pump beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 2002–2010 (1997).

J. W. D. Chi, K. A. Shore, and J. Le Bihan, “Highly nondegenerate four-wave mixing in uniform λ/4-shifted DFB lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 2011–2020 (1997).

P. J. Delfyett, H. Shi, S. Gee, I. Nitta, J. C. Connolly, and G. A. Alphonse, “Joint time–frequency measurements of mode-locked semiconductor diode lasers and dynamics using frequency-resolved optical gating,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 487–500 (1999).

J. Shah, “Ultrafast luminescence spectroscopy using sum frequency generation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 276–288 (1988).

H. A. Haus, “Mode-locking of lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 6, 1173–1185 (2000).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

M. P. Kesler and C. Harder, “Gain and index measurements in GaAlAs quantum-well lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 464–466 (1990).

T. Simoyama, H. Kuwatsuka, B. E. Little, M. Matsuda, Y. Kotaki, and H. Ishikawa, “High-efficiency wavelength conversion using FWM in an SOA integrated DFB laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 576–578 (2000).

B. Bauer, F. Henry, and R. Schimpe, “Gain stabilization of a semiconductor optical amplifier by distributed-feedback,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 182–185 (1994).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

B. W. Hakki and T. L. Paoli, “Gain spectra in GaAs double-heterostructure injection lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 46, 1299–1306 (1975).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Opt. Commun. (1)

K. L. Hall, G. Lenz, A. M. Darwish, and E. P. Ippen, “Sub-picosecond gain and index nonlinearities in InGaAsP diode lasers,” Opt. Commun. 111, 589–612 (1994).

Opt. Express (1)

P. Borri, F. Romstad, W. Langbein, A. E. Kelly, J. Mørk, and J. M. Hvam, “Separation of coherent and incoherent nonlin-earities in a heterodyne pump–probe experiment,” Opt. Express 3, 107–112 (2000).

Quantum Semiclassic. Opt. (1)

T. Hessler, S. Haacke, J. L. Pleumeekers, P. E. Selbmann, M. A. Dupertuis, B. Deveaud, R. A. Taylor, P. Doussiere, M. Bachmann, T. Ducellier, and J. Y. Emery, “Time-resolved relaxation oscillations in gain-clamped semiconductor optical amplifiers by pump and probe measurements,” Quantum Semiclassic. Opt. 9, 675–679 (1997).

Science (1)

D. Cotter, R. J. Manning, K. J. Blow, A. D. Ellis, A. E. Kelly, D. Nesset, I. D. Phillips, A. J. Poustie, and D. C. Rogers, “Nonlinear optics for high-speed digital information processing,” Science 286, 1523–1528 (1999).

Other (2)

G. Guekos, Photonic Devices for Telecommunications (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1999).

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 2nd ed. (Academic, San Diego, 1995).

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