Abstract

We theoretically propose an architecture of a whispering-gallery mode-locked laser with an integrated intracavity microphotonic electro-optic modulator based on an Er:LiNbO3 disk resonator. The laser promises to be small in size, to have a high pulse repetition rate, and to use a small amount of microwave power.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. E. Harris and O. P. McDuff, “Theory of FM laser oscillation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-1, 245–262 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. J. Kuizenga and A. E. Siegman, “FM and AM mode locking of the homogeneous laser—Part I: Theory,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-6, 694–708 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. T. Darrow and R. K. Jain, “Active mode locking of broad band continuous-wave lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1048–1060 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, Mill Valley, Calif., 1996).
  5. G. H. C. New, “The generation of ultrashort laser pulses,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 46, 877–971 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. T. Harvey and L. F. Mollenauer, “Harmonically mode-locked fiber ring laser with an internal Fabry-Perot stabilizer for soliton transmission,” Opt. Lett. 18, 107–109 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. E. Lallier, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, M. de Micheli, M. J. Li, Q. He, and C. Grezes-Besset, “Integrated Nd:MgO:LiNbO3 FM mode locked waveguide laser,” Electron. Lett. 27, 936–937 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  8. I. Baumann, R. Brinkmann, M. Dinand, W. Sohler, L. Beckers, C. Buchal, M. Fleuster, H. Holzbrecher, H. Paulus, K. H. Muller, T. Gog, G. Materlik, O. Witte, H. Stolz, and W. von der Osten, “Erbium incorporation in LiNbO3 by diffusion-doping,” Appl. Phys. A 64, 33–44 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. Suche, L. Baumann, D. Hiller, and W. Sohler, “Modelocked Er:Ti:LiNbO3 wave-guide laser,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1111–1112 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. Suche, R. Wessel, S. Westenhöfer, W. Sohler, S. Bosso, C. Carmannini, and R. Corsini, “Harmonically mode-locked Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett. 20, 596–598 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. H. Suche, A. Greiner, W. Qiu, R. Wessel, and W. Sohler, “Integrated optical Ti:Er:LiNbO3 soliton source,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1642–1646 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. Becker, T. Oesselke, J. Pandavenes, R. Ricken, K. Rochhausen, G. Schreiber, W. Sohler, H. Suche, R. Wessel, S. Balsamo, I. Montrosset, and D. Sciancalepore, “Advanced Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 101–113 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  13. V. S. Ilchenko, X. S. Yao, and L. Maleki, “Microsphere integration in active and passive photonics devices,” in Laser Resonators III, A. V. Kudryashov and A. H. Paxton, eds., Proc. SPIE 3930, 154–162 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  14. V. S. Ilchenko and L. Maleki, “Novel whispering-gallery resonators for lasers, modulators, and sensors,” in Laser Resonators IV, A. V. Kudryashov and A. H. Paxton, eds., Proc. SPIE 4270, 120–130 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. A. Cohen and A. F. J. Levi, “Microphotonic millimetre-wave receiver architecture,” Electron. Lett. 37, 37–39 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  16. D. A. Cohen, M. Hossein-Zadeh, and A. F. J. Levi, “Microphotonic modulator for microwave receiver,” Electron. Lett. 37, 300–301 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  17. V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, “Whispering-gallery-mode electro-optic modulator and photonic microwave receiver,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 333–342 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. Cai, O. Painter, K. J. Vahala, and P. C. Sercel, “Fiber-coupled microsphere laser,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1430–1432 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  19. W. von Klitzing, E. Jahier, R. Long, F. Lissillour, V. Lefevre-Seguin, J. Hare, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, “Very low threshold green lasing in microspheres by up-conversion of IR photons,” J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 2, 204–206 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  20. H. Fujiwara and K. Sasaki, “Microspherical lasing of an erbium-ion-doped glass particle,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 41, L46-L48 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  21. D. Sciancalepore, S. Balsamo, and I. Montrosset, “Theoretical modeling of FM mode locking in Er:Ti:LiNbO3 waveguide lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 400–409 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  22. E. Desurvire, Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers: Principles and Applications (Wiley, New York, 1994).
  23. L. Yang and K. J. Vahala, “Gain functionalization of silica microresonators,” Opt. Lett. 28, 592–594 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

2002 (1)

H. Fujiwara and K. Sasaki, “Microspherical lasing of an erbium-ion-doped glass particle,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 41, L46-L48 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

V. S. Ilchenko and L. Maleki, “Novel whispering-gallery resonators for lasers, modulators, and sensors,” in Laser Resonators IV, A. V. Kudryashov and A. H. Paxton, eds., Proc. SPIE 4270, 120–130 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Cohen and A. F. J. Levi, “Microphotonic millimetre-wave receiver architecture,” Electron. Lett. 37, 37–39 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Cohen, M. Hossein-Zadeh, and A. F. J. Levi, “Microphotonic modulator for microwave receiver,” Electron. Lett. 37, 300–301 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (4)

M. Cai, O. Painter, K. J. Vahala, and P. C. Sercel, “Fiber-coupled microsphere laser,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1430–1432 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. von Klitzing, E. Jahier, R. Long, F. Lissillour, V. Lefevre-Seguin, J. Hare, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, “Very low threshold green lasing in microspheres by up-conversion of IR photons,” J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 2, 204–206 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Becker, T. Oesselke, J. Pandavenes, R. Ricken, K. Rochhausen, G. Schreiber, W. Sohler, H. Suche, R. Wessel, S. Balsamo, I. Montrosset, and D. Sciancalepore, “Advanced Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 101–113 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Ilchenko, X. S. Yao, and L. Maleki, “Microsphere integration in active and passive photonics devices,” in Laser Resonators III, A. V. Kudryashov and A. H. Paxton, eds., Proc. SPIE 3930, 154–162 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

D. Sciancalepore, S. Balsamo, and I. Montrosset, “Theoretical modeling of FM mode locking in Er:Ti:LiNbO3 waveguide lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 400–409 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

H. Suche, A. Greiner, W. Qiu, R. Wessel, and W. Sohler, “Integrated optical Ti:Er:LiNbO3 soliton source,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1642–1646 (1997).
[CrossRef]

I. Baumann, R. Brinkmann, M. Dinand, W. Sohler, L. Beckers, C. Buchal, M. Fleuster, H. Holzbrecher, H. Paulus, K. H. Muller, T. Gog, G. Materlik, O. Witte, H. Stolz, and W. von der Osten, “Erbium incorporation in LiNbO3 by diffusion-doping,” Appl. Phys. A 64, 33–44 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1993 (2)

1991 (2)

E. Lallier, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, M. de Micheli, M. J. Li, Q. He, and C. Grezes-Besset, “Integrated Nd:MgO:LiNbO3 FM mode locked waveguide laser,” Electron. Lett. 27, 936–937 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Darrow and R. K. Jain, “Active mode locking of broad band continuous-wave lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1048–1060 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

G. H. C. New, “The generation of ultrashort laser pulses,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 46, 877–971 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

D. J. Kuizenga and A. E. Siegman, “FM and AM mode locking of the homogeneous laser—Part I: Theory,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-6, 694–708 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

S. E. Harris and O. P. McDuff, “Theory of FM laser oscillation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-1, 245–262 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Balsamo, S.

C. Becker, T. Oesselke, J. Pandavenes, R. Ricken, K. Rochhausen, G. Schreiber, W. Sohler, H. Suche, R. Wessel, S. Balsamo, I. Montrosset, and D. Sciancalepore, “Advanced Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 101–113 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Sciancalepore, S. Balsamo, and I. Montrosset, “Theoretical modeling of FM mode locking in Er:Ti:LiNbO3 waveguide lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 400–409 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Baumann, I.

I. Baumann, R. Brinkmann, M. Dinand, W. Sohler, L. Beckers, C. Buchal, M. Fleuster, H. Holzbrecher, H. Paulus, K. H. Muller, T. Gog, G. Materlik, O. Witte, H. Stolz, and W. von der Osten, “Erbium incorporation in LiNbO3 by diffusion-doping,” Appl. Phys. A 64, 33–44 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Baumann, L.

H. Suche, L. Baumann, D. Hiller, and W. Sohler, “Modelocked Er:Ti:LiNbO3 wave-guide laser,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1111–1112 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Becker, C.

C. Becker, T. Oesselke, J. Pandavenes, R. Ricken, K. Rochhausen, G. Schreiber, W. Sohler, H. Suche, R. Wessel, S. Balsamo, I. Montrosset, and D. Sciancalepore, “Advanced Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 101–113 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Beckers, L.

I. Baumann, R. Brinkmann, M. Dinand, W. Sohler, L. Beckers, C. Buchal, M. Fleuster, H. Holzbrecher, H. Paulus, K. H. Muller, T. Gog, G. Materlik, O. Witte, H. Stolz, and W. von der Osten, “Erbium incorporation in LiNbO3 by diffusion-doping,” Appl. Phys. A 64, 33–44 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bosso, S.

Brinkmann, R.

I. Baumann, R. Brinkmann, M. Dinand, W. Sohler, L. Beckers, C. Buchal, M. Fleuster, H. Holzbrecher, H. Paulus, K. H. Muller, T. Gog, G. Materlik, O. Witte, H. Stolz, and W. von der Osten, “Erbium incorporation in LiNbO3 by diffusion-doping,” Appl. Phys. A 64, 33–44 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Buchal, C.

I. Baumann, R. Brinkmann, M. Dinand, W. Sohler, L. Beckers, C. Buchal, M. Fleuster, H. Holzbrecher, H. Paulus, K. H. Muller, T. Gog, G. Materlik, O. Witte, H. Stolz, and W. von der Osten, “Erbium incorporation in LiNbO3 by diffusion-doping,” Appl. Phys. A 64, 33–44 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cai, M.

Carmannini, C.

Cohen, D. A.

D. A. Cohen and A. F. J. Levi, “Microphotonic millimetre-wave receiver architecture,” Electron. Lett. 37, 37–39 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Cohen, M. Hossein-Zadeh, and A. F. J. Levi, “Microphotonic modulator for microwave receiver,” Electron. Lett. 37, 300–301 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Corsini, R.

Darrow, J. T.

J. T. Darrow and R. K. Jain, “Active mode locking of broad band continuous-wave lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1048–1060 (1991).
[CrossRef]

de Micheli, M.

E. Lallier, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, M. de Micheli, M. J. Li, Q. He, and C. Grezes-Besset, “Integrated Nd:MgO:LiNbO3 FM mode locked waveguide laser,” Electron. Lett. 27, 936–937 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Dinand, M.

I. Baumann, R. Brinkmann, M. Dinand, W. Sohler, L. Beckers, C. Buchal, M. Fleuster, H. Holzbrecher, H. Paulus, K. H. Muller, T. Gog, G. Materlik, O. Witte, H. Stolz, and W. von der Osten, “Erbium incorporation in LiNbO3 by diffusion-doping,” Appl. Phys. A 64, 33–44 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fleuster, M.

I. Baumann, R. Brinkmann, M. Dinand, W. Sohler, L. Beckers, C. Buchal, M. Fleuster, H. Holzbrecher, H. Paulus, K. H. Muller, T. Gog, G. Materlik, O. Witte, H. Stolz, and W. von der Osten, “Erbium incorporation in LiNbO3 by diffusion-doping,” Appl. Phys. A 64, 33–44 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fujiwara, H.

H. Fujiwara and K. Sasaki, “Microspherical lasing of an erbium-ion-doped glass particle,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 41, L46-L48 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gog, T.

I. Baumann, R. Brinkmann, M. Dinand, W. Sohler, L. Beckers, C. Buchal, M. Fleuster, H. Holzbrecher, H. Paulus, K. H. Muller, T. Gog, G. Materlik, O. Witte, H. Stolz, and W. von der Osten, “Erbium incorporation in LiNbO3 by diffusion-doping,” Appl. Phys. A 64, 33–44 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Greiner, A.

H. Suche, A. Greiner, W. Qiu, R. Wessel, and W. Sohler, “Integrated optical Ti:Er:LiNbO3 soliton source,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1642–1646 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Grezes-Besset, C.

E. Lallier, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, M. de Micheli, M. J. Li, Q. He, and C. Grezes-Besset, “Integrated Nd:MgO:LiNbO3 FM mode locked waveguide laser,” Electron. Lett. 27, 936–937 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hare, J.

W. von Klitzing, E. Jahier, R. Long, F. Lissillour, V. Lefevre-Seguin, J. Hare, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, “Very low threshold green lasing in microspheres by up-conversion of IR photons,” J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 2, 204–206 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Haroche, S.

W. von Klitzing, E. Jahier, R. Long, F. Lissillour, V. Lefevre-Seguin, J. Hare, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, “Very low threshold green lasing in microspheres by up-conversion of IR photons,” J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 2, 204–206 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Harris, S. E.

S. E. Harris and O. P. McDuff, “Theory of FM laser oscillation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-1, 245–262 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Harvey, G. T.

He, Q.

E. Lallier, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, M. de Micheli, M. J. Li, Q. He, and C. Grezes-Besset, “Integrated Nd:MgO:LiNbO3 FM mode locked waveguide laser,” Electron. Lett. 27, 936–937 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hiller, D.

H. Suche, L. Baumann, D. Hiller, and W. Sohler, “Modelocked Er:Ti:LiNbO3 wave-guide laser,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1111–1112 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Holzbrecher, H.

I. Baumann, R. Brinkmann, M. Dinand, W. Sohler, L. Beckers, C. Buchal, M. Fleuster, H. Holzbrecher, H. Paulus, K. H. Muller, T. Gog, G. Materlik, O. Witte, H. Stolz, and W. von der Osten, “Erbium incorporation in LiNbO3 by diffusion-doping,” Appl. Phys. A 64, 33–44 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hossein-Zadeh, M.

D. A. Cohen, M. Hossein-Zadeh, and A. F. J. Levi, “Microphotonic modulator for microwave receiver,” Electron. Lett. 37, 300–301 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ilchenko, V. S.

V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, “Whispering-gallery-mode electro-optic modulator and photonic microwave receiver,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 333–342 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Ilchenko and L. Maleki, “Novel whispering-gallery resonators for lasers, modulators, and sensors,” in Laser Resonators IV, A. V. Kudryashov and A. H. Paxton, eds., Proc. SPIE 4270, 120–130 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Ilchenko, X. S. Yao, and L. Maleki, “Microsphere integration in active and passive photonics devices,” in Laser Resonators III, A. V. Kudryashov and A. H. Paxton, eds., Proc. SPIE 3930, 154–162 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jahier, E.

W. von Klitzing, E. Jahier, R. Long, F. Lissillour, V. Lefevre-Seguin, J. Hare, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, “Very low threshold green lasing in microspheres by up-conversion of IR photons,” J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 2, 204–206 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jain, R. K.

J. T. Darrow and R. K. Jain, “Active mode locking of broad band continuous-wave lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1048–1060 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kuizenga, D. J.

D. J. Kuizenga and A. E. Siegman, “FM and AM mode locking of the homogeneous laser—Part I: Theory,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-6, 694–708 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Lallier, E.

E. Lallier, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, M. de Micheli, M. J. Li, Q. He, and C. Grezes-Besset, “Integrated Nd:MgO:LiNbO3 FM mode locked waveguide laser,” Electron. Lett. 27, 936–937 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lefevre-Seguin, V.

W. von Klitzing, E. Jahier, R. Long, F. Lissillour, V. Lefevre-Seguin, J. Hare, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, “Very low threshold green lasing in microspheres by up-conversion of IR photons,” J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 2, 204–206 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Levi, A. F. J.

D. A. Cohen and A. F. J. Levi, “Microphotonic millimetre-wave receiver architecture,” Electron. Lett. 37, 37–39 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Cohen, M. Hossein-Zadeh, and A. F. J. Levi, “Microphotonic modulator for microwave receiver,” Electron. Lett. 37, 300–301 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Li, M. J.

E. Lallier, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, M. de Micheli, M. J. Li, Q. He, and C. Grezes-Besset, “Integrated Nd:MgO:LiNbO3 FM mode locked waveguide laser,” Electron. Lett. 27, 936–937 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lissillour, F.

W. von Klitzing, E. Jahier, R. Long, F. Lissillour, V. Lefevre-Seguin, J. Hare, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, “Very low threshold green lasing in microspheres by up-conversion of IR photons,” J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 2, 204–206 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Long, R.

W. von Klitzing, E. Jahier, R. Long, F. Lissillour, V. Lefevre-Seguin, J. Hare, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, “Very low threshold green lasing in microspheres by up-conversion of IR photons,” J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 2, 204–206 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Maleki, L.

V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, “Whispering-gallery-mode electro-optic modulator and photonic microwave receiver,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 333–342 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Ilchenko and L. Maleki, “Novel whispering-gallery resonators for lasers, modulators, and sensors,” in Laser Resonators IV, A. V. Kudryashov and A. H. Paxton, eds., Proc. SPIE 4270, 120–130 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Ilchenko, X. S. Yao, and L. Maleki, “Microsphere integration in active and passive photonics devices,” in Laser Resonators III, A. V. Kudryashov and A. H. Paxton, eds., Proc. SPIE 3930, 154–162 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Materlik, G.

I. Baumann, R. Brinkmann, M. Dinand, W. Sohler, L. Beckers, C. Buchal, M. Fleuster, H. Holzbrecher, H. Paulus, K. H. Muller, T. Gog, G. Materlik, O. Witte, H. Stolz, and W. von der Osten, “Erbium incorporation in LiNbO3 by diffusion-doping,” Appl. Phys. A 64, 33–44 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Matsko, A. B.

McDuff, O. P.

S. E. Harris and O. P. McDuff, “Theory of FM laser oscillation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-1, 245–262 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Mollenauer, L. F.

Montrosset, I.

C. Becker, T. Oesselke, J. Pandavenes, R. Ricken, K. Rochhausen, G. Schreiber, W. Sohler, H. Suche, R. Wessel, S. Balsamo, I. Montrosset, and D. Sciancalepore, “Advanced Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 101–113 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Sciancalepore, S. Balsamo, and I. Montrosset, “Theoretical modeling of FM mode locking in Er:Ti:LiNbO3 waveguide lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 400–409 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Muller, K. H.

I. Baumann, R. Brinkmann, M. Dinand, W. Sohler, L. Beckers, C. Buchal, M. Fleuster, H. Holzbrecher, H. Paulus, K. H. Muller, T. Gog, G. Materlik, O. Witte, H. Stolz, and W. von der Osten, “Erbium incorporation in LiNbO3 by diffusion-doping,” Appl. Phys. A 64, 33–44 (1997).
[CrossRef]

New, G. H. C.

G. H. C. New, “The generation of ultrashort laser pulses,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 46, 877–971 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Oesselke, T.

C. Becker, T. Oesselke, J. Pandavenes, R. Ricken, K. Rochhausen, G. Schreiber, W. Sohler, H. Suche, R. Wessel, S. Balsamo, I. Montrosset, and D. Sciancalepore, “Advanced Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 101–113 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Painter, O.

Pandavenes, J.

C. Becker, T. Oesselke, J. Pandavenes, R. Ricken, K. Rochhausen, G. Schreiber, W. Sohler, H. Suche, R. Wessel, S. Balsamo, I. Montrosset, and D. Sciancalepore, “Advanced Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 101–113 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Papuchon, M.

E. Lallier, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, M. de Micheli, M. J. Li, Q. He, and C. Grezes-Besset, “Integrated Nd:MgO:LiNbO3 FM mode locked waveguide laser,” Electron. Lett. 27, 936–937 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Paulus, H.

I. Baumann, R. Brinkmann, M. Dinand, W. Sohler, L. Beckers, C. Buchal, M. Fleuster, H. Holzbrecher, H. Paulus, K. H. Muller, T. Gog, G. Materlik, O. Witte, H. Stolz, and W. von der Osten, “Erbium incorporation in LiNbO3 by diffusion-doping,” Appl. Phys. A 64, 33–44 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pocholle, J. P.

E. Lallier, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, M. de Micheli, M. J. Li, Q. He, and C. Grezes-Besset, “Integrated Nd:MgO:LiNbO3 FM mode locked waveguide laser,” Electron. Lett. 27, 936–937 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, W.

H. Suche, A. Greiner, W. Qiu, R. Wessel, and W. Sohler, “Integrated optical Ti:Er:LiNbO3 soliton source,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1642–1646 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Raimond, J. M.

W. von Klitzing, E. Jahier, R. Long, F. Lissillour, V. Lefevre-Seguin, J. Hare, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, “Very low threshold green lasing in microspheres by up-conversion of IR photons,” J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 2, 204–206 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ricken, R.

C. Becker, T. Oesselke, J. Pandavenes, R. Ricken, K. Rochhausen, G. Schreiber, W. Sohler, H. Suche, R. Wessel, S. Balsamo, I. Montrosset, and D. Sciancalepore, “Advanced Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 101–113 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rochhausen, K.

C. Becker, T. Oesselke, J. Pandavenes, R. Ricken, K. Rochhausen, G. Schreiber, W. Sohler, H. Suche, R. Wessel, S. Balsamo, I. Montrosset, and D. Sciancalepore, “Advanced Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 101–113 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, K.

H. Fujiwara and K. Sasaki, “Microspherical lasing of an erbium-ion-doped glass particle,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 41, L46-L48 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Savchenkov, A. A.

Schreiber, G.

C. Becker, T. Oesselke, J. Pandavenes, R. Ricken, K. Rochhausen, G. Schreiber, W. Sohler, H. Suche, R. Wessel, S. Balsamo, I. Montrosset, and D. Sciancalepore, “Advanced Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 101–113 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sciancalepore, D.

C. Becker, T. Oesselke, J. Pandavenes, R. Ricken, K. Rochhausen, G. Schreiber, W. Sohler, H. Suche, R. Wessel, S. Balsamo, I. Montrosset, and D. Sciancalepore, “Advanced Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 101–113 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Sciancalepore, S. Balsamo, and I. Montrosset, “Theoretical modeling of FM mode locking in Er:Ti:LiNbO3 waveguide lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 400–409 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sercel, P. C.

Siegman, A. E.

D. J. Kuizenga and A. E. Siegman, “FM and AM mode locking of the homogeneous laser—Part I: Theory,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-6, 694–708 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Sohler, W.

C. Becker, T. Oesselke, J. Pandavenes, R. Ricken, K. Rochhausen, G. Schreiber, W. Sohler, H. Suche, R. Wessel, S. Balsamo, I. Montrosset, and D. Sciancalepore, “Advanced Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 101–113 (2000).
[CrossRef]

I. Baumann, R. Brinkmann, M. Dinand, W. Sohler, L. Beckers, C. Buchal, M. Fleuster, H. Holzbrecher, H. Paulus, K. H. Muller, T. Gog, G. Materlik, O. Witte, H. Stolz, and W. von der Osten, “Erbium incorporation in LiNbO3 by diffusion-doping,” Appl. Phys. A 64, 33–44 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Suche, A. Greiner, W. Qiu, R. Wessel, and W. Sohler, “Integrated optical Ti:Er:LiNbO3 soliton source,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1642–1646 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Suche, R. Wessel, S. Westenhöfer, W. Sohler, S. Bosso, C. Carmannini, and R. Corsini, “Harmonically mode-locked Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett. 20, 596–598 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Suche, L. Baumann, D. Hiller, and W. Sohler, “Modelocked Er:Ti:LiNbO3 wave-guide laser,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1111–1112 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Stolz, H.

I. Baumann, R. Brinkmann, M. Dinand, W. Sohler, L. Beckers, C. Buchal, M. Fleuster, H. Holzbrecher, H. Paulus, K. H. Muller, T. Gog, G. Materlik, O. Witte, H. Stolz, and W. von der Osten, “Erbium incorporation in LiNbO3 by diffusion-doping,” Appl. Phys. A 64, 33–44 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Suche, H.

C. Becker, T. Oesselke, J. Pandavenes, R. Ricken, K. Rochhausen, G. Schreiber, W. Sohler, H. Suche, R. Wessel, S. Balsamo, I. Montrosset, and D. Sciancalepore, “Advanced Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 101–113 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Suche, A. Greiner, W. Qiu, R. Wessel, and W. Sohler, “Integrated optical Ti:Er:LiNbO3 soliton source,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1642–1646 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Suche, R. Wessel, S. Westenhöfer, W. Sohler, S. Bosso, C. Carmannini, and R. Corsini, “Harmonically mode-locked Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett. 20, 596–598 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Suche, L. Baumann, D. Hiller, and W. Sohler, “Modelocked Er:Ti:LiNbO3 wave-guide laser,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1111–1112 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Vahala, K. J.

von der Osten, W.

I. Baumann, R. Brinkmann, M. Dinand, W. Sohler, L. Beckers, C. Buchal, M. Fleuster, H. Holzbrecher, H. Paulus, K. H. Muller, T. Gog, G. Materlik, O. Witte, H. Stolz, and W. von der Osten, “Erbium incorporation in LiNbO3 by diffusion-doping,” Appl. Phys. A 64, 33–44 (1997).
[CrossRef]

von Klitzing, W.

W. von Klitzing, E. Jahier, R. Long, F. Lissillour, V. Lefevre-Seguin, J. Hare, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, “Very low threshold green lasing in microspheres by up-conversion of IR photons,” J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 2, 204–206 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wessel, R.

C. Becker, T. Oesselke, J. Pandavenes, R. Ricken, K. Rochhausen, G. Schreiber, W. Sohler, H. Suche, R. Wessel, S. Balsamo, I. Montrosset, and D. Sciancalepore, “Advanced Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 101–113 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Suche, A. Greiner, W. Qiu, R. Wessel, and W. Sohler, “Integrated optical Ti:Er:LiNbO3 soliton source,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1642–1646 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Suche, R. Wessel, S. Westenhöfer, W. Sohler, S. Bosso, C. Carmannini, and R. Corsini, “Harmonically mode-locked Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett. 20, 596–598 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Westenhöfer, S.

Witte, O.

I. Baumann, R. Brinkmann, M. Dinand, W. Sohler, L. Beckers, C. Buchal, M. Fleuster, H. Holzbrecher, H. Paulus, K. H. Muller, T. Gog, G. Materlik, O. Witte, H. Stolz, and W. von der Osten, “Erbium incorporation in LiNbO3 by diffusion-doping,” Appl. Phys. A 64, 33–44 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yang, L.

Yao, X. S.

V. S. Ilchenko, X. S. Yao, and L. Maleki, “Microsphere integration in active and passive photonics devices,” in Laser Resonators III, A. V. Kudryashov and A. H. Paxton, eds., Proc. SPIE 3930, 154–162 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. A (1)

I. Baumann, R. Brinkmann, M. Dinand, W. Sohler, L. Beckers, C. Buchal, M. Fleuster, H. Holzbrecher, H. Paulus, K. H. Muller, T. Gog, G. Materlik, O. Witte, H. Stolz, and W. von der Osten, “Erbium incorporation in LiNbO3 by diffusion-doping,” Appl. Phys. A 64, 33–44 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (4)

H. Suche, L. Baumann, D. Hiller, and W. Sohler, “Modelocked Er:Ti:LiNbO3 wave-guide laser,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1111–1112 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Cohen and A. F. J. Levi, “Microphotonic millimetre-wave receiver architecture,” Electron. Lett. 37, 37–39 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Cohen, M. Hossein-Zadeh, and A. F. J. Levi, “Microphotonic modulator for microwave receiver,” Electron. Lett. 37, 300–301 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Lallier, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, M. de Micheli, M. J. Li, Q. He, and C. Grezes-Besset, “Integrated Nd:MgO:LiNbO3 FM mode locked waveguide laser,” Electron. Lett. 27, 936–937 (1991).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (5)

D. Sciancalepore, S. Balsamo, and I. Montrosset, “Theoretical modeling of FM mode locking in Er:Ti:LiNbO3 waveguide lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 400–409 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Suche, A. Greiner, W. Qiu, R. Wessel, and W. Sohler, “Integrated optical Ti:Er:LiNbO3 soliton source,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1642–1646 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Harris and O. P. McDuff, “Theory of FM laser oscillation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-1, 245–262 (1965).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Kuizenga and A. E. Siegman, “FM and AM mode locking of the homogeneous laser—Part I: Theory,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-6, 694–708 (1970).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Darrow and R. K. Jain, “Active mode locking of broad band continuous-wave lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1048–1060 (1991).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

C. Becker, T. Oesselke, J. Pandavenes, R. Ricken, K. Rochhausen, G. Schreiber, W. Sohler, H. Suche, R. Wessel, S. Balsamo, I. Montrosset, and D. Sciancalepore, “Advanced Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 101–113 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclassical Opt. (1)

W. von Klitzing, E. Jahier, R. Long, F. Lissillour, V. Lefevre-Seguin, J. Hare, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, “Very low threshold green lasing in microspheres by up-conversion of IR photons,” J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 2, 204–206 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 (1)

H. Fujiwara and K. Sasaki, “Microspherical lasing of an erbium-ion-doped glass particle,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 41, L46-L48 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Proc. SPIE (2)

V. S. Ilchenko, X. S. Yao, and L. Maleki, “Microsphere integration in active and passive photonics devices,” in Laser Resonators III, A. V. Kudryashov and A. H. Paxton, eds., Proc. SPIE 3930, 154–162 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Ilchenko and L. Maleki, “Novel whispering-gallery resonators for lasers, modulators, and sensors,” in Laser Resonators IV, A. V. Kudryashov and A. H. Paxton, eds., Proc. SPIE 4270, 120–130 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

G. H. C. New, “The generation of ultrashort laser pulses,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 46, 877–971 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, Mill Valley, Calif., 1996).

E. Desurvire, Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers: Principles and Applications (Wiley, New York, 1994).

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Figures (1)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Architecture of whispering-gallery mode-locked laser.

Equations (21)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

n0c ωννR1+1.86ν2/3.
n0c (ων+1-ων)1R1+0.62ν2/3,
n0c (ων+1+ων-1-2ων)-1R0.41ν5/3.
nωνc ων=νR.
ωc n(ω)ω0c n0+β(ω-ω0)+12 β(ω-ω0)2,
β=1vg=1cn+ω dndω,
β=1c2 dndω+ω d2ndω2
ων+1-ων1Rβ,
ων+1-2ων+ων-1=-βR2β3.
β=n0c1+0.62ν2/3-1,
β=n0cων0.41ν2/3,
D=-2πcλ2 β=-n0λc0.41ν2/3.
l=2πνQ,
exp[iδ(t)]=expi2 ω0n02reff0π/ωMEM(τ, t)dτ,
EM(τ, t)=EM0sinπ2-ωMτcos[ωM(τ+t)],
EM0=8πWMQMMωMVM1/2,
exp[iδ(t)]=exp(2iδecos ωMt),
δe=π8νn02reffEM0.
g(ω)egexp2i gΓ (ω-ω0)-gΓ2 (ω-ω0)2,
gWldW+Wsat,
δt=22ln 2πgδe(2π)4Γ2ωM21/4.

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