Abstract

We propose a new asymmetric drive scheme for vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) that is expected to permit the active compensation of misalignment between laser beam and waveguide. Simulations performed with a VCSEL integrated spatiotemporal advanced simulator simulation tool indicate that driving the laser with two orthogonal, individually addressable contacts may improve coupling efficiency by selective excitation of modes with given azimuthal distributions. Besides improved and more-stable coupling efficiency, significantly lower noise levels that result from reduced mode partition noise are observed, which significantly enhance the performance of digital transmission systems. Such electronic beam shaping from the driver side may drastically reduce the system’s costs by relaxing its fabrication tolerances.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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  26. S. P. Levitan, T. P. Kurzweg, P. J. Marchand, M. A. Rempel, D. M. Chiarulli, J. A. Martinez, J. M. Bridgen, C. Fan, and F. B. McCormick, “Chatoyant: a computer-aided-design tool for free-space optoelectronic systems,” Appl. Opt. 37, 6078–6092 (1998).
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  30. M. I. Cohen, A. A. Allerman, K. D. Choquette, and C. Jagadish, “Electrically steerable lasers using wide-aperture VCSELs,” IEEE Photon Technol. Lett. 13, 544–546 (2001).
  31. L. G. Zei, S. Ebers, J. R. Kropp, and K. Petermann, “Noise performance of multimode VCSELs,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 884–892 (2001).
  32. M. Jungo, D. Erni, and W. Baechtold, “2D VCSEL model for investigation of dynamic fiber coupling and spatially filtered noise,” IEEE Photon Technol. Lett. 15, 3–5 (2003).
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  35. M. Jungo, D. Erni, F. M. d. Sopra, and W. Baechtold, “Scaling-effects on vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers static and dynamic behavior,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 5550–5557 (2002).

2003 (2)

M. Jungo, D. Erni, and W. Baechtold, “Quasi-analytic steady-state solution of VCSEL rate equations including spatial hole burning and carrier diffusion losses,” Int. J. Numer. Modelling 16(2), 143–159 (2003).

M. Jungo, D. Erni, and W. Baechtold, “2D VCSEL model for investigation of dynamic fiber coupling and spatially filtered noise,” IEEE Photon Technol. Lett. 15, 3–5 (2003).

2002 (4)

C. F. R. Mateus, C. H. Chang, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Widely tunable torsional optical filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 819–821 (2002).

J. Mulet and S. Balle, “Transverse mode dynamics in VCSELs: spatio-temporal vs. modal expansion descriptions,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 053802 (2002).

R. Agnew, “Fast measuring system boosts VCSEL testing,” Europhotonics 7(3), 38–40 (2002).

M. Jungo, D. Erni, F. M. d. Sopra, and W. Baechtold, “Scaling-effects on vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers static and dynamic behavior,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 5550–5557 (2002).

2001 (2)

L. G. Zei, S. Ebers, J. R. Kropp, and K. Petermann, “Noise performance of multimode VCSELs,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 884–892 (2001).

M. I. Cohen, A. A. Allerman, K. D. Choquette, and C. Jagadish, “Electrically steerable lasers using wide-aperture VCSELs,” IEEE Photon Technol. Lett. 13, 544–546 (2001).

2000 (2)

S. Eitel, S. J. Fancey, H. P. Gaugel, K. H. Gulden, W. Baechtold, and M. R. Taghizadeh, “Highly uniform vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers integrated with microlens arrays,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 459–461 (2000).

W.-H. Cheng, M.-T. Sheen, C.-P. Chien, H.-L. Chang, and J.-H. Kuang, “Reduction of fiber alignment shifts in semiconductor laser module packaging,” J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 842–848 (2000).

1999 (3)

J. Dellunde, A. Valle, L. Pesquera, and K. A. Shore, “Transverse-mode selection and noise properties of external-cavity vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers including multiple-reflection effects,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 2131–2139 (1999).

Y. Satuby and M. Orenstein, “Mode-coupling effects on the small-signal modulation of multitransverse-mode vertical-cavity semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 944–954 (1999).

H. Martinsson, J. Bengtsson, M. Ghisoni, and A. Larsson, “Monolithic integration of vertical-cavity surfaceemitting laser and diffractive optical element for advanced beam shaping,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 503–505 (1999).

1998 (3)

1997 (4)

J. Dellunde, M. C. Torrent, J. M. Sancho, and K. A. Shore, “Statistics of transverse mode turn-on dynamics in VCSEL’s,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1197–1204 (1997).

J. Y. Law, “Mode-partition noise in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 437–439 (1997).

R. Michalzik, P. Schnitzer, U. Fiedler, D. Wiedenmann, and K. J. Ebeling, “High-bit-rate data transmission with short wavelength oxidized VCSELs: toward bias-free operation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 396–404 (1997).

J. Heinrich, E. Zeeb, and K. Ebeling, “Butt-coupling efficiency of VCSEL’s into multimode fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1555–1557 (1997).

1996 (2)

S. F. Yu, W. N. Wong, P. Shum, and E. H. Li, “Theoretical analysis of modulation response and second-order harmonic distortion in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 2139–2147 (1996).

R. Mueller, A. Klehr, A. Valle, J. Sarma, and K. A. Shore, “Effects of spatial hole burning on polarization dynamics in edge-emitting and vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser diodes,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 11, 587–596 (1996).

1995 (2)

A. Valle, J. Sarma, and K. A. Shore, “Spatial holeburning effects on the dynamics of vertical cavity surface-emitting laser diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1423–1431 (1995).

G. M. Yang, M. H. MacDougal, and P. D. Dapkus, “Ultralow threshold current verical-cavity surface-emitting lasers obained with selective oxidation,” Electron. Lett. 31, 886–888 (1995).

1987 (1)

R. Olshansky, P. Hill, V. Lanzisera, and W. Powazinik, “Frequency response of 1.3μm InGaAsP high speed semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 1410–1418 (1987).

1982 (1)

Agnew, R.

R. Agnew, “Fast measuring system boosts VCSEL testing,” Europhotonics 7(3), 38–40 (2002).

Allerman, A. A.

M. I. Cohen, A. A. Allerman, K. D. Choquette, and C. Jagadish, “Electrically steerable lasers using wide-aperture VCSELs,” IEEE Photon Technol. Lett. 13, 544–546 (2001).

Baechtold, W.

M. Jungo, D. Erni, and W. Baechtold, “2D VCSEL model for investigation of dynamic fiber coupling and spatially filtered noise,” IEEE Photon Technol. Lett. 15, 3–5 (2003).

M. Jungo, D. Erni, and W. Baechtold, “Quasi-analytic steady-state solution of VCSEL rate equations including spatial hole burning and carrier diffusion losses,” Int. J. Numer. Modelling 16(2), 143–159 (2003).

M. Jungo, D. Erni, F. M. d. Sopra, and W. Baechtold, “Scaling-effects on vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers static and dynamic behavior,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 5550–5557 (2002).

S. Eitel, S. J. Fancey, H. P. Gaugel, K. H. Gulden, W. Baechtold, and M. R. Taghizadeh, “Highly uniform vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers integrated with microlens arrays,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 459–461 (2000).

Balle, S.

J. Mulet and S. Balle, “Transverse mode dynamics in VCSELs: spatio-temporal vs. modal expansion descriptions,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 053802 (2002).

Bengtsson, J.

H. Martinsson, J. Bengtsson, M. Ghisoni, and A. Larsson, “Monolithic integration of vertical-cavity surfaceemitting laser and diffractive optical element for advanced beam shaping,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 503–505 (1999).

Bridgen, J. M.

Chang, C. H.

C. F. R. Mateus, C. H. Chang, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Widely tunable torsional optical filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 819–821 (2002).

Chang, H.-L.

Chang-Hasnain, C. J.

C. F. R. Mateus, C. H. Chang, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Widely tunable torsional optical filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 819–821 (2002).

Cheng, W.-H.

Chiarulli, D. M.

Chien, C.-P.

Choquette, K. D.

M. I. Cohen, A. A. Allerman, K. D. Choquette, and C. Jagadish, “Electrically steerable lasers using wide-aperture VCSELs,” IEEE Photon Technol. Lett. 13, 544–546 (2001).

Cohen, M. I.

M. I. Cohen, A. A. Allerman, K. D. Choquette, and C. Jagadish, “Electrically steerable lasers using wide-aperture VCSELs,” IEEE Photon Technol. Lett. 13, 544–546 (2001).

d. Sopra, F. M.

M. Jungo, D. Erni, F. M. d. Sopra, and W. Baechtold, “Scaling-effects on vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers static and dynamic behavior,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 5550–5557 (2002).

Dapkus, P. D.

G. M. Yang, M. H. MacDougal, and P. D. Dapkus, “Ultralow threshold current verical-cavity surface-emitting lasers obained with selective oxidation,” Electron. Lett. 31, 886–888 (1995).

Delen, N.

Dellunde, J.

J. Dellunde, A. Valle, L. Pesquera, and K. A. Shore, “Transverse-mode selection and noise properties of external-cavity vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers including multiple-reflection effects,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 2131–2139 (1999).

J. Dellunde, M. C. Torrent, J. M. Sancho, and K. A. Shore, “Statistics of transverse mode turn-on dynamics in VCSEL’s,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1197–1204 (1997).

Ebeling, K.

J. Heinrich, E. Zeeb, and K. Ebeling, “Butt-coupling efficiency of VCSEL’s into multimode fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1555–1557 (1997).

Ebeling, K. J.

R. Michalzik, P. Schnitzer, U. Fiedler, D. Wiedenmann, and K. J. Ebeling, “High-bit-rate data transmission with short wavelength oxidized VCSELs: toward bias-free operation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 396–404 (1997).

Ebers, S.

Eitel, S.

S. Eitel, S. J. Fancey, H. P. Gaugel, K. H. Gulden, W. Baechtold, and M. R. Taghizadeh, “Highly uniform vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers integrated with microlens arrays,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 459–461 (2000).

Erni, D.

M. Jungo, D. Erni, and W. Baechtold, “Quasi-analytic steady-state solution of VCSEL rate equations including spatial hole burning and carrier diffusion losses,” Int. J. Numer. Modelling 16(2), 143–159 (2003).

M. Jungo, D. Erni, and W. Baechtold, “2D VCSEL model for investigation of dynamic fiber coupling and spatially filtered noise,” IEEE Photon Technol. Lett. 15, 3–5 (2003).

M. Jungo, D. Erni, F. M. d. Sopra, and W. Baechtold, “Scaling-effects on vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers static and dynamic behavior,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 5550–5557 (2002).

Fan, C.

Fancey, S. J.

S. Eitel, S. J. Fancey, H. P. Gaugel, K. H. Gulden, W. Baechtold, and M. R. Taghizadeh, “Highly uniform vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers integrated with microlens arrays,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 459–461 (2000).

Fiedler, U.

R. Michalzik, P. Schnitzer, U. Fiedler, D. Wiedenmann, and K. J. Ebeling, “High-bit-rate data transmission with short wavelength oxidized VCSELs: toward bias-free operation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 396–404 (1997).

Gaugel, H. P.

S. Eitel, S. J. Fancey, H. P. Gaugel, K. H. Gulden, W. Baechtold, and M. R. Taghizadeh, “Highly uniform vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers integrated with microlens arrays,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 459–461 (2000).

Ghisoni, M.

H. Martinsson, J. Bengtsson, M. Ghisoni, and A. Larsson, “Monolithic integration of vertical-cavity surfaceemitting laser and diffractive optical element for advanced beam shaping,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 503–505 (1999).

Gulden, K. H.

S. Eitel, S. J. Fancey, H. P. Gaugel, K. H. Gulden, W. Baechtold, and M. R. Taghizadeh, “Highly uniform vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers integrated with microlens arrays,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 459–461 (2000).

Heinrich, J.

J. Heinrich, E. Zeeb, and K. Ebeling, “Butt-coupling efficiency of VCSEL’s into multimode fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1555–1557 (1997).

Hill, P.

R. Olshansky, P. Hill, V. Lanzisera, and W. Powazinik, “Frequency response of 1.3μm InGaAsP high speed semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 1410–1418 (1987).

Hooker, B.

Jagadish, C.

M. I. Cohen, A. A. Allerman, K. D. Choquette, and C. Jagadish, “Electrically steerable lasers using wide-aperture VCSELs,” IEEE Photon Technol. Lett. 13, 544–546 (2001).

Jungo, M.

M. Jungo, D. Erni, and W. Baechtold, “2D VCSEL model for investigation of dynamic fiber coupling and spatially filtered noise,” IEEE Photon Technol. Lett. 15, 3–5 (2003).

M. Jungo, D. Erni, and W. Baechtold, “Quasi-analytic steady-state solution of VCSEL rate equations including spatial hole burning and carrier diffusion losses,” Int. J. Numer. Modelling 16(2), 143–159 (2003).

M. Jungo, D. Erni, F. M. d. Sopra, and W. Baechtold, “Scaling-effects on vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers static and dynamic behavior,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 5550–5557 (2002).

Klehr, A.

R. Mueller, A. Klehr, A. Valle, J. Sarma, and K. A. Shore, “Effects of spatial hole burning on polarization dynamics in edge-emitting and vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser diodes,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 11, 587–596 (1996).

Kropp, J. R.

Kuang, J.-H.

Kurzweg, T. P.

Lanzisera, V.

R. Olshansky, P. Hill, V. Lanzisera, and W. Powazinik, “Frequency response of 1.3μm InGaAsP high speed semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 1410–1418 (1987).

Larsson, A.

H. Martinsson, J. Bengtsson, M. Ghisoni, and A. Larsson, “Monolithic integration of vertical-cavity surfaceemitting laser and diffractive optical element for advanced beam shaping,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 503–505 (1999).

Law, J. Y.

J. Y. Law, “Mode-partition noise in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 437–439 (1997).

Levitan, S. P.

Li, E. H.

S. F. Yu, W. N. Wong, P. Shum, and E. H. Li, “Theoretical analysis of modulation response and second-order harmonic distortion in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 2139–2147 (1996).

MacDougal, M. H.

G. M. Yang, M. H. MacDougal, and P. D. Dapkus, “Ultralow threshold current verical-cavity surface-emitting lasers obained with selective oxidation,” Electron. Lett. 31, 886–888 (1995).

Marchand, P. J.

Martinez, J. A.

Martinsson, H.

H. Martinsson, J. Bengtsson, M. Ghisoni, and A. Larsson, “Monolithic integration of vertical-cavity surfaceemitting laser and diffractive optical element for advanced beam shaping,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 503–505 (1999).

Mateus, C. F. R.

C. F. R. Mateus, C. H. Chang, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Widely tunable torsional optical filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 819–821 (2002).

McCormick, F. B.

Michalzik, R.

R. Michalzik, P. Schnitzer, U. Fiedler, D. Wiedenmann, and K. J. Ebeling, “High-bit-rate data transmission with short wavelength oxidized VCSELs: toward bias-free operation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 396–404 (1997).

Mueller, R.

R. Mueller, A. Klehr, A. Valle, J. Sarma, and K. A. Shore, “Effects of spatial hole burning on polarization dynamics in edge-emitting and vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser diodes,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 11, 587–596 (1996).

Mulet, J.

J. Mulet and S. Balle, “Transverse mode dynamics in VCSELs: spatio-temporal vs. modal expansion descriptions,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 053802 (2002).

Olshansky, R.

R. Olshansky, P. Hill, V. Lanzisera, and W. Powazinik, “Frequency response of 1.3μm InGaAsP high speed semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 1410–1418 (1987).

Orenstein, M.

Y. Satuby and M. Orenstein, “Mode-coupling effects on the small-signal modulation of multitransverse-mode vertical-cavity semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 944–954 (1999).

Pesquera, L.

Petermann, K.

Powazinik, W.

R. Olshansky, P. Hill, V. Lanzisera, and W. Powazinik, “Frequency response of 1.3μm InGaAsP high speed semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 1410–1418 (1987).

Rempel, M. A.

Sancho, J. M.

J. Dellunde, M. C. Torrent, J. M. Sancho, and K. A. Shore, “Statistics of transverse mode turn-on dynamics in VCSEL’s,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1197–1204 (1997).

Sarma, J.

R. Mueller, A. Klehr, A. Valle, J. Sarma, and K. A. Shore, “Effects of spatial hole burning on polarization dynamics in edge-emitting and vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser diodes,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 11, 587–596 (1996).

A. Valle, J. Sarma, and K. A. Shore, “Spatial holeburning effects on the dynamics of vertical cavity surface-emitting laser diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1423–1431 (1995).

Satuby, Y.

Y. Satuby and M. Orenstein, “Mode-coupling effects on the small-signal modulation of multitransverse-mode vertical-cavity semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 944–954 (1999).

Schnitzer, P.

R. Michalzik, P. Schnitzer, U. Fiedler, D. Wiedenmann, and K. J. Ebeling, “High-bit-rate data transmission with short wavelength oxidized VCSELs: toward bias-free operation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 396–404 (1997).

Sheen, M.-T.

Shore, K. A.

J. Dellunde, A. Valle, L. Pesquera, and K. A. Shore, “Transverse-mode selection and noise properties of external-cavity vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers including multiple-reflection effects,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 2131–2139 (1999).

J. Dellunde, M. C. Torrent, J. M. Sancho, and K. A. Shore, “Statistics of transverse mode turn-on dynamics in VCSEL’s,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1197–1204 (1997).

R. Mueller, A. Klehr, A. Valle, J. Sarma, and K. A. Shore, “Effects of spatial hole burning on polarization dynamics in edge-emitting and vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser diodes,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 11, 587–596 (1996).

A. Valle, J. Sarma, and K. A. Shore, “Spatial holeburning effects on the dynamics of vertical cavity surface-emitting laser diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1423–1431 (1995).

Shum, P.

S. F. Yu, W. N. Wong, P. Shum, and E. H. Li, “Theoretical analysis of modulation response and second-order harmonic distortion in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 2139–2147 (1996).

Taghizadeh, M. R.

S. Eitel, S. J. Fancey, H. P. Gaugel, K. H. Gulden, W. Baechtold, and M. R. Taghizadeh, “Highly uniform vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers integrated with microlens arrays,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 459–461 (2000).

Tomlinson, W. J.

Torrent, M. C.

J. Dellunde, M. C. Torrent, J. M. Sancho, and K. A. Shore, “Statistics of transverse mode turn-on dynamics in VCSEL’s,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1197–1204 (1997).

Valle, A.

J. Dellunde, A. Valle, L. Pesquera, and K. A. Shore, “Transverse-mode selection and noise properties of external-cavity vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers including multiple-reflection effects,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 2131–2139 (1999).

A. Valle, “Selection and modulation of high-order transverse modes in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1924–1932 (1998).

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A. Valle, “Selection and modulation of high-order transverse modes in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1924–1932 (1998).

J. Dellunde, M. C. Torrent, J. M. Sancho, and K. A. Shore, “Statistics of transverse mode turn-on dynamics in VCSEL’s,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1197–1204 (1997).

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IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. Michalzik, P. Schnitzer, U. Fiedler, D. Wiedenmann, and K. J. Ebeling, “High-bit-rate data transmission with short wavelength oxidized VCSELs: toward bias-free operation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 396–404 (1997).

IEEE Photon Technol. Lett. (2)

M. I. Cohen, A. A. Allerman, K. D. Choquette, and C. Jagadish, “Electrically steerable lasers using wide-aperture VCSELs,” IEEE Photon Technol. Lett. 13, 544–546 (2001).

M. Jungo, D. Erni, and W. Baechtold, “2D VCSEL model for investigation of dynamic fiber coupling and spatially filtered noise,” IEEE Photon Technol. Lett. 15, 3–5 (2003).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (4)

H. Martinsson, J. Bengtsson, M. Ghisoni, and A. Larsson, “Monolithic integration of vertical-cavity surfaceemitting laser and diffractive optical element for advanced beam shaping,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 503–505 (1999).

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J. Heinrich, E. Zeeb, and K. Ebeling, “Butt-coupling efficiency of VCSEL’s into multimode fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1555–1557 (1997).

J. Y. Law, “Mode-partition noise in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 437–439 (1997).

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

S. Eitel, S. J. Fancey, H. P. Gaugel, K. H. Gulden, W. Baechtold, and M. R. Taghizadeh, “Highly uniform vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers integrated with microlens arrays,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 459–461 (2000).

Int. J. Numer. Modelling (1)

M. Jungo, D. Erni, and W. Baechtold, “Quasi-analytic steady-state solution of VCSEL rate equations including spatial hole burning and carrier diffusion losses,” Int. J. Numer. Modelling 16(2), 143–159 (2003).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Jungo, D. Erni, F. M. d. Sopra, and W. Baechtold, “Scaling-effects on vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers static and dynamic behavior,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 5550–5557 (2002).

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From M. Jungo; check “VISTAS” at http://sourceforge.net.

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M. Jungo, D. Erni, and W. Baechtold, “VISTAS: a comprehensive system-oriented spatiotemporal 2D VCSEL model,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (to be published).

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