Abstract

We describe a novel approach for the fabrication of optical waveguides by focused low-repetition-rate femtosecond laser pulses. This approach overcomes the main limitation of the technique, i.e., the strong asymmetry of the waveguide profile. By use of an astigmatic beam and suitably controlling both beam waist and focal position in tangential and sagittal planes, it is possible to shape the focal volume in such a way as to obtain waveguides with a circular transverse profile and of the desired size. This technique is applied to the fabrication of active waveguides in Er:Yb-doped glass substrates. The waveguides are single mode at 1.5 μm and exhibit propagation losses of ∼0.25 dB/cm and an internal gain of 1.4 dB at 1534 nm.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  5. K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329–3331 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2002 (6)

2001 (5)

2000 (1)

Y. Sikorski, A. A. Said, P. Bado, R. Maynard, C. Florea, and K. A. Winick, “Optical waveguide amplifier in Nd-doped glass written with near-IR femtosecond laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 36, 226–227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

Y. En, L. Mouza, D. Barbier, J. Devalaux, and P. Bruno, “Eight wavelength Er-Yb doped amplifier: combiner/splitter planar integrated module,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 1105–1107 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Homoelle, S. Wielandy, A. L. Gaeta, N. F. Borrelli, and C. Smith, “Infrared photosensitivity in silica glasses exposed to femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1311–1313 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

A. Shooshtari, T. Touam, S. Najafi, S. Safavi, and H. Hatami, “Yb3+ sensitized Er3+ doped waveguides amplifiers: a theoretical approach,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 30, 249–264 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Lenzner, J. Krueger, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, Ch. Spielmann, G. Mourou, W. Kautek, and F. Krausz, “Femtosecond optical breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4076–4080 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Hirao and K. Miura, “Writing waveguides and gratings in silica and related materials by a femtosecond laser,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 91–95 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

X. Liu, D. Du, and G. Mourou, “Laser ablation and micromachining with ultrashort laser pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-33, 1706–1716 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329–3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

1995 (1)

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, “Laser-induced damage in dielectrics with nanosecond to subpicosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2248–2251 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, “Laser-induced breakdown by impact ionization in SiO2 with pulse widths from 7 ns to 150 fs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3071–3073 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

Bado, P.

Y. Sikorski, A. A. Said, P. Bado, R. Maynard, C. Florea, and K. A. Winick, “Optical waveguide amplifier in Nd-doped glass written with near-IR femtosecond laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 36, 226–227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Balslev, S.

J. Hubner, S. Guldberg-Kjar, M. Dyngaard, Y. Shen, C. L. Thomsen, S. Balslev, C. Jensen, D. Zauner, and T. Feuchter, “Planar Er and Yb doped amplifier and laser,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 435–438 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Barbier, D.

Y. En, L. Mouza, D. Barbier, J. Devalaux, and P. Bruno, “Eight wavelength Er-Yb doped amplifier: combiner/splitter planar integrated module,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 1105–1107 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Borrelli, N. F.

Borrelli, N. M.

Brodeur, A.

Bruno, P.

Y. En, L. Mouza, D. Barbier, J. Devalaux, and P. Bruno, “Eight wavelength Er-Yb doped amplifier: combiner/splitter planar integrated module,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 1105–1107 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Callan, J. P.

Cerullo, G.

G. Cerullo, R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, D. Polli, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, and S. De Silvestri, “Femtosecond micromachining of symmetric waveguides at 1.5 μm by astigmatic beam focusing,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1938–1941 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, G. Cerullo, M. Marangoni, D. Polli, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, and S. De Silvestri, “Optical gain in Er-Yb doped waveguides fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 38, 964–965 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chan, J. W.

Cheng, Z.

M. Lenzner, J. Krueger, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, Ch. Spielmann, G. Mourou, W. Kautek, and F. Krausz, “Femtosecond optical breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4076–4080 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chichkov, B. N.

Cho, S.-H.

S.-H. Cho, H. Kumagai, and K. Midorikawa, “In situ observation of dynamics of plasma formation and refractive index modification in silica glasses excited by a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Commun. 207, 243–253 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Davis, K. M.

De Silvestri, S.

R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, G. Cerullo, M. Marangoni, D. Polli, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, and S. De Silvestri, “Optical gain in Er-Yb doped waveguides fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 38, 964–965 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Cerullo, R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, D. Polli, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, and S. De Silvestri, “Femtosecond micromachining of symmetric waveguides at 1.5 μm by astigmatic beam focusing,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1938–1941 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Devalaux, J.

Y. En, L. Mouza, D. Barbier, J. Devalaux, and P. Bruno, “Eight wavelength Er-Yb doped amplifier: combiner/splitter planar integrated module,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 1105–1107 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Du, D.

X. Liu, D. Du, and G. Mourou, “Laser ablation and micromachining with ultrashort laser pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-33, 1706–1716 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, “Laser-induced breakdown by impact ionization in SiO2 with pulse widths from 7 ns to 150 fs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3071–3073 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Dyngaard, M.

J. Hubner, S. Guldberg-Kjar, M. Dyngaard, Y. Shen, C. L. Thomsen, S. Balslev, C. Jensen, D. Zauner, and T. Feuchter, “Planar Er and Yb doped amplifier and laser,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 435–438 (2001).
[CrossRef]

En, Y.

Y. En, L. Mouza, D. Barbier, J. Devalaux, and P. Bruno, “Eight wavelength Er-Yb doped amplifier: combiner/splitter planar integrated module,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 1105–1107 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Feit, M. D.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, “Optical ablation by high-power short-pulse lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 459–468 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, “Laser-induced damage in dielectrics with nanosecond to subpicosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2248–2251 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feuchter, T.

J. Hubner, S. Guldberg-Kjar, M. Dyngaard, Y. Shen, C. L. Thomsen, S. Balslev, C. Jensen, D. Zauner, and T. Feuchter, “Planar Er and Yb doped amplifier and laser,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 435–438 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Finlay, R. J.

Florea, C.

Y. Sikorski, A. A. Said, P. Bado, R. Maynard, C. Florea, and K. A. Winick, “Optical waveguide amplifier in Nd-doped glass written with near-IR femtosecond laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 36, 226–227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Gaeta, A. L.

Garcia, J. F.

Glezer, E. N.

Guldberg-Kjar, S.

J. Hubner, S. Guldberg-Kjar, M. Dyngaard, Y. Shen, C. L. Thomsen, S. Balslev, C. Jensen, D. Zauner, and T. Feuchter, “Planar Er and Yb doped amplifier and laser,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 435–438 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hartl, I.

Hatami, H.

A. Shooshtari, T. Touam, S. Najafi, S. Safavi, and H. Hatami, “Yb3+ sensitized Er3+ doped waveguides amplifiers: a theoretical approach,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 30, 249–264 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Her, T.-H.

Herman, S.

Hirao, K.

K. Hirao and K. Miura, “Writing waveguides and gratings in silica and related materials by a femtosecond laser,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 91–95 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329–3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, “Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1729–1731 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Homoelle, D.

Huang, L.

Hubner, J.

J. Hubner, S. Guldberg-Kjar, M. Dyngaard, Y. Shen, C. L. Thomsen, S. Balslev, C. Jensen, D. Zauner, and T. Feuchter, “Planar Er and Yb doped amplifier and laser,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 435–438 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Huser, T.

Inouye, H.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329–3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

Jensen, C.

J. Hubner, S. Guldberg-Kjar, M. Dyngaard, Y. Shen, C. L. Thomsen, S. Balslev, C. Jensen, D. Zauner, and T. Feuchter, “Planar Er and Yb doped amplifier and laser,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 435–438 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kautek, W.

M. Lenzner, J. Krueger, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, Ch. Spielmann, G. Mourou, W. Kautek, and F. Krausz, “Femtosecond optical breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4076–4080 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Korn, G.

D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, “Laser-induced breakdown by impact ionization in SiO2 with pulse widths from 7 ns to 150 fs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3071–3073 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kowalevicz, A. M.

Krausz, F.

M. Lenzner, J. Krueger, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, Ch. Spielmann, G. Mourou, W. Kautek, and F. Krausz, “Femtosecond optical breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4076–4080 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Krol, D. M.

Krueger, J.

M. Lenzner, J. Krueger, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, Ch. Spielmann, G. Mourou, W. Kautek, and F. Krausz, “Femtosecond optical breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4076–4080 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kumagai, H.

S.-H. Cho, H. Kumagai, and K. Midorikawa, “In situ observation of dynamics of plasma formation and refractive index modification in silica glasses excited by a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Commun. 207, 243–253 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Laporta, P.

G. Cerullo, R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, D. Polli, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, and S. De Silvestri, “Femtosecond micromachining of symmetric waveguides at 1.5 μm by astigmatic beam focusing,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1938–1941 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, G. Cerullo, M. Marangoni, D. Polli, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, and S. De Silvestri, “Optical gain in Er-Yb doped waveguides fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 38, 964–965 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lenzner, M.

M. Lenzner, J. Krueger, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, Ch. Spielmann, G. Mourou, W. Kautek, and F. Krausz, “Femtosecond optical breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4076–4080 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

X. Liu, D. Du, and G. Mourou, “Laser ablation and micromachining with ultrashort laser pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-33, 1706–1716 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, “Laser-induced breakdown by impact ionization in SiO2 with pulse widths from 7 ns to 150 fs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3071–3073 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Marangoni, M.

R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, G. Cerullo, M. Marangoni, D. Polli, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, and S. De Silvestri, “Optical gain in Er-Yb doped waveguides fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 38, 964–965 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Cerullo, R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, D. Polli, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, and S. De Silvestri, “Femtosecond micromachining of symmetric waveguides at 1.5 μm by astigmatic beam focusing,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1938–1941 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Maynard, R.

Y. Sikorski, A. A. Said, P. Bado, R. Maynard, C. Florea, and K. A. Winick, “Optical waveguide amplifier in Nd-doped glass written with near-IR femtosecond laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 36, 226–227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mazur, E.

Midorikawa, K.

S.-H. Cho, H. Kumagai, and K. Midorikawa, “In situ observation of dynamics of plasma formation and refractive index modification in silica glasses excited by a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Commun. 207, 243–253 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Milosavljevic, M.

Minoshima, K.

Mitsuyu, T.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329–3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Miura, K.

K. Hirao and K. Miura, “Writing waveguides and gratings in silica and related materials by a femtosecond laser,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 91–95 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329–3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, “Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1729–1731 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mourou, G.

M. Lenzner, J. Krueger, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, Ch. Spielmann, G. Mourou, W. Kautek, and F. Krausz, “Femtosecond optical breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4076–4080 (1998).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, D. Du, and G. Mourou, “Laser ablation and micromachining with ultrashort laser pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-33, 1706–1716 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, “Laser-induced breakdown by impact ionization in SiO2 with pulse widths from 7 ns to 150 fs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3071–3073 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mouza, L.

Y. En, L. Mouza, D. Barbier, J. Devalaux, and P. Bruno, “Eight wavelength Er-Yb doped amplifier: combiner/splitter planar integrated module,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 1105–1107 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Najafi, S.

A. Shooshtari, T. Touam, S. Najafi, S. Safavi, and H. Hatami, “Yb3+ sensitized Er3+ doped waveguides amplifiers: a theoretical approach,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 30, 249–264 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nolte, S.

Norris, T. B.

Osellame, R.

G. Cerullo, R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, D. Polli, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, and S. De Silvestri, “Femtosecond micromachining of symmetric waveguides at 1.5 μm by astigmatic beam focusing,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1938–1941 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, G. Cerullo, M. Marangoni, D. Polli, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, and S. De Silvestri, “Optical gain in Er-Yb doped waveguides fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 38, 964–965 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Perry, M. D.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, “Optical ablation by high-power short-pulse lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 459–468 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, “Laser-induced damage in dielectrics with nanosecond to subpicosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2248–2251 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Polli, D.

R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, G. Cerullo, M. Marangoni, D. Polli, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, and S. De Silvestri, “Optical gain in Er-Yb doped waveguides fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 38, 964–965 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Cerullo, R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, D. Polli, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, and S. De Silvestri, “Femtosecond micromachining of symmetric waveguides at 1.5 μm by astigmatic beam focusing,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1938–1941 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, J.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329–3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ramponi, R.

R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, G. Cerullo, M. Marangoni, D. Polli, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, and S. De Silvestri, “Optical gain in Er-Yb doped waveguides fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 38, 964–965 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Cerullo, R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, D. Polli, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, and S. De Silvestri, “Femtosecond micromachining of symmetric waveguides at 1.5 μm by astigmatic beam focusing,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1938–1941 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Risbud, S.

Rubenchik, A. M.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, “Optical ablation by high-power short-pulse lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 459–468 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, “Laser-induced damage in dielectrics with nanosecond to subpicosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2248–2251 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Safavi, S.

A. Shooshtari, T. Touam, S. Najafi, S. Safavi, and H. Hatami, “Yb3+ sensitized Er3+ doped waveguides amplifiers: a theoretical approach,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 30, 249–264 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Said, A. A.

Y. Sikorski, A. A. Said, P. Bado, R. Maynard, C. Florea, and K. A. Winick, “Optical waveguide amplifier in Nd-doped glass written with near-IR femtosecond laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 36, 226–227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sartania, S.

M. Lenzner, J. Krueger, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, Ch. Spielmann, G. Mourou, W. Kautek, and F. Krausz, “Femtosecond optical breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4076–4080 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schaffer, C. B.

Shen, Y.

J. Hubner, S. Guldberg-Kjar, M. Dyngaard, Y. Shen, C. L. Thomsen, S. Balslev, C. Jensen, D. Zauner, and T. Feuchter, “Planar Er and Yb doped amplifier and laser,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 435–438 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shooshtari, A.

A. Shooshtari, T. Touam, S. Najafi, S. Safavi, and H. Hatami, “Yb3+ sensitized Er3+ doped waveguides amplifiers: a theoretical approach,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 30, 249–264 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shore, B. W.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, “Optical ablation by high-power short-pulse lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 459–468 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, “Laser-induced damage in dielectrics with nanosecond to subpicosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2248–2251 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sikorski, Y.

Y. Sikorski, A. A. Said, P. Bado, R. Maynard, C. Florea, and K. A. Winick, “Optical waveguide amplifier in Nd-doped glass written with near-IR femtosecond laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 36, 226–227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Smith, C.

Spielmann, Ch.

M. Lenzner, J. Krueger, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, Ch. Spielmann, G. Mourou, W. Kautek, and F. Krausz, “Femtosecond optical breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4076–4080 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Squier, J.

D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, “Laser-induced breakdown by impact ionization in SiO2 with pulse widths from 7 ns to 150 fs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3071–3073 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Streltsov, A. M.

Stuart, B. C.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, “Optical ablation by high-power short-pulse lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 459–468 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, “Laser-induced damage in dielectrics with nanosecond to subpicosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2248–2251 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sugimoto, N.

Taccheo, S.

R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, G. Cerullo, M. Marangoni, D. Polli, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, and S. De Silvestri, “Optical gain in Er-Yb doped waveguides fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 38, 964–965 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Cerullo, R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, D. Polli, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, and S. De Silvestri, “Femtosecond micromachining of symmetric waveguides at 1.5 μm by astigmatic beam focusing,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1938–1941 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Thomsen, C. L.

J. Hubner, S. Guldberg-Kjar, M. Dyngaard, Y. Shen, C. L. Thomsen, S. Balslev, C. Jensen, D. Zauner, and T. Feuchter, “Planar Er and Yb doped amplifier and laser,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 435–438 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Touam, T.

A. Shooshtari, T. Touam, S. Najafi, S. Safavi, and H. Hatami, “Yb3+ sensitized Er3+ doped waveguides amplifiers: a theoretical approach,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 30, 249–264 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tünnermann, A.

Wielandy, S.

Will, M.

Winick, K. A.

Y. Sikorski, A. A. Said, P. Bado, R. Maynard, C. Florea, and K. A. Winick, “Optical waveguide amplifier in Nd-doped glass written with near-IR femtosecond laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 36, 226–227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zauner, D.

J. Hubner, S. Guldberg-Kjar, M. Dyngaard, Y. Shen, C. L. Thomsen, S. Balslev, C. Jensen, D. Zauner, and T. Feuchter, “Planar Er and Yb doped amplifier and laser,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 435–438 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

J. Hubner, S. Guldberg-Kjar, M. Dyngaard, Y. Shen, C. L. Thomsen, S. Balslev, C. Jensen, D. Zauner, and T. Feuchter, “Planar Er and Yb doped amplifier and laser,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 435–438 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329–3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, “Laser-induced breakdown by impact ionization in SiO2 with pulse widths from 7 ns to 150 fs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3071–3073 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

Y. Sikorski, A. A. Said, P. Bado, R. Maynard, C. Florea, and K. A. Winick, “Optical waveguide amplifier in Nd-doped glass written with near-IR femtosecond laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 36, 226–227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, G. Cerullo, M. Marangoni, D. Polli, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, and S. De Silvestri, “Optical gain in Er-Yb doped waveguides fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 38, 964–965 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

X. Liu, D. Du, and G. Mourou, “Laser ablation and micromachining with ultrashort laser pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-33, 1706–1716 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

Y. En, L. Mouza, D. Barbier, J. Devalaux, and P. Bruno, “Eight wavelength Er-Yb doped amplifier: combiner/splitter planar integrated module,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 1105–1107 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

K. Hirao and K. Miura, “Writing waveguides and gratings in silica and related materials by a femtosecond laser,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 91–95 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Opt. Commun. (1)

S.-H. Cho, H. Kumagai, and K. Midorikawa, “In situ observation of dynamics of plasma formation and refractive index modification in silica glasses excited by a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Commun. 207, 243–253 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (9)

G. Cerullo, R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, D. Polli, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, and S. De Silvestri, “Femtosecond micromachining of symmetric waveguides at 1.5 μm by astigmatic beam focusing,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1938–1941 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. B. Norris, “Femtosecond pulse amplification at 250 kHz with a Ti:sapphire regenerative amplifier and application to continuum generation,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1009–1011 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Homoelle, S. Wielandy, A. L. Gaeta, N. F. Borrelli, and C. Smith, “Infrared photosensitivity in silica glasses exposed to femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1311–1313 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, “Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1729–1731 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. N. Glezer, M. Milosavljevic, L. Huang, R. J. Finlay, T.-H. Her, J. P. Callan, and E. Mazur, “Three-dimensional optical storage inside transparent materials,” Opt. Lett. 21, 2023–2025 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Streltsov and N. F. Borrelli, “Fabrication and analysis of a directional coupler written in glass by nanojoule femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 26, 42–43 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, J. F. Garcia, and E. Mazur, “Micromachining bulk glass by use of femtosecond laser pulses with nanojoule energy,” Opt. Lett. 26, 93–95 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Minoshima, A. M. Kowalevicz, I. Hartl, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Photonic device fabrication in glass by use of nonlinear materials processing with a femtosecond laser oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1516–1518 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Chan, T. Huser, S. Risbud, and D. M. Krol, “Structural changes in fused silica after exposure to focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1726–1728 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. Shooshtari, T. Touam, S. Najafi, S. Safavi, and H. Hatami, “Yb3+ sensitized Er3+ doped waveguides amplifiers: a theoretical approach,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 30, 249–264 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, “Laser-induced damage in dielectrics with nanosecond to subpicosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2248–2251 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lenzner, J. Krueger, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, Ch. Spielmann, G. Mourou, W. Kautek, and F. Krausz, “Femtosecond optical breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4076–4080 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, Mill Valley, Calif., 1986), Chapt. 16.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Contour surfaces of photogenerated free-electron density for (a) a circularly symmetric Gaussian beam with waist w0=2 μm and (b) an astigmatic Gaussian beam with w0x=1 μm, w0y=3 μm, z0=0. Contour plots in the xy and yz planes are also shown.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Contour surfaces of photogenerated free-electron density for (a) an astigmatic Gaussian beam with w0x=0.6 μm, w0y=4 μm, z0=0 and (b) an astigmatic Gaussian beam with w0x=1 μm, w0y=3 μm, z0=100 μm. Contour plots in the xy and yz planes are also shown.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Beam profiles in the yz plane (solid curves) and the xz plane (dashed curves) of a focused astigmatic Gaussian beam (w0x=1 μm, w0y=3 μm) for (a) z0=0 and (b) z0=100 μm. The corresponding waveguide cross section in the yz plane is shown as a shaded area.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic of the waveguide writing setup.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Optical microscope image of the exit face of a waveguide written with a circularly symmetric beam (w0=3 μm). (b) Simulated electron-density profile for the same focusing conditions (see text for simulation parameters).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Left column: optical microscope images of the exit face of waveguides written with a focused astigmatic beam (w0x=1.2 μm, w0y=3.6 μm) for increasing values of the astigmatic difference z0. Right column: corresponding simulated electron-density profiles.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Optical microscope image, in the xy and yz planes, of a waveguide written by a focused astigmatic beam (w0x=1.2 μm, w0y=3.6 μm, z0=180 μm) with pulse energies of 5 μJ.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Optical microscope image, in the xy plane, of a waveguide written by a focused astigmatic beam (w0x=1.2 μm, w0y=3.6 μm, z0=180 μm) with pulse energies of 10 μJ. Note the damaged track obtained with the high pulse energy.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) Optical microscope image of the exit face of a waveguide written by a focused astigmatic beam (w0x=0.95 μm, w0y=2.85 μm, z0=80 μm). (b) Simulated electron-density profile for the same focusing conditions.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Experimental contour plot and intensity profiles in the horizontal and vertical directions of the fundamental guided mode at 1.58 μm for the 18-μm-diameter waveguide.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Measured absorption (circles) and gain (squares) in a 9-mm Er–Yb-doped waveguide. Curves are fits with the known absorption and emission cross sections.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

dndt=αI(t)n(t)+σkIk(t),
n(t)=h-1(t)expσk-th(t)I(t)dt,
h(t)=exp-α-tI(t)dt.
I0(x, y, z)=I00w0xwx(z)w0ywy(z)×exp-2x2wx(z)2+y2wy(z)2,
wx(z)=w0x1+zzRx2,
wy(z)=w0y1+z-z0zRy2,

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