Abstract

We argue that the conclusion of Borrelli et al. [J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 1672–1679 (1999)] in favor of a negligible contribution of the UV-induced densification to the refractive index change raises questions for the following reasons: (i) The use of a relation between index change and inelastic strains is inadequate to the problem of UV exposure, (ii) the authors claim to describe the process in fiber but forget to take into account the mechanical reaction of the cladding, and (iii) the authors transfer results obtained in oxidized bulk samples to reduced fiber glass.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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  1. N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and R. A. Modavis, “Direct measurement of 248- and 193-nm excimer-induced densification in silica–germania waveguide blanks,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 1672–1679 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Albert, B. Malo, K. O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and S. Theriault, “Comparison of one-photon and two-photon effects in the photosensitivity of germanium doped silica optical fibers exposed to intense ArF excimer laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3529–3531 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  3. B. Leconte, “Contribution à l’étude de la photosensibilité des fibres sous l’effet d’une insolation par un laser à ArF” thesis, No. 2379 (University of Lille, Lille, France, 1998).
  4. B. Poumellec, P. Niay, M. Douay, and J. F. Bayon, “The UV-induced refractive index grating in Ge–SiO2 performs: additional cw experiments and the macroscopic origin of the change in index,” J. Phys. D 29, 1842–1856 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, and E. Delevaque, “Densification involved in the UV-based photosensitivity of silica glasses and optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1329–1342 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Mueller, “The theory of elasticity,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 21, 27–33 (1937).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. Mueller, “Theory of the photoelastic effect of cubic crystals,” Phys. Rev. 47, 947–957 (1935).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. E. Schenker and W. G. Oldham, “Ultraviolet-induced densification in fused silica,” J. Appl. Phys. 82, 1065–1071 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. F. Kherbouche and B. Poumellec, “UV-induced stress field during Bragg grating inscription in optical fibres,” J. Opt. A 3, 429–439 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  10. F. Kherbouche, “Modifications chimiques et des contraintes mécaniques induites par l’irradiation UV des fibres optiques Germanosilicates” thesis No. 6016 (Université Paris XI Orsay, 1999).

2001

F. Kherbouche and B. Poumellec, “UV-induced stress field during Bragg grating inscription in optical fibres,” J. Opt. A 3, 429–439 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

1997

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, and E. Delevaque, “Densification involved in the UV-based photosensitivity of silica glasses and optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1329–1342 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Schenker and W. G. Oldham, “Ultraviolet-induced densification in fused silica,” J. Appl. Phys. 82, 1065–1071 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

B. Poumellec, P. Niay, M. Douay, and J. F. Bayon, “The UV-induced refractive index grating in Ge–SiO2 performs: additional cw experiments and the macroscopic origin of the change in index,” J. Phys. D 29, 1842–1856 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

J. Albert, B. Malo, K. O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and S. Theriault, “Comparison of one-photon and two-photon effects in the photosensitivity of germanium doped silica optical fibers exposed to intense ArF excimer laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3529–3531 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1937

H. Mueller, “The theory of elasticity,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 21, 27–33 (1937).
[CrossRef]

1935

H. Mueller, “Theory of the photoelastic effect of cubic crystals,” Phys. Rev. 47, 947–957 (1935).
[CrossRef]

Albert, J.

J. Albert, B. Malo, K. O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and S. Theriault, “Comparison of one-photon and two-photon effects in the photosensitivity of germanium doped silica optical fibers exposed to intense ArF excimer laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3529–3531 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Allan, D. C.

Bayon, J. F.

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, and E. Delevaque, “Densification involved in the UV-based photosensitivity of silica glasses and optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1329–1342 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Poumellec, P. Niay, M. Douay, and J. F. Bayon, “The UV-induced refractive index grating in Ge–SiO2 performs: additional cw experiments and the macroscopic origin of the change in index,” J. Phys. D 29, 1842–1856 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bernage, P.

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, and E. Delevaque, “Densification involved in the UV-based photosensitivity of silica glasses and optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1329–1342 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bilodeau, F.

J. Albert, B. Malo, K. O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and S. Theriault, “Comparison of one-photon and two-photon effects in the photosensitivity of germanium doped silica optical fibers exposed to intense ArF excimer laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3529–3531 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Borrelli, N. F.

Cordier, P.

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, and E. Delevaque, “Densification involved in the UV-based photosensitivity of silica glasses and optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1329–1342 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Delevaque, E.

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, and E. Delevaque, “Densification involved in the UV-based photosensitivity of silica glasses and optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1329–1342 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dong, L.

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, and E. Delevaque, “Densification involved in the UV-based photosensitivity of silica glasses and optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1329–1342 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Douay, M.

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, and E. Delevaque, “Densification involved in the UV-based photosensitivity of silica glasses and optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1329–1342 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Poumellec, P. Niay, M. Douay, and J. F. Bayon, “The UV-induced refractive index grating in Ge–SiO2 performs: additional cw experiments and the macroscopic origin of the change in index,” J. Phys. D 29, 1842–1856 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hill, K. O.

J. Albert, B. Malo, K. O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and S. Theriault, “Comparison of one-photon and two-photon effects in the photosensitivity of germanium doped silica optical fibers exposed to intense ArF excimer laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3529–3531 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, D. C.

J. Albert, B. Malo, K. O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and S. Theriault, “Comparison of one-photon and two-photon effects in the photosensitivity of germanium doped silica optical fibers exposed to intense ArF excimer laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3529–3531 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kherbouche, F.

F. Kherbouche and B. Poumellec, “UV-induced stress field during Bragg grating inscription in optical fibres,” J. Opt. A 3, 429–439 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Malo, B.

J. Albert, B. Malo, K. O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and S. Theriault, “Comparison of one-photon and two-photon effects in the photosensitivity of germanium doped silica optical fibers exposed to intense ArF excimer laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3529–3531 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Modavis, R. A.

Mueller, H.

H. Mueller, “The theory of elasticity,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 21, 27–33 (1937).
[CrossRef]

H. Mueller, “Theory of the photoelastic effect of cubic crystals,” Phys. Rev. 47, 947–957 (1935).
[CrossRef]

Niay, P.

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, and E. Delevaque, “Densification involved in the UV-based photosensitivity of silica glasses and optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1329–1342 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Poumellec, P. Niay, M. Douay, and J. F. Bayon, “The UV-induced refractive index grating in Ge–SiO2 performs: additional cw experiments and the macroscopic origin of the change in index,” J. Phys. D 29, 1842–1856 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Oldham, W. G.

R. E. Schenker and W. G. Oldham, “Ultraviolet-induced densification in fused silica,” J. Appl. Phys. 82, 1065–1071 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Poignant, H.

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, and E. Delevaque, “Densification involved in the UV-based photosensitivity of silica glasses and optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1329–1342 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Poumellec, B.

F. Kherbouche and B. Poumellec, “UV-induced stress field during Bragg grating inscription in optical fibres,” J. Opt. A 3, 429–439 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, and E. Delevaque, “Densification involved in the UV-based photosensitivity of silica glasses and optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1329–1342 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Poumellec, P. Niay, M. Douay, and J. F. Bayon, “The UV-induced refractive index grating in Ge–SiO2 performs: additional cw experiments and the macroscopic origin of the change in index,” J. Phys. D 29, 1842–1856 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Schenker, R. E.

R. E. Schenker and W. G. Oldham, “Ultraviolet-induced densification in fused silica,” J. Appl. Phys. 82, 1065–1071 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Taunay, T.

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, and E. Delevaque, “Densification involved in the UV-based photosensitivity of silica glasses and optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1329–1342 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Theriault, S.

J. Albert, B. Malo, K. O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and S. Theriault, “Comparison of one-photon and two-photon effects in the photosensitivity of germanium doped silica optical fibers exposed to intense ArF excimer laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3529–3531 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Xie, W. X.

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, and E. Delevaque, “Densification involved in the UV-based photosensitivity of silica glasses and optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1329–1342 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. Albert, B. Malo, K. O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and S. Theriault, “Comparison of one-photon and two-photon effects in the photosensitivity of germanium doped silica optical fibers exposed to intense ArF excimer laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3529–3531 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Ceram. Soc.

H. Mueller, “The theory of elasticity,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 21, 27–33 (1937).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

R. E. Schenker and W. G. Oldham, “Ultraviolet-induced densification in fused silica,” J. Appl. Phys. 82, 1065–1071 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, and E. Delevaque, “Densification involved in the UV-based photosensitivity of silica glasses and optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1329–1342 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A

F. Kherbouche and B. Poumellec, “UV-induced stress field during Bragg grating inscription in optical fibres,” J. Opt. A 3, 429–439 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Phys. D

B. Poumellec, P. Niay, M. Douay, and J. F. Bayon, “The UV-induced refractive index grating in Ge–SiO2 performs: additional cw experiments and the macroscopic origin of the change in index,” J. Phys. D 29, 1842–1856 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev.

H. Mueller, “Theory of the photoelastic effect of cubic crystals,” Phys. Rev. 47, 947–957 (1935).
[CrossRef]

Other

F. Kherbouche, “Modifications chimiques et des contraintes mécaniques induites par l’irradiation UV des fibres optiques Germanosilicates” thesis No. 6016 (Université Paris XI Orsay, 1999).

B. Leconte, “Contribution à l’étude de la photosensibilité des fibres sous l’effet d’une insolation par un laser à ArF” thesis, No. 2379 (University of Lille, Lille, France, 1998).

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Figures (1)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Topography of corrugations at the surface of a preform slice (SiO28 wt%GeO2) after the UV writing of a Bragg grating. Experimental conditions, cw laser at 244 nm, irradiance ≈18 W/cm2, accumulated fluence ≈60 kJ/cm2. The refractive index modulation was determined by measuring the diffraction efficiency of the grating, Δnmod8.8×10-4.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

δVV=-Δρρu+1-2vE(σxx+σyy+σzz).
Δnxx=-(n2-1)(n2+2)6n(1+Ω)-Δρρu-n32×p111+vEσxx-v1+v(σxx+σyy+σzz)+p121+vEσyy+σzz-2v1+v×(σxx+σyy+σzz).
Δn=-1.33-Δρ3ρu-1.011-2vE(σxx+σyy+σzz).

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