Abstract

Pulse shapes in a dispersive transparent material modulated by group-velocity dispersion, self-phase modulation, and self-focusing induced by a femtosecond laser light were observed directly with femtosecond time-resolved optical polarigraphy probing the induced instantaneous birefringence. The first observation of the state of femtosecond laser pulses about the interaction region inside the transparent bulk material indicated that the pulse propagation was accomplished with a multiple conelike structure that was hypothesized from a numerical simulation with an extended nonlinear Schrödinger equation.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Braun, G. Kohn, X. Liu, D. Du, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, “Self-channeling of high-peak-power femtosecond laser pulses in air,” Opt. Lett. 20, 73–75 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. A. B. Borisov, A. V. Borovskiy, V. V. Korobkin, A. M. Prokhorov, O. B. Shiryaev, X. M. Shi, T. S. Luk, A. McPherson, J. C. Solem, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, “Relativistic and charge-displacement self-channeling of intense subpicosecond ultraviolet (248 nm) radiation in plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2309–2312 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Borghesi, A. J. Mackinnon, R. Gaillard, O. Willi, A. Pukhov, and J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, “Large quasistatic magnetic fields generated by a relativistically intense laser pulse propagating in a preionized plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5137–5140 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. E. Clayton, K. C. Tzeng, D. Gordon, P. Muggli, W. B. Mori, C. Joshi, V. Malka, Z. Najmundin, A. Modena, D. Neely, and A. E. Dangor, “Plasma wave generation in a self-focused channel of a relativistically intense laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 100–103 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  11. S.-H. Cho, H. Kumagai, I. Yokota, K. Midorikawa, and M. Obara, “Observation of self-channeling plasma formation and bulk modification in optical fibers using high-intensity femtosecond laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L737–L739 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  18. J. K. Ranka and A. L. Gaeta, “Breakdown of the slowly varying envelope approximation in the self-focusing of ultrashort pulses,” Opt. Lett. 23, 534–536 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  19. L. Bergé and A. Couairon, “Gas-induced solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1003–1006 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. N. Aközbek, M. Scalora, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “White-light continuum generation and filamentation during the propagation of ultra-short laser pulses in air,” Opt. Commun. 191, 353–362 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
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  23. S. E. Koonin, K. T. R. Davies, V. Maruhn-Rezwani, H. Feldmeier, S. J. Krieger, and J. W. Negele, “Time-dependent Hartree–Fock calculations for 16O+16O and 40Ca+40Ca reactions,” Phys. Rev. C 15, 1359–1374 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  24. M. Fujimoto, S. Aoshima, M. Hosoda, and Y. Tsuchiya, “Analysis of instantaneous profiles of intense femtosecond optical pulses propagating in helium gas measured by using femtosecond time-resolved optical polarigraphy,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 033813/1–11 (2001).
    [CrossRef]

2001 (4)

L. Bergé and A. Couairon, “Gas-induced solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1003–1006 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Aközbek, M. Scalora, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “White-light continuum generation and filamentation during the propagation of ultra-short laser pulses in air,” Opt. Commun. 191, 353–362 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujimoto, S. Aoshima, M. Hosoda, and Y. Tsuchiya, “Analysis of instantaneous profiles of intense femtosecond optical pulses propagating in helium gas measured by using femtosecond time-resolved optical polarigraphy,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 033813/1–11 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H.-B. Sun, Y. Xu, S. Juodkazis, K. Sun, M. Watanabe, S. Matsuo, H. Misawa, and J. Nishii, “Arbitrary-lattice photonic crystals created by multiphoton microfabrication,” Opt. Lett. 26, 325–327 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1998 (7)

J. Fuchs, G. Malka, J. C. Adam, F. Amiranoff, S. D. Baton, N. Blanchot, A. Héron, G. Laval, J. L. Miquel, P. Mora, H. Pépin, and C. Rousseaux, “Dynamics of subpicosecond relativistic laser pulse self-channeling in an underdense preformed plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1658–1661 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Borghesi, A. J. Mackinnon, R. Gaillard, O. Willi, A. Pukhov, and J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, “Large quasistatic magnetic fields generated by a relativistically intense laser pulse propagating in a preionized plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5137–5140 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Clayton, K. C. Tzeng, D. Gordon, P. Muggli, W. B. Mori, C. Joshi, V. Malka, Z. Najmundin, A. Modena, D. Neely, and A. E. Dangor, “Plasma wave generation in a self-focused channel of a relativistically intense laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 100–103 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Ashkenasi, H. Varel, A. Rosenfeld, S. Henz, J. Herr- mann, and E. E. B. Cambell, “Application of self-focusing of ps laser pulses for three-dimensional microstructuring oftransparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1442–1444 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S.-H. Cho, H. Kumagai, I. Yokota, K. Midorikawa, and M. Obara, “Observation of self-channeling plasma formation and bulk modification in optical fibers using high-intensity femtosecond laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L737–L739 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Watanabe, H.-B. Sun, S. Juodkazis, T. Takahashi, S. Matsuo, Y. Suzuki, J. Nishi, and H. Misawa, “Three-dimensional optical data storage in vitreous silica,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L1527–L1530 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Ranka and A. L. Gaeta, “Breakdown of the slowly varying envelope approximation in the self-focusing of ultrashort pulses,” Opt. Lett. 23, 534–536 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

E. N. Glenzer and E. Mazur, “Ultrafast-laser driven micro-explosions in transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 882–884 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329–3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

1995 (1)

1994 (1)

D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, “Laser-induced breakdown by impact ionization in SiO2 with pulse widths from 7 ns to 150 fs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3071–3073 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

A. B. Borisov, A. V. Borovskiy, V. V. Korobkin, A. M. Prokhorov, O. B. Shiryaev, X. M. Shi, T. S. Luk, A. McPherson, J. C. Solem, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, “Relativistic and charge-displacement self-channeling of intense subpicosecond ultraviolet (248 nm) radiation in plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2309–2312 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Rothenberg, “Space–time focusing: breakdown of the slowly varying envelope approximation in the self-focusing of femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1340–1342 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

S. E. Koonin, K. T. R. Davies, V. Maruhn-Rezwani, H. Feldmeier, S. J. Krieger, and J. W. Negele, “Time-dependent Hartree–Fock calculations for 16O+16O and 40Ca+40Ca reactions,” Phys. Rev. C 15, 1359–1374 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

L. V. Keldysh, “Ionization in the field of a strong electromagnetic wave,” Sov. Phys. JETP 20, 1307–1314 (1965).

Adam, J. C.

J. Fuchs, G. Malka, J. C. Adam, F. Amiranoff, S. D. Baton, N. Blanchot, A. Héron, G. Laval, J. L. Miquel, P. Mora, H. Pépin, and C. Rousseaux, “Dynamics of subpicosecond relativistic laser pulse self-channeling in an underdense preformed plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1658–1661 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Aközbek, N.

N. Aközbek, M. Scalora, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “White-light continuum generation and filamentation during the propagation of ultra-short laser pulses in air,” Opt. Commun. 191, 353–362 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Amiranoff, F.

J. Fuchs, G. Malka, J. C. Adam, F. Amiranoff, S. D. Baton, N. Blanchot, A. Héron, G. Laval, J. L. Miquel, P. Mora, H. Pépin, and C. Rousseaux, “Dynamics of subpicosecond relativistic laser pulse self-channeling in an underdense preformed plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1658–1661 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Aoshima, S.

M. Fujimoto, S. Aoshima, M. Hosoda, and Y. Tsuchiya, “Analysis of instantaneous profiles of intense femtosecond optical pulses propagating in helium gas measured by using femtosecond time-resolved optical polarigraphy,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 033813/1–11 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujimoto, S. Aoshima, M. Hosoda, and Y. Tsuchiya, “Femtosecond time-resolved optical polarigraphy: imaging of the propagation dynamics of intense light in a medium,” Opt. Lett. 24, 850–852 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ashkenasi, D.

D. Ashkenasi, H. Varel, A. Rosenfeld, S. Henz, J. Herr- mann, and E. E. B. Cambell, “Application of self-focusing of ps laser pulses for three-dimensional microstructuring oftransparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1442–1444 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Baton, S. D.

J. Fuchs, G. Malka, J. C. Adam, F. Amiranoff, S. D. Baton, N. Blanchot, A. Héron, G. Laval, J. L. Miquel, P. Mora, H. Pépin, and C. Rousseaux, “Dynamics of subpicosecond relativistic laser pulse self-channeling in an underdense preformed plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1658–1661 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bergé, L.

L. Bergé and A. Couairon, “Gas-induced solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1003–1006 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blanchot, N.

J. Fuchs, G. Malka, J. C. Adam, F. Amiranoff, S. D. Baton, N. Blanchot, A. Héron, G. Laval, J. L. Miquel, P. Mora, H. Pépin, and C. Rousseaux, “Dynamics of subpicosecond relativistic laser pulse self-channeling in an underdense preformed plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1658–1661 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Borghesi, M.

M. Borghesi, A. J. Mackinnon, R. Gaillard, O. Willi, A. Pukhov, and J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, “Large quasistatic magnetic fields generated by a relativistically intense laser pulse propagating in a preionized plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5137–5140 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Borisov, A. B.

A. B. Borisov, A. V. Borovskiy, V. V. Korobkin, A. M. Prokhorov, O. B. Shiryaev, X. M. Shi, T. S. Luk, A. McPherson, J. C. Solem, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, “Relativistic and charge-displacement self-channeling of intense subpicosecond ultraviolet (248 nm) radiation in plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2309–2312 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Borovskiy, A. V.

A. B. Borisov, A. V. Borovskiy, V. V. Korobkin, A. M. Prokhorov, O. B. Shiryaev, X. M. Shi, T. S. Luk, A. McPherson, J. C. Solem, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, “Relativistic and charge-displacement self-channeling of intense subpicosecond ultraviolet (248 nm) radiation in plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2309–2312 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bowden, C. M.

N. Aközbek, M. Scalora, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “White-light continuum generation and filamentation during the propagation of ultra-short laser pulses in air,” Opt. Commun. 191, 353–362 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Boyer, K.

A. B. Borisov, A. V. Borovskiy, V. V. Korobkin, A. M. Prokhorov, O. B. Shiryaev, X. M. Shi, T. S. Luk, A. McPherson, J. C. Solem, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, “Relativistic and charge-displacement self-channeling of intense subpicosecond ultraviolet (248 nm) radiation in plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2309–2312 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Braun, A.

Callan, J. P.

Cambell, E. E. B.

D. Ashkenasi, H. Varel, A. Rosenfeld, S. Henz, J. Herr- mann, and E. E. B. Cambell, “Application of self-focusing of ps laser pulses for three-dimensional microstructuring oftransparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1442–1444 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chin, S. L.

N. Aközbek, M. Scalora, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “White-light continuum generation and filamentation during the propagation of ultra-short laser pulses in air,” Opt. Commun. 191, 353–362 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cho, S.-H.

S.-H. Cho, H. Kumagai, I. Yokota, K. Midorikawa, and M. Obara, “Observation of self-channeling plasma formation and bulk modification in optical fibers using high-intensity femtosecond laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L737–L739 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Clayton, C. E.

C. E. Clayton, K. C. Tzeng, D. Gordon, P. Muggli, W. B. Mori, C. Joshi, V. Malka, Z. Najmundin, A. Modena, D. Neely, and A. E. Dangor, “Plasma wave generation in a self-focused channel of a relativistically intense laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 100–103 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Couairon, A.

L. Bergé and A. Couairon, “Gas-induced solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1003–1006 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dangor, A. E.

C. E. Clayton, K. C. Tzeng, D. Gordon, P. Muggli, W. B. Mori, C. Joshi, V. Malka, Z. Najmundin, A. Modena, D. Neely, and A. E. Dangor, “Plasma wave generation in a self-focused channel of a relativistically intense laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 100–103 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Davies, K. T. R.

S. E. Koonin, K. T. R. Davies, V. Maruhn-Rezwani, H. Feldmeier, S. J. Krieger, and J. W. Negele, “Time-dependent Hartree–Fock calculations for 16O+16O and 40Ca+40Ca reactions,” Phys. Rev. C 15, 1359–1374 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Davis, K. M.

Du, D.

A. Braun, G. Kohn, X. Liu, D. Du, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, “Self-channeling of high-peak-power femtosecond laser pulses in air,” Opt. Lett. 20, 73–75 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, “Laser-induced breakdown by impact ionization in SiO2 with pulse widths from 7 ns to 150 fs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3071–3073 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Feldmeier, H.

S. E. Koonin, K. T. R. Davies, V. Maruhn-Rezwani, H. Feldmeier, S. J. Krieger, and J. W. Negele, “Time-dependent Hartree–Fock calculations for 16O+16O and 40Ca+40Ca reactions,” Phys. Rev. C 15, 1359–1374 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Finlay, R. J.

Fuchs, J.

J. Fuchs, G. Malka, J. C. Adam, F. Amiranoff, S. D. Baton, N. Blanchot, A. Héron, G. Laval, J. L. Miquel, P. Mora, H. Pépin, and C. Rousseaux, “Dynamics of subpicosecond relativistic laser pulse self-channeling in an underdense preformed plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1658–1661 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, M.

M. Fujimoto, S. Aoshima, M. Hosoda, and Y. Tsuchiya, “Analysis of instantaneous profiles of intense femtosecond optical pulses propagating in helium gas measured by using femtosecond time-resolved optical polarigraphy,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 033813/1–11 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujimoto, S. Aoshima, M. Hosoda, and Y. Tsuchiya, “Femtosecond time-resolved optical polarigraphy: imaging of the propagation dynamics of intense light in a medium,” Opt. Lett. 24, 850–852 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gaeta, A. L.

Gaillard, R.

M. Borghesi, A. J. Mackinnon, R. Gaillard, O. Willi, A. Pukhov, and J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, “Large quasistatic magnetic fields generated by a relativistically intense laser pulse propagating in a preionized plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5137–5140 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Glenzer, E. N.

Gordon, D.

C. E. Clayton, K. C. Tzeng, D. Gordon, P. Muggli, W. B. Mori, C. Joshi, V. Malka, Z. Najmundin, A. Modena, D. Neely, and A. E. Dangor, “Plasma wave generation in a self-focused channel of a relativistically intense laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 100–103 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Henz, S.

D. Ashkenasi, H. Varel, A. Rosenfeld, S. Henz, J. Herr- mann, and E. E. B. Cambell, “Application of self-focusing of ps laser pulses for three-dimensional microstructuring oftransparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1442–1444 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Her, T. H.

Héron, A.

J. Fuchs, G. Malka, J. C. Adam, F. Amiranoff, S. D. Baton, N. Blanchot, A. Héron, G. Laval, J. L. Miquel, P. Mora, H. Pépin, and C. Rousseaux, “Dynamics of subpicosecond relativistic laser pulse self-channeling in an underdense preformed plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1658–1661 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Herr- mann, J.

D. Ashkenasi, H. Varel, A. Rosenfeld, S. Henz, J. Herr- mann, and E. E. B. Cambell, “Application of self-focusing of ps laser pulses for three-dimensional microstructuring oftransparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1442–1444 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hirao, K.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329–3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, “Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1729–1731 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hosoda, M.

M. Fujimoto, S. Aoshima, M. Hosoda, and Y. Tsuchiya, “Analysis of instantaneous profiles of intense femtosecond optical pulses propagating in helium gas measured by using femtosecond time-resolved optical polarigraphy,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 033813/1–11 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujimoto, S. Aoshima, M. Hosoda, and Y. Tsuchiya, “Femtosecond time-resolved optical polarigraphy: imaging of the propagation dynamics of intense light in a medium,” Opt. Lett. 24, 850–852 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Huang, L.

Inouye, H.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329–3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Joshi, C.

C. E. Clayton, K. C. Tzeng, D. Gordon, P. Muggli, W. B. Mori, C. Joshi, V. Malka, Z. Najmundin, A. Modena, D. Neely, and A. E. Dangor, “Plasma wave generation in a self-focused channel of a relativistically intense laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 100–103 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Juodkazis, S.

H.-B. Sun, Y. Xu, S. Juodkazis, K. Sun, M. Watanabe, S. Matsuo, H. Misawa, and J. Nishii, “Arbitrary-lattice photonic crystals created by multiphoton microfabrication,” Opt. Lett. 26, 325–327 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Watanabe, H.-B. Sun, S. Juodkazis, T. Takahashi, S. Matsuo, Y. Suzuki, J. Nishi, and H. Misawa, “Three-dimensional optical data storage in vitreous silica,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L1527–L1530 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Keldysh, L. V.

L. V. Keldysh, “Ionization in the field of a strong electromagnetic wave,” Sov. Phys. JETP 20, 1307–1314 (1965).

Kohn, G.

Koonin, S. E.

S. E. Koonin, K. T. R. Davies, V. Maruhn-Rezwani, H. Feldmeier, S. J. Krieger, and J. W. Negele, “Time-dependent Hartree–Fock calculations for 16O+16O and 40Ca+40Ca reactions,” Phys. Rev. C 15, 1359–1374 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Korn, G.

D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, “Laser-induced breakdown by impact ionization in SiO2 with pulse widths from 7 ns to 150 fs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3071–3073 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Korobkin, V. V.

A. B. Borisov, A. V. Borovskiy, V. V. Korobkin, A. M. Prokhorov, O. B. Shiryaev, X. M. Shi, T. S. Luk, A. McPherson, J. C. Solem, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, “Relativistic and charge-displacement self-channeling of intense subpicosecond ultraviolet (248 nm) radiation in plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2309–2312 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krieger, S. J.

S. E. Koonin, K. T. R. Davies, V. Maruhn-Rezwani, H. Feldmeier, S. J. Krieger, and J. W. Negele, “Time-dependent Hartree–Fock calculations for 16O+16O and 40Ca+40Ca reactions,” Phys. Rev. C 15, 1359–1374 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Kumagai, H.

S.-H. Cho, H. Kumagai, I. Yokota, K. Midorikawa, and M. Obara, “Observation of self-channeling plasma formation and bulk modification in optical fibers using high-intensity femtosecond laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L737–L739 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Laval, G.

J. Fuchs, G. Malka, J. C. Adam, F. Amiranoff, S. D. Baton, N. Blanchot, A. Héron, G. Laval, J. L. Miquel, P. Mora, H. Pépin, and C. Rousseaux, “Dynamics of subpicosecond relativistic laser pulse self-channeling in an underdense preformed plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1658–1661 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

A. Braun, G. Kohn, X. Liu, D. Du, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, “Self-channeling of high-peak-power femtosecond laser pulses in air,” Opt. Lett. 20, 73–75 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, “Laser-induced breakdown by impact ionization in SiO2 with pulse widths from 7 ns to 150 fs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3071–3073 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Luk, T. S.

A. B. Borisov, A. V. Borovskiy, V. V. Korobkin, A. M. Prokhorov, O. B. Shiryaev, X. M. Shi, T. S. Luk, A. McPherson, J. C. Solem, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, “Relativistic and charge-displacement self-channeling of intense subpicosecond ultraviolet (248 nm) radiation in plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2309–2312 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mackinnon, A. J.

M. Borghesi, A. J. Mackinnon, R. Gaillard, O. Willi, A. Pukhov, and J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, “Large quasistatic magnetic fields generated by a relativistically intense laser pulse propagating in a preionized plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5137–5140 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Malka, G.

J. Fuchs, G. Malka, J. C. Adam, F. Amiranoff, S. D. Baton, N. Blanchot, A. Héron, G. Laval, J. L. Miquel, P. Mora, H. Pépin, and C. Rousseaux, “Dynamics of subpicosecond relativistic laser pulse self-channeling in an underdense preformed plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1658–1661 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Malka, V.

C. E. Clayton, K. C. Tzeng, D. Gordon, P. Muggli, W. B. Mori, C. Joshi, V. Malka, Z. Najmundin, A. Modena, D. Neely, and A. E. Dangor, “Plasma wave generation in a self-focused channel of a relativistically intense laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 100–103 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Maruhn-Rezwani, V.

S. E. Koonin, K. T. R. Davies, V. Maruhn-Rezwani, H. Feldmeier, S. J. Krieger, and J. W. Negele, “Time-dependent Hartree–Fock calculations for 16O+16O and 40Ca+40Ca reactions,” Phys. Rev. C 15, 1359–1374 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Matsuo, S.

H.-B. Sun, Y. Xu, S. Juodkazis, K. Sun, M. Watanabe, S. Matsuo, H. Misawa, and J. Nishii, “Arbitrary-lattice photonic crystals created by multiphoton microfabrication,” Opt. Lett. 26, 325–327 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Watanabe, H.-B. Sun, S. Juodkazis, T. Takahashi, S. Matsuo, Y. Suzuki, J. Nishi, and H. Misawa, “Three-dimensional optical data storage in vitreous silica,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L1527–L1530 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mazur, E.

McPherson, A.

A. B. Borisov, A. V. Borovskiy, V. V. Korobkin, A. M. Prokhorov, O. B. Shiryaev, X. M. Shi, T. S. Luk, A. McPherson, J. C. Solem, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, “Relativistic and charge-displacement self-channeling of intense subpicosecond ultraviolet (248 nm) radiation in plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2309–2312 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meyer-ter-Vehn, J.

M. Borghesi, A. J. Mackinnon, R. Gaillard, O. Willi, A. Pukhov, and J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, “Large quasistatic magnetic fields generated by a relativistically intense laser pulse propagating in a preionized plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5137–5140 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Pukhov and J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, “Relativistic magnetic self-channeling of light in near-critical plasma: three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3975–3978 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Midorikawa, K.

S.-H. Cho, H. Kumagai, I. Yokota, K. Midorikawa, and M. Obara, “Observation of self-channeling plasma formation and bulk modification in optical fibers using high-intensity femtosecond laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L737–L739 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Milosavljevic, M.

Miquel, J. L.

J. Fuchs, G. Malka, J. C. Adam, F. Amiranoff, S. D. Baton, N. Blanchot, A. Héron, G. Laval, J. L. Miquel, P. Mora, H. Pépin, and C. Rousseaux, “Dynamics of subpicosecond relativistic laser pulse self-channeling in an underdense preformed plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1658–1661 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Misawa, H.

H.-B. Sun, Y. Xu, S. Juodkazis, K. Sun, M. Watanabe, S. Matsuo, H. Misawa, and J. Nishii, “Arbitrary-lattice photonic crystals created by multiphoton microfabrication,” Opt. Lett. 26, 325–327 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Watanabe, H.-B. Sun, S. Juodkazis, T. Takahashi, S. Matsuo, Y. Suzuki, J. Nishi, and H. Misawa, “Three-dimensional optical data storage in vitreous silica,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L1527–L1530 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mitsuyu, T.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329–3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Miura, K.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329–3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, “Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1729–1731 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Modena, A.

C. E. Clayton, K. C. Tzeng, D. Gordon, P. Muggli, W. B. Mori, C. Joshi, V. Malka, Z. Najmundin, A. Modena, D. Neely, and A. E. Dangor, “Plasma wave generation in a self-focused channel of a relativistically intense laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 100–103 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mora, P.

J. Fuchs, G. Malka, J. C. Adam, F. Amiranoff, S. D. Baton, N. Blanchot, A. Héron, G. Laval, J. L. Miquel, P. Mora, H. Pépin, and C. Rousseaux, “Dynamics of subpicosecond relativistic laser pulse self-channeling in an underdense preformed plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1658–1661 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mori, W. B.

C. E. Clayton, K. C. Tzeng, D. Gordon, P. Muggli, W. B. Mori, C. Joshi, V. Malka, Z. Najmundin, A. Modena, D. Neely, and A. E. Dangor, “Plasma wave generation in a self-focused channel of a relativistically intense laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 100–103 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mourou, G.

A. Braun, G. Kohn, X. Liu, D. Du, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, “Self-channeling of high-peak-power femtosecond laser pulses in air,” Opt. Lett. 20, 73–75 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, “Laser-induced breakdown by impact ionization in SiO2 with pulse widths from 7 ns to 150 fs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3071–3073 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Muggli, P.

C. E. Clayton, K. C. Tzeng, D. Gordon, P. Muggli, W. B. Mori, C. Joshi, V. Malka, Z. Najmundin, A. Modena, D. Neely, and A. E. Dangor, “Plasma wave generation in a self-focused channel of a relativistically intense laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 100–103 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Najmundin, Z.

C. E. Clayton, K. C. Tzeng, D. Gordon, P. Muggli, W. B. Mori, C. Joshi, V. Malka, Z. Najmundin, A. Modena, D. Neely, and A. E. Dangor, “Plasma wave generation in a self-focused channel of a relativistically intense laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 100–103 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Neely, D.

C. E. Clayton, K. C. Tzeng, D. Gordon, P. Muggli, W. B. Mori, C. Joshi, V. Malka, Z. Najmundin, A. Modena, D. Neely, and A. E. Dangor, “Plasma wave generation in a self-focused channel of a relativistically intense laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 100–103 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Negele, J. W.

S. E. Koonin, K. T. R. Davies, V. Maruhn-Rezwani, H. Feldmeier, S. J. Krieger, and J. W. Negele, “Time-dependent Hartree–Fock calculations for 16O+16O and 40Ca+40Ca reactions,” Phys. Rev. C 15, 1359–1374 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Nishi, J.

M. Watanabe, H.-B. Sun, S. Juodkazis, T. Takahashi, S. Matsuo, Y. Suzuki, J. Nishi, and H. Misawa, “Three-dimensional optical data storage in vitreous silica,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L1527–L1530 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nishii, J.

Obara, M.

S.-H. Cho, H. Kumagai, I. Yokota, K. Midorikawa, and M. Obara, “Observation of self-channeling plasma formation and bulk modification in optical fibers using high-intensity femtosecond laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L737–L739 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pépin, H.

J. Fuchs, G. Malka, J. C. Adam, F. Amiranoff, S. D. Baton, N. Blanchot, A. Héron, G. Laval, J. L. Miquel, P. Mora, H. Pépin, and C. Rousseaux, “Dynamics of subpicosecond relativistic laser pulse self-channeling in an underdense preformed plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1658–1661 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Prokhorov, A. M.

A. B. Borisov, A. V. Borovskiy, V. V. Korobkin, A. M. Prokhorov, O. B. Shiryaev, X. M. Shi, T. S. Luk, A. McPherson, J. C. Solem, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, “Relativistic and charge-displacement self-channeling of intense subpicosecond ultraviolet (248 nm) radiation in plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2309–2312 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pukhov, A.

M. Borghesi, A. J. Mackinnon, R. Gaillard, O. Willi, A. Pukhov, and J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, “Large quasistatic magnetic fields generated by a relativistically intense laser pulse propagating in a preionized plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5137–5140 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Pukhov and J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, “Relativistic magnetic self-channeling of light in near-critical plasma: three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3975–3978 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qiu, J.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329–3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ranka, J. K.

Rhodes, C. K.

A. B. Borisov, A. V. Borovskiy, V. V. Korobkin, A. M. Prokhorov, O. B. Shiryaev, X. M. Shi, T. S. Luk, A. McPherson, J. C. Solem, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, “Relativistic and charge-displacement self-channeling of intense subpicosecond ultraviolet (248 nm) radiation in plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2309–2312 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosenfeld, A.

D. Ashkenasi, H. Varel, A. Rosenfeld, S. Henz, J. Herr- mann, and E. E. B. Cambell, “Application of self-focusing of ps laser pulses for three-dimensional microstructuring oftransparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1442–1444 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rothenberg, J. E.

Rousseaux, C.

J. Fuchs, G. Malka, J. C. Adam, F. Amiranoff, S. D. Baton, N. Blanchot, A. Héron, G. Laval, J. L. Miquel, P. Mora, H. Pépin, and C. Rousseaux, “Dynamics of subpicosecond relativistic laser pulse self-channeling in an underdense preformed plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1658–1661 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Scalora, M.

N. Aközbek, M. Scalora, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “White-light continuum generation and filamentation during the propagation of ultra-short laser pulses in air,” Opt. Commun. 191, 353–362 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shi, X. M.

A. B. Borisov, A. V. Borovskiy, V. V. Korobkin, A. M. Prokhorov, O. B. Shiryaev, X. M. Shi, T. S. Luk, A. McPherson, J. C. Solem, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, “Relativistic and charge-displacement self-channeling of intense subpicosecond ultraviolet (248 nm) radiation in plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2309–2312 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shiryaev, O. B.

A. B. Borisov, A. V. Borovskiy, V. V. Korobkin, A. M. Prokhorov, O. B. Shiryaev, X. M. Shi, T. S. Luk, A. McPherson, J. C. Solem, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, “Relativistic and charge-displacement self-channeling of intense subpicosecond ultraviolet (248 nm) radiation in plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2309–2312 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Solem, J. C.

A. B. Borisov, A. V. Borovskiy, V. V. Korobkin, A. M. Prokhorov, O. B. Shiryaev, X. M. Shi, T. S. Luk, A. McPherson, J. C. Solem, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, “Relativistic and charge-displacement self-channeling of intense subpicosecond ultraviolet (248 nm) radiation in plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2309–2312 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Squier, J.

A. Braun, G. Kohn, X. Liu, D. Du, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, “Self-channeling of high-peak-power femtosecond laser pulses in air,” Opt. Lett. 20, 73–75 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, “Laser-induced breakdown by impact ionization in SiO2 with pulse widths from 7 ns to 150 fs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3071–3073 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sugimoto, N.

Sun, H.-B.

H.-B. Sun, Y. Xu, S. Juodkazis, K. Sun, M. Watanabe, S. Matsuo, H. Misawa, and J. Nishii, “Arbitrary-lattice photonic crystals created by multiphoton microfabrication,” Opt. Lett. 26, 325–327 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Watanabe, H.-B. Sun, S. Juodkazis, T. Takahashi, S. Matsuo, Y. Suzuki, J. Nishi, and H. Misawa, “Three-dimensional optical data storage in vitreous silica,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L1527–L1530 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sun, K.

Suzuki, Y.

M. Watanabe, H.-B. Sun, S. Juodkazis, T. Takahashi, S. Matsuo, Y. Suzuki, J. Nishi, and H. Misawa, “Three-dimensional optical data storage in vitreous silica,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L1527–L1530 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, T.

M. Watanabe, H.-B. Sun, S. Juodkazis, T. Takahashi, S. Matsuo, Y. Suzuki, J. Nishi, and H. Misawa, “Three-dimensional optical data storage in vitreous silica,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L1527–L1530 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tsuchiya, Y.

M. Fujimoto, S. Aoshima, M. Hosoda, and Y. Tsuchiya, “Analysis of instantaneous profiles of intense femtosecond optical pulses propagating in helium gas measured by using femtosecond time-resolved optical polarigraphy,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 033813/1–11 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujimoto, S. Aoshima, M. Hosoda, and Y. Tsuchiya, “Femtosecond time-resolved optical polarigraphy: imaging of the propagation dynamics of intense light in a medium,” Opt. Lett. 24, 850–852 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tzeng, K. C.

C. E. Clayton, K. C. Tzeng, D. Gordon, P. Muggli, W. B. Mori, C. Joshi, V. Malka, Z. Najmundin, A. Modena, D. Neely, and A. E. Dangor, “Plasma wave generation in a self-focused channel of a relativistically intense laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 100–103 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Varel, H.

D. Ashkenasi, H. Varel, A. Rosenfeld, S. Henz, J. Herr- mann, and E. E. B. Cambell, “Application of self-focusing of ps laser pulses for three-dimensional microstructuring oftransparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1442–1444 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, M.

H.-B. Sun, Y. Xu, S. Juodkazis, K. Sun, M. Watanabe, S. Matsuo, H. Misawa, and J. Nishii, “Arbitrary-lattice photonic crystals created by multiphoton microfabrication,” Opt. Lett. 26, 325–327 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Watanabe, H.-B. Sun, S. Juodkazis, T. Takahashi, S. Matsuo, Y. Suzuki, J. Nishi, and H. Misawa, “Three-dimensional optical data storage in vitreous silica,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L1527–L1530 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Willi, O.

M. Borghesi, A. J. Mackinnon, R. Gaillard, O. Willi, A. Pukhov, and J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, “Large quasistatic magnetic fields generated by a relativistically intense laser pulse propagating in a preionized plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5137–5140 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Y.

Yokota, I.

S.-H. Cho, H. Kumagai, I. Yokota, K. Midorikawa, and M. Obara, “Observation of self-channeling plasma formation and bulk modification in optical fibers using high-intensity femtosecond laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L737–L739 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, “Laser-induced breakdown by impact ionization in SiO2 with pulse widths from 7 ns to 150 fs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3071–3073 (1994).
[CrossRef]

E. N. Glenzer and E. Mazur, “Ultrafast-laser driven micro-explosions in transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 882–884 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329–3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Ashkenasi, H. Varel, A. Rosenfeld, S. Henz, J. Herr- mann, and E. E. B. Cambell, “Application of self-focusing of ps laser pulses for three-dimensional microstructuring oftransparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1442–1444 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

S.-H. Cho, H. Kumagai, I. Yokota, K. Midorikawa, and M. Obara, “Observation of self-channeling plasma formation and bulk modification in optical fibers using high-intensity femtosecond laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L737–L739 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Watanabe, H.-B. Sun, S. Juodkazis, T. Takahashi, S. Matsuo, Y. Suzuki, J. Nishi, and H. Misawa, “Three-dimensional optical data storage in vitreous silica,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L1527–L1530 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

N. Aközbek, M. Scalora, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “White-light continuum generation and filamentation during the propagation of ultra-short laser pulses in air,” Opt. Commun. 191, 353–362 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (7)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

M. Fujimoto, S. Aoshima, M. Hosoda, and Y. Tsuchiya, “Analysis of instantaneous profiles of intense femtosecond optical pulses propagating in helium gas measured by using femtosecond time-resolved optical polarigraphy,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 033813/1–11 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. C (1)

S. E. Koonin, K. T. R. Davies, V. Maruhn-Rezwani, H. Feldmeier, S. J. Krieger, and J. W. Negele, “Time-dependent Hartree–Fock calculations for 16O+16O and 40Ca+40Ca reactions,” Phys. Rev. C 15, 1359–1374 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (6)

L. Bergé and A. Couairon, “Gas-induced solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1003–1006 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. B. Borisov, A. V. Borovskiy, V. V. Korobkin, A. M. Prokhorov, O. B. Shiryaev, X. M. Shi, T. S. Luk, A. McPherson, J. C. Solem, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, “Relativistic and charge-displacement self-channeling of intense subpicosecond ultraviolet (248 nm) radiation in plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2309–2312 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pukhov and J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, “Relativistic magnetic self-channeling of light in near-critical plasma: three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3975–3978 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Fuchs, G. Malka, J. C. Adam, F. Amiranoff, S. D. Baton, N. Blanchot, A. Héron, G. Laval, J. L. Miquel, P. Mora, H. Pépin, and C. Rousseaux, “Dynamics of subpicosecond relativistic laser pulse self-channeling in an underdense preformed plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1658–1661 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Borghesi, A. J. Mackinnon, R. Gaillard, O. Willi, A. Pukhov, and J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, “Large quasistatic magnetic fields generated by a relativistically intense laser pulse propagating in a preionized plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5137–5140 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Clayton, K. C. Tzeng, D. Gordon, P. Muggli, W. B. Mori, C. Joshi, V. Malka, Z. Najmundin, A. Modena, D. Neely, and A. E. Dangor, “Plasma wave generation in a self-focused channel of a relativistically intense laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 100–103 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sov. Phys. JETP (1)

L. V. Keldysh, “Ionization in the field of a strong electromagnetic wave,” Sov. Phys. JETP 20, 1307–1314 (1965).

Other (1)

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 2nd ed. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1995).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The pump–probe arrangement of FTOP. The single-headed arrows indicate the propagation directions of the pulses. Both pulses are linearly polarized, and the directions of the vibrations of their electric fields are indicated by the double-headed arrows. The anisotropic change of refractive index in quartz glass is induced by the pump pulse according to its intensity distribution. The probe pulse senses the birefringence, and its polarization state is altered. The amount of probe-polarization change reflects the instantaneous intensity distribution of the pump pulse.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the FTOP. The beam from the laser system is split into a pump and a probe. The pump, with an electric field redirected along the x axis, is focused in the quartz glass. The probe is synchronously irradiated into the glass and experiences an induced refractive-index change caused by the large electric field of the pump. For effective extraction of the pump-intensity information, the direction of the vibration of the probe’s electric field component perpendicular to the incident field is extracted by the analyzer after interaction with the pump-induced birefringence. The extracted probe component is detected by the CCD camera with a relay lens to produce images of the instantaneous intensity distribution of the pump.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

FTOP images of (A) 14.8-μJ and (B) 135-μJ pump pulses propagating in a quartz glass. The optical pump pulse, which is the object of the image, propagates from top to bottom.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Profiles of (A) 14.8-μJ and (B) 135-μJ pump pulse propagations in quartz glass along the propagation axes of the FTOP images shown in Figs. 3(A) and 3(B), respectively. Time delays of (b), (c), (d), (e), and (f) from (a) are 0.8, 1.6, 2.4, 3.2, and 4.0 ps, respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Schematic of laser propagation for the numerical simulation.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Simulated spatiotemporal profiles of the laser intensity at several propagation distances z for an input energy of 135 μJ.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Reconstructed FTOP signal at 4200 μm.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Ez+i2 β22 Et2-16 β33 Et3-i2n0k02r2+1rr
×1-iω0tE
=in2k01+iω0t(|E2|E)-ik021-iω0t
×ρρcr E-3σ6(ρ0-ρ)|E2|ω05 E.
ρt=σ6|E|2ω06(ρ0-ρ).

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