Abstract

Measurements of the absorption and emission spectra and the characteristics of the luminescent decay of the  4I11/2 and  4I13/2 energy levels of Er3+ are presented for Er3+ singly doped and Er3+, Pr3+-codoped PbOBi2O3Ga2O3 (PBG) glasses. The absorption cross sections were determined after accurate measurement both of glass component concentrations by use of electron probe analysis and of glass density. The characteristics of the luminescent decays were determined after direct pumping of the  4I11/2 and  4I13/2 energy levels of singly doped Er3+ PBG glass with a tunable pulsed optical parametric oscillator for calculation of the macroscopic rate parameters (WETU) for energy transfer upconversion (ETU) for these energy levels. The values for WETU relevant to the  4I11/2 energy level were measured to be greater than the WETU values relevant to the  4I13/2 energy level within the range of Er3+ concentrations studied. The macroscopic rate parameter (WEr-Pr) for energy transfer to the Pr3+ deactivator ion from the  4I13/2 energy level was also determined for a range of Pr3+ concentrations and for two fixed Er3+ concentrations. From a measurement of the energy-level lifetimes it was established that the rate of energy transfer from the  4I13/2 energy level to Pr3+ is greater than the corresponding rate of energy transfer from the  4I11/2 level to both the Pr3+ ion and the OH impurity. The overall results suggest that, to maximize the population inversion on the  4I11/24I13/23 µm transition, deactivation of the  4I13/2 level by way of small amounts of Pr3+ will be effective.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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  41. M. Mortier, Y. D. Huang, and F. Auzel, “Crystal field analysis of Er3+-doped glasses: germanate, silicate and ZBLAN,” J. Alloys Compd. 300–301, 407–413 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  48. C. C. Ye, D. W. Hewak, M. Hempstead, B. N. Samson, and D. N. Payne, “Spectral properties of Er3+-doped gallium lanthanum sulphide glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 208, 56–63 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  49. W. L. Barnes, R. I. Laming, E. J. Tarbox, and P. R. Morkel, “Absorption and emission cross section of Er3+ doped silica fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1004–1010 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  50. A. Jha, S. Shen, and M. Naftaly, “Structural origin of spectral broadening of 1.5-μm emission in Er3+-doped tellurite glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 6215–6227 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  51. D. L. Dexter, “A theory of sensitized luminescence in solids,” J. Chem. Soc. 21, 836–850 (1953).
  52. A. Brenier, C. Pedrini, B. Moine, J. L. Adam, and C. Pledel, “Fluorescence mechanisms in Tm3+ singly doped and Tm3+, Ho3+ doubly doped indium-based fluoride glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 41, 5364–5371 (1990).
    [CrossRef]

2002 (1)

D. Coleman, P. Golding, T. A. King, and S. D. Jackson, “Spectroscopic and energy transfer parameters for Er3+-doped and Er3+, Pr3+-codoped GeGaS glasses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1982–1989 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

Y. D. Huang, M. Mortier, and F. Auzel, “Stark levels analysis for Er3+-doped oxide glasses: germanate and silicate,” Opt. Mater. 15, 243–260 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Zhang, H. Hu, and F. Lin, “Emission properties of highly doped Er3+ fluoroaluminate glass,” Mater. Lett. 47, 189–193 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (6)

R. Balda, J. Fernandez, M. Sanz, A. De Pablos, J. M. Fdez-Navarro, and J. Mugnier, “Laser spectroscopy of Nd3+ ions in GeO2–PbO–Bi2O3 glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 3384–3390 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Mortier, Y. D. Huang, and F. Auzel, “Crystal field analysis of Er3+-doped glasses: germanate, silicate and ZBLAN,” J. Alloys Compd. 300–301, 407–413 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. B. Shin, H. T. Lim, Y. G. Choi, Y. S. Kim, and J. Heo, “2.0 μm emission properties and energy transfer between Ho3+ and Tm3+ in PbO–Bi2O3–Ga2O3 glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 83, 787–791 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Pierce, S. D. Jackson, M. R. Dickinson, T. A. King, and P. Sloan, “Laser-tissue interaction with continuous wave 3 μm fiber laser: preliminary studies with soft tissue,” Lasers Surg. Med. 26, 491–495 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Golding, S. D. Jackson, T. A. King, and M. Pollnau, “Energy transfer processes in Er3+-doped and Er3+, Pr3+-codoped ZBLAN glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 856–864 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Jha, S. Shen, and M. Naftaly, “Structural origin of spectral broadening of 1.5-μm emission in Er3+-doped tellurite glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 6215–6227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (4)

S. D. Jackson, T. A. King, and M. Pollnau, “Diode pumped 1.7-W erbium fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1133–1134 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Srinivasan, J. Tafoya, and R. K. Jain, “High-power ‘watt-level’ cw operation of diode-pumped 2.7 μm fiber lasers using efficient cross-relaxation and energy transfer mechanisms,” Opt. Express 4, 490–495 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. K. Bogdanov, W. E. K. Gibbs, D. J. Booth, J. S. Javorniczky, P. J. Newman, and D. R. MacFarlane, “Energy exchange processes in Er3+-doped fluorozirconate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256&257, 288–293 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. G. Choi, K. H. Kim, and J. Heo, “Spectroscopic properties of and energy transfer in PbO–Bi2O3Ga2O3 glass doped with Er2O3,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 82, 2762–2768 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (4)

Y. G. Choi and J. Heo, “Influence of OH and Nd3+ concentrations on the lifetimes of the Nd3+:4F3/2 level in PbO–Bi2O3–Ga2O3 glasses,” Phys. Chem. Glasses 39, 311–317 (1998).

J. A. Cerri, I. M. G. Santos, E. Longo, E. R. Leite, R. M. Lebullenger, A. C. Heranades, and J. A. Varela, “Characteristics of PbO–GaO1.5–GaO1.5 glasses melted in SnO2 crucibles,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 81, 705–708 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Luthi, H. U. Gudel, M. P. Hehlen, and J. R. Quagliano, “Electronic energy-level structure, correlation crystal-field effects, and f–f transition intensities of Er3+ in Cs3Lu2Cl9,” Phys. Rev. B 57, 15, 229–15, 241 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. Ostroumov, T. Jensen, J.-P. Meyn, G. Huber, and M. A. Noginov, “Study of luminescence concentration quenching and energy transfer upconversion in Nd-doped LaSc3(BO3)4 and GdVO4 laser crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1052–1060 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (5)

H. Takebe, K. Yoshino, T. Murata, K. Morinaga, J. Hector, W. S. Brocklesby, D. W. Hewak, J. Wang, and D. N. Payne, “Spectroscopic properties of Nd3+ and Pr3+ in gallate glasses with low phonon energies,” Appl. Opt. 36, 5839–5843 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Zubenko, M. A. Noginov, V. A. Smirnov, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Different mechanisms of nonlinear quenching of luminescence,” Phys. Rev. B 55, 8881–8886 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Kramer, H. U. Gudel, and R. N. Schwartz, “Infrared-to-visible upconversion in LaCl3:1%Er3+: energy-level and line-strength calculations,” Phys. Rev. B 56, 13, 830–13, 840 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. G. Choi and J. Heo, “1.3-μm emission and multiphonon relaxation phenomena in PbO–Bi2O3–Ga2O3 glasses doped with rare-earths,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 217, 199–207 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Mori, Y. Ohishi, and S. Sudo, “Erbium-doped tellurite glass fiber laser and amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 33, 863–864 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

A. A. Kharlamov, R. M. Almeide, and J. Heo, “Vibrationalspectra and structure of heavy metal oxide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 202, 233–240 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Ye, D. W. Hewak, M. Hempstead, B. N. Samson, and D. N. Payne, “Spectral properties of Er3+-doped gallium lanthanum sulphide glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 208, 56–63 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. Schweizer, D. W. Hewak, B. N. Samson, and D. N. Payne, “Spectroscopic data of the 1.8-, 2.9-, and 4.3-μm transitions in dysprosium-doped gallium lanthanum sulfide glass,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1594–1602 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (2)

J. Heo, Y. B. Shin, and J. N. Jang, “Spectroscopic analysis of Tm3+ in PbO–Bi2O3–Ga2O3 glass,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4284–4289 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. B. Shin, J. N. Jang, and J. Heo, “Mid-infrared light emission characteristics of Ho3+-doped chalcogenide and heavy-metal oxide glasses,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 27, 379–386 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (8)

M. Pollnau, Th. Graf, J. E. Balmer, W. Luthy, and H. P. Weber, “Explanation of the cw operation of the Er3+ 3-μm crystal laser,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 3990–3996 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. H. Huang, C. S. Ray, and D. E. Day, “Color and selected properties of PbO–BiO1.5–GaO1.5 glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 77, 1017–1024 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Lapp and W. H. Dumbaugh, “Gallium oxide glasses,” Key Eng. Mater. 94–95, 257–178 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Wang, E. Snitzer, E. M. Vogel, and G. H. Sigel, Jr., “1.47, 1.88 and 2.8 μm emissions of Tm3+ and Tm3+–Ho3+-codoped tellurite glasses,” J. Lumin. 60–61, 145–149 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Janewicz, J. Wasylak, and E. Czerwosz, “Raman investigation of PbO–BiO1.5-GaO1.5 glasses,” Phys. Chem. Glasses 353, 169–173 (1994).

H. Lin, L. W. Decent, D. E. Day, and J. O. Stoffer, “IR transmission and corrosion of lead-bismuth gallate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 171, 299–303 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Sumida and T. Y. Fan, “Effect of radiation trapping on fluorescence lifetime and emission cross section measurements in solid-state laser media,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1343–1345 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Wang, D. P. Machewirth, F. Wu, E. Snitzer, and E. M. Vogel, “Neodymium-doped tellurite single-mode fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1448–1449 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (2)

V. Lupei, S. Georgesecu, and V. Florea, “On the dynamics of population inversion for 3 μm Er3+ lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 426–434 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Gruber, J. R. Quagliano, M. F. Reid, F. S. Richardson, M. E. Hills, M. D. Seltzer, S. B. Stevens, C. A. Morrison, and T. H. Allik, “Energy levels and correlation crystal-field effects in Er3+-doped garnets,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 15, 561–15, 573 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (3)

W. H. Dumbaugh and J. C. Lapp, “Heavy-metal oxide glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 75, 2315–2325 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Z. Mazurak and J. B. Gruber, “Energy levels and crystal field parameters of Nd3+ and Er3+ in LiRP4O12 single crystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 4, 3453–3458 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Knowles and H. P. Jenssen, “Upconversion versus Pr-deactivation for efficient 3 μm laser operation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1197–1208 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (4)

R. S. Quimby, W. J. Miniscalco, and B. Thomson, “Excited state absorption in erbium doped glass,” in Fiber Laser Source and Amplifiers III, M. J. Digonnet and E. Snitzer, eds., Proc. SPIE 1581, 72–79 (1991).
[CrossRef]

F. Miyaji and S. Sakka, “Structure of PbO–Bi2O3–Ga2O3 glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 134, 77–85 (1991).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Barnes, R. I. Laming, E. J. Tarbox, and P. R. Morkel, “Absorption and emission cross section of Er3+ doped silica fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1004–1010 (1991).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Miniscalco and R. S. Quimby, “General procedure for the analysis of Er3+ cross sections,” Opt. Lett. 16, 258–260 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

A. Brenier, C. Pedrini, B. Moine, J. L. Adam, and C. Pledel, “Fluorescence mechanisms in Tm3+ singly doped and Tm3+, Ho3+ doubly doped indium-based fluoride glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 41, 5364–5371 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

D. W. Hall, M. A. Newhouse, N. F. Borrelli, W. H. Dumbaugh, and D. L. Weidman, “Nonlinear optical susceptibilities of high-index glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1293–1295 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

W. H. Dumbaugh, “Heavy metal oxide glasses containing Bi2O3,” Phys. Chem. Glasses 27, 119–123 (1986).

1978 (1)

W. H. Dumbaugh, “Lead bismuthate glasses,” Phys. Chem. Glasses 19, 121–125 (1978).

1964 (1)

D. E. McCumber, “Theory of phonon-terminated optical masers,” Phys. Rev. 134, 299–306 (1964).
[CrossRef]

1953 (1)

D. L. Dexter, “A theory of sensitized luminescence in solids,” J. Chem. Soc. 21, 836–850 (1953).

Adam, J. L.

A. Brenier, C. Pedrini, B. Moine, J. L. Adam, and C. Pledel, “Fluorescence mechanisms in Tm3+ singly doped and Tm3+, Ho3+ doubly doped indium-based fluoride glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 41, 5364–5371 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Allik, T. H.

J. B. Gruber, J. R. Quagliano, M. F. Reid, F. S. Richardson, M. E. Hills, M. D. Seltzer, S. B. Stevens, C. A. Morrison, and T. H. Allik, “Energy levels and correlation crystal-field effects in Er3+-doped garnets,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 15, 561–15, 573 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Almeide, R. M.

A. A. Kharlamov, R. M. Almeide, and J. Heo, “Vibrationalspectra and structure of heavy metal oxide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 202, 233–240 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Auzel, F.

Y. D. Huang, M. Mortier, and F. Auzel, “Stark levels analysis for Er3+-doped oxide glasses: germanate and silicate,” Opt. Mater. 15, 243–260 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Mortier, Y. D. Huang, and F. Auzel, “Crystal field analysis of Er3+-doped glasses: germanate, silicate and ZBLAN,” J. Alloys Compd. 300–301, 407–413 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Balda, R.

R. Balda, J. Fernandez, M. Sanz, A. De Pablos, J. M. Fdez-Navarro, and J. Mugnier, “Laser spectroscopy of Nd3+ ions in GeO2–PbO–Bi2O3 glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 3384–3390 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Balmer, J. E.

M. Pollnau, Th. Graf, J. E. Balmer, W. Luthy, and H. P. Weber, “Explanation of the cw operation of the Er3+ 3-μm crystal laser,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 3990–3996 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, R. I. Laming, E. J. Tarbox, and P. R. Morkel, “Absorption and emission cross section of Er3+ doped silica fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1004–1010 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Bogdanov, V. K.

V. K. Bogdanov, W. E. K. Gibbs, D. J. Booth, J. S. Javorniczky, P. J. Newman, and D. R. MacFarlane, “Energy exchange processes in Er3+-doped fluorozirconate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256&257, 288–293 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Booth, D. J.

V. K. Bogdanov, W. E. K. Gibbs, D. J. Booth, J. S. Javorniczky, P. J. Newman, and D. R. MacFarlane, “Energy exchange processes in Er3+-doped fluorozirconate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256&257, 288–293 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Borrelli, N. F.

D. W. Hall, M. A. Newhouse, N. F. Borrelli, W. H. Dumbaugh, and D. L. Weidman, “Nonlinear optical susceptibilities of high-index glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1293–1295 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Brenier, A.

A. Brenier, C. Pedrini, B. Moine, J. L. Adam, and C. Pledel, “Fluorescence mechanisms in Tm3+ singly doped and Tm3+, Ho3+ doubly doped indium-based fluoride glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 41, 5364–5371 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Brocklesby, W. S.

Cerri, J. A.

J. A. Cerri, I. M. G. Santos, E. Longo, E. R. Leite, R. M. Lebullenger, A. C. Heranades, and J. A. Varela, “Characteristics of PbO–GaO1.5–GaO1.5 glasses melted in SnO2 crucibles,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 81, 705–708 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Choi, Y. G.

Y. B. Shin, H. T. Lim, Y. G. Choi, Y. S. Kim, and J. Heo, “2.0 μm emission properties and energy transfer between Ho3+ and Tm3+ in PbO–Bi2O3–Ga2O3 glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 83, 787–791 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. G. Choi, K. H. Kim, and J. Heo, “Spectroscopic properties of and energy transfer in PbO–Bi2O3Ga2O3 glass doped with Er2O3,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 82, 2762–2768 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. G. Choi and J. Heo, “Influence of OH and Nd3+ concentrations on the lifetimes of the Nd3+:4F3/2 level in PbO–Bi2O3–Ga2O3 glasses,” Phys. Chem. Glasses 39, 311–317 (1998).

Y. G. Choi and J. Heo, “1.3-μm emission and multiphonon relaxation phenomena in PbO–Bi2O3–Ga2O3 glasses doped with rare-earths,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 217, 199–207 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Coleman, D.

D. Coleman, P. Golding, T. A. King, and S. D. Jackson, “Spectroscopic and energy transfer parameters for Er3+-doped and Er3+, Pr3+-codoped GeGaS glasses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1982–1989 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Czerwosz, E.

M. Janewicz, J. Wasylak, and E. Czerwosz, “Raman investigation of PbO–BiO1.5-GaO1.5 glasses,” Phys. Chem. Glasses 353, 169–173 (1994).

Day, D. E.

W. H. Huang, C. S. Ray, and D. E. Day, “Color and selected properties of PbO–BiO1.5–GaO1.5 glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 77, 1017–1024 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. Lin, L. W. Decent, D. E. Day, and J. O. Stoffer, “IR transmission and corrosion of lead-bismuth gallate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 171, 299–303 (1994).
[CrossRef]

De Pablos, A.

R. Balda, J. Fernandez, M. Sanz, A. De Pablos, J. M. Fdez-Navarro, and J. Mugnier, “Laser spectroscopy of Nd3+ ions in GeO2–PbO–Bi2O3 glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 3384–3390 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Decent, L. W.

H. Lin, L. W. Decent, D. E. Day, and J. O. Stoffer, “IR transmission and corrosion of lead-bismuth gallate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 171, 299–303 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Dexter, D. L.

D. L. Dexter, “A theory of sensitized luminescence in solids,” J. Chem. Soc. 21, 836–850 (1953).

Dickinson, M. R.

M. C. Pierce, S. D. Jackson, M. R. Dickinson, T. A. King, and P. Sloan, “Laser-tissue interaction with continuous wave 3 μm fiber laser: preliminary studies with soft tissue,” Lasers Surg. Med. 26, 491–495 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dumbaugh, W. H.

J. C. Lapp and W. H. Dumbaugh, “Gallium oxide glasses,” Key Eng. Mater. 94–95, 257–178 (1994).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Dumbaugh and J. C. Lapp, “Heavy-metal oxide glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 75, 2315–2325 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Hall, M. A. Newhouse, N. F. Borrelli, W. H. Dumbaugh, and D. L. Weidman, “Nonlinear optical susceptibilities of high-index glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1293–1295 (1989).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Dumbaugh, “Heavy metal oxide glasses containing Bi2O3,” Phys. Chem. Glasses 27, 119–123 (1986).

W. H. Dumbaugh, “Lead bismuthate glasses,” Phys. Chem. Glasses 19, 121–125 (1978).

Fan, T. Y.

Fdez-Navarro, J. M.

R. Balda, J. Fernandez, M. Sanz, A. De Pablos, J. M. Fdez-Navarro, and J. Mugnier, “Laser spectroscopy of Nd3+ ions in GeO2–PbO–Bi2O3 glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 3384–3390 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fernandez, J.

R. Balda, J. Fernandez, M. Sanz, A. De Pablos, J. M. Fdez-Navarro, and J. Mugnier, “Laser spectroscopy of Nd3+ ions in GeO2–PbO–Bi2O3 glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 3384–3390 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Florea, V.

V. Lupei, S. Georgesecu, and V. Florea, “On the dynamics of population inversion for 3 μm Er3+ lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 426–434 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Georgesecu, S.

V. Lupei, S. Georgesecu, and V. Florea, “On the dynamics of population inversion for 3 μm Er3+ lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 426–434 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gibbs, W. E. K.

V. K. Bogdanov, W. E. K. Gibbs, D. J. Booth, J. S. Javorniczky, P. J. Newman, and D. R. MacFarlane, “Energy exchange processes in Er3+-doped fluorozirconate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256&257, 288–293 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Golding, P.

D. Coleman, P. Golding, T. A. King, and S. D. Jackson, “Spectroscopic and energy transfer parameters for Er3+-doped and Er3+, Pr3+-codoped GeGaS glasses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1982–1989 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Golding, P. S.

P. S. Golding, S. D. Jackson, T. A. King, and M. Pollnau, “Energy transfer processes in Er3+-doped and Er3+, Pr3+-codoped ZBLAN glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 856–864 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Graf, Th.

M. Pollnau, Th. Graf, J. E. Balmer, W. Luthy, and H. P. Weber, “Explanation of the cw operation of the Er3+ 3-μm crystal laser,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 3990–3996 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gruber, J. B.

J. B. Gruber, J. R. Quagliano, M. F. Reid, F. S. Richardson, M. E. Hills, M. D. Seltzer, S. B. Stevens, C. A. Morrison, and T. H. Allik, “Energy levels and correlation crystal-field effects in Er3+-doped garnets,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 15, 561–15, 573 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Z. Mazurak and J. B. Gruber, “Energy levels and crystal field parameters of Nd3+ and Er3+ in LiRP4O12 single crystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 4, 3453–3458 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gudel, H. U.

S. R. Luthi, H. U. Gudel, M. P. Hehlen, and J. R. Quagliano, “Electronic energy-level structure, correlation crystal-field effects, and f–f transition intensities of Er3+ in Cs3Lu2Cl9,” Phys. Rev. B 57, 15, 229–15, 241 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Kramer, H. U. Gudel, and R. N. Schwartz, “Infrared-to-visible upconversion in LaCl3:1%Er3+: energy-level and line-strength calculations,” Phys. Rev. B 56, 13, 830–13, 840 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hall, D. W.

D. W. Hall, M. A. Newhouse, N. F. Borrelli, W. H. Dumbaugh, and D. L. Weidman, “Nonlinear optical susceptibilities of high-index glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1293–1295 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hector, J.

Hehlen, M. P.

S. R. Luthi, H. U. Gudel, M. P. Hehlen, and J. R. Quagliano, “Electronic energy-level structure, correlation crystal-field effects, and f–f transition intensities of Er3+ in Cs3Lu2Cl9,” Phys. Rev. B 57, 15, 229–15, 241 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hempstead, M.

C. C. Ye, D. W. Hewak, M. Hempstead, B. N. Samson, and D. N. Payne, “Spectral properties of Er3+-doped gallium lanthanum sulphide glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 208, 56–63 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Heo, J.

Y. B. Shin, H. T. Lim, Y. G. Choi, Y. S. Kim, and J. Heo, “2.0 μm emission properties and energy transfer between Ho3+ and Tm3+ in PbO–Bi2O3–Ga2O3 glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 83, 787–791 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. G. Choi, K. H. Kim, and J. Heo, “Spectroscopic properties of and energy transfer in PbO–Bi2O3Ga2O3 glass doped with Er2O3,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 82, 2762–2768 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. G. Choi and J. Heo, “Influence of OH and Nd3+ concentrations on the lifetimes of the Nd3+:4F3/2 level in PbO–Bi2O3–Ga2O3 glasses,” Phys. Chem. Glasses 39, 311–317 (1998).

Y. G. Choi and J. Heo, “1.3-μm emission and multiphonon relaxation phenomena in PbO–Bi2O3–Ga2O3 glasses doped with rare-earths,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 217, 199–207 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kharlamov, R. M. Almeide, and J. Heo, “Vibrationalspectra and structure of heavy metal oxide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 202, 233–240 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Heo, Y. B. Shin, and J. N. Jang, “Spectroscopic analysis of Tm3+ in PbO–Bi2O3–Ga2O3 glass,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4284–4289 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. B. Shin, J. N. Jang, and J. Heo, “Mid-infrared light emission characteristics of Ho3+-doped chalcogenide and heavy-metal oxide glasses,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 27, 379–386 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Heranades, A. C.

J. A. Cerri, I. M. G. Santos, E. Longo, E. R. Leite, R. M. Lebullenger, A. C. Heranades, and J. A. Varela, “Characteristics of PbO–GaO1.5–GaO1.5 glasses melted in SnO2 crucibles,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 81, 705–708 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hewak, D. W.

Hills, M. E.

J. B. Gruber, J. R. Quagliano, M. F. Reid, F. S. Richardson, M. E. Hills, M. D. Seltzer, S. B. Stevens, C. A. Morrison, and T. H. Allik, “Energy levels and correlation crystal-field effects in Er3+-doped garnets,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 15, 561–15, 573 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hu, H.

L. Zhang, H. Hu, and F. Lin, “Emission properties of highly doped Er3+ fluoroaluminate glass,” Mater. Lett. 47, 189–193 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Huang, W. H.

W. H. Huang, C. S. Ray, and D. E. Day, “Color and selected properties of PbO–BiO1.5–GaO1.5 glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 77, 1017–1024 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y. D.

Y. D. Huang, M. Mortier, and F. Auzel, “Stark levels analysis for Er3+-doped oxide glasses: germanate and silicate,” Opt. Mater. 15, 243–260 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Mortier, Y. D. Huang, and F. Auzel, “Crystal field analysis of Er3+-doped glasses: germanate, silicate and ZBLAN,” J. Alloys Compd. 300–301, 407–413 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Huber, G.

Jackson, S. D.

D. Coleman, P. Golding, T. A. King, and S. D. Jackson, “Spectroscopic and energy transfer parameters for Er3+-doped and Er3+, Pr3+-codoped GeGaS glasses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1982–1989 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Golding, S. D. Jackson, T. A. King, and M. Pollnau, “Energy transfer processes in Er3+-doped and Er3+, Pr3+-codoped ZBLAN glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 856–864 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Pierce, S. D. Jackson, M. R. Dickinson, T. A. King, and P. Sloan, “Laser-tissue interaction with continuous wave 3 μm fiber laser: preliminary studies with soft tissue,” Lasers Surg. Med. 26, 491–495 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Jackson, T. A. King, and M. Pollnau, “Diode pumped 1.7-W erbium fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1133–1134 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jain, R. K.

Janewicz, M.

M. Janewicz, J. Wasylak, and E. Czerwosz, “Raman investigation of PbO–BiO1.5-GaO1.5 glasses,” Phys. Chem. Glasses 353, 169–173 (1994).

Jang, J. N.

Y. B. Shin, J. N. Jang, and J. Heo, “Mid-infrared light emission characteristics of Ho3+-doped chalcogenide and heavy-metal oxide glasses,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 27, 379–386 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Heo, Y. B. Shin, and J. N. Jang, “Spectroscopic analysis of Tm3+ in PbO–Bi2O3–Ga2O3 glass,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4284–4289 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Javorniczky, J. S.

V. K. Bogdanov, W. E. K. Gibbs, D. J. Booth, J. S. Javorniczky, P. J. Newman, and D. R. MacFarlane, “Energy exchange processes in Er3+-doped fluorozirconate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256&257, 288–293 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jensen, T.

Jenssen, H. P.

D. S. Knowles and H. P. Jenssen, “Upconversion versus Pr-deactivation for efficient 3 μm laser operation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1197–1208 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Jha, A.

A. Jha, S. Shen, and M. Naftaly, “Structural origin of spectral broadening of 1.5-μm emission in Er3+-doped tellurite glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 6215–6227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kharlamov, A. A.

A. A. Kharlamov, R. M. Almeide, and J. Heo, “Vibrationalspectra and structure of heavy metal oxide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 202, 233–240 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. H.

Y. G. Choi, K. H. Kim, and J. Heo, “Spectroscopic properties of and energy transfer in PbO–Bi2O3Ga2O3 glass doped with Er2O3,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 82, 2762–2768 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y. S.

Y. B. Shin, H. T. Lim, Y. G. Choi, Y. S. Kim, and J. Heo, “2.0 μm emission properties and energy transfer between Ho3+ and Tm3+ in PbO–Bi2O3–Ga2O3 glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 83, 787–791 (2000).
[CrossRef]

King, T. A.

D. Coleman, P. Golding, T. A. King, and S. D. Jackson, “Spectroscopic and energy transfer parameters for Er3+-doped and Er3+, Pr3+-codoped GeGaS glasses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1982–1989 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Golding, S. D. Jackson, T. A. King, and M. Pollnau, “Energy transfer processes in Er3+-doped and Er3+, Pr3+-codoped ZBLAN glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 856–864 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Pierce, S. D. Jackson, M. R. Dickinson, T. A. King, and P. Sloan, “Laser-tissue interaction with continuous wave 3 μm fiber laser: preliminary studies with soft tissue,” Lasers Surg. Med. 26, 491–495 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Jackson, T. A. King, and M. Pollnau, “Diode pumped 1.7-W erbium fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1133–1134 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Knowles, D. S.

D. S. Knowles and H. P. Jenssen, “Upconversion versus Pr-deactivation for efficient 3 μm laser operation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1197–1208 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kramer, K. W.

K. W. Kramer, H. U. Gudel, and R. N. Schwartz, “Infrared-to-visible upconversion in LaCl3:1%Er3+: energy-level and line-strength calculations,” Phys. Rev. B 56, 13, 830–13, 840 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Laming, R. I.

W. L. Barnes, R. I. Laming, E. J. Tarbox, and P. R. Morkel, “Absorption and emission cross section of Er3+ doped silica fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1004–1010 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lapp, J. C.

J. C. Lapp and W. H. Dumbaugh, “Gallium oxide glasses,” Key Eng. Mater. 94–95, 257–178 (1994).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Dumbaugh and J. C. Lapp, “Heavy-metal oxide glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 75, 2315–2325 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lebullenger, R. M.

J. A. Cerri, I. M. G. Santos, E. Longo, E. R. Leite, R. M. Lebullenger, A. C. Heranades, and J. A. Varela, “Characteristics of PbO–GaO1.5–GaO1.5 glasses melted in SnO2 crucibles,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 81, 705–708 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Leite, E. R.

J. A. Cerri, I. M. G. Santos, E. Longo, E. R. Leite, R. M. Lebullenger, A. C. Heranades, and J. A. Varela, “Characteristics of PbO–GaO1.5–GaO1.5 glasses melted in SnO2 crucibles,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 81, 705–708 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lim, H. T.

Y. B. Shin, H. T. Lim, Y. G. Choi, Y. S. Kim, and J. Heo, “2.0 μm emission properties and energy transfer between Ho3+ and Tm3+ in PbO–Bi2O3–Ga2O3 glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 83, 787–791 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lin, F.

L. Zhang, H. Hu, and F. Lin, “Emission properties of highly doped Er3+ fluoroaluminate glass,” Mater. Lett. 47, 189–193 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lin, H.

H. Lin, L. W. Decent, D. E. Day, and J. O. Stoffer, “IR transmission and corrosion of lead-bismuth gallate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 171, 299–303 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Longo, E.

J. A. Cerri, I. M. G. Santos, E. Longo, E. R. Leite, R. M. Lebullenger, A. C. Heranades, and J. A. Varela, “Characteristics of PbO–GaO1.5–GaO1.5 glasses melted in SnO2 crucibles,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 81, 705–708 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lupei, V.

V. Lupei, S. Georgesecu, and V. Florea, “On the dynamics of population inversion for 3 μm Er3+ lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 426–434 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Luthi, S. R.

S. R. Luthi, H. U. Gudel, M. P. Hehlen, and J. R. Quagliano, “Electronic energy-level structure, correlation crystal-field effects, and f–f transition intensities of Er3+ in Cs3Lu2Cl9,” Phys. Rev. B 57, 15, 229–15, 241 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Luthy, W.

M. Pollnau, Th. Graf, J. E. Balmer, W. Luthy, and H. P. Weber, “Explanation of the cw operation of the Er3+ 3-μm crystal laser,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 3990–3996 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

MacFarlane, D. R.

V. K. Bogdanov, W. E. K. Gibbs, D. J. Booth, J. S. Javorniczky, P. J. Newman, and D. R. MacFarlane, “Energy exchange processes in Er3+-doped fluorozirconate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256&257, 288–293 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Machewirth, D. P.

Mazurak, Z.

Z. Mazurak and J. B. Gruber, “Energy levels and crystal field parameters of Nd3+ and Er3+ in LiRP4O12 single crystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 4, 3453–3458 (1992).
[CrossRef]

McCumber, D. E.

D. E. McCumber, “Theory of phonon-terminated optical masers,” Phys. Rev. 134, 299–306 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Meyn, J.-P.

Miniscalco, W. J.

W. J. Miniscalco and R. S. Quimby, “General procedure for the analysis of Er3+ cross sections,” Opt. Lett. 16, 258–260 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. S. Quimby, W. J. Miniscalco, and B. Thomson, “Excited state absorption in erbium doped glass,” in Fiber Laser Source and Amplifiers III, M. J. Digonnet and E. Snitzer, eds., Proc. SPIE 1581, 72–79 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Miyaji, F.

F. Miyaji and S. Sakka, “Structure of PbO–Bi2O3–Ga2O3 glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 134, 77–85 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Moine, B.

A. Brenier, C. Pedrini, B. Moine, J. L. Adam, and C. Pledel, “Fluorescence mechanisms in Tm3+ singly doped and Tm3+, Ho3+ doubly doped indium-based fluoride glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 41, 5364–5371 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Mori, A.

A. Mori, Y. Ohishi, and S. Sudo, “Erbium-doped tellurite glass fiber laser and amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 33, 863–864 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Morinaga, K.

Morkel, P. R.

W. L. Barnes, R. I. Laming, E. J. Tarbox, and P. R. Morkel, “Absorption and emission cross section of Er3+ doped silica fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1004–1010 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Morrison, C. A.

J. B. Gruber, J. R. Quagliano, M. F. Reid, F. S. Richardson, M. E. Hills, M. D. Seltzer, S. B. Stevens, C. A. Morrison, and T. H. Allik, “Energy levels and correlation crystal-field effects in Er3+-doped garnets,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 15, 561–15, 573 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mortier, M.

Y. D. Huang, M. Mortier, and F. Auzel, “Stark levels analysis for Er3+-doped oxide glasses: germanate and silicate,” Opt. Mater. 15, 243–260 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Mortier, Y. D. Huang, and F. Auzel, “Crystal field analysis of Er3+-doped glasses: germanate, silicate and ZBLAN,” J. Alloys Compd. 300–301, 407–413 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mugnier, J.

R. Balda, J. Fernandez, M. Sanz, A. De Pablos, J. M. Fdez-Navarro, and J. Mugnier, “Laser spectroscopy of Nd3+ ions in GeO2–PbO–Bi2O3 glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 3384–3390 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Murata, T.

Naftaly, M.

A. Jha, S. Shen, and M. Naftaly, “Structural origin of spectral broadening of 1.5-μm emission in Er3+-doped tellurite glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 6215–6227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Newhouse, M. A.

D. W. Hall, M. A. Newhouse, N. F. Borrelli, W. H. Dumbaugh, and D. L. Weidman, “Nonlinear optical susceptibilities of high-index glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1293–1295 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Newman, P. J.

V. K. Bogdanov, W. E. K. Gibbs, D. J. Booth, J. S. Javorniczky, P. J. Newman, and D. R. MacFarlane, “Energy exchange processes in Er3+-doped fluorozirconate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256&257, 288–293 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Noginov, M. A.

Ohishi, Y.

A. Mori, Y. Ohishi, and S. Sudo, “Erbium-doped tellurite glass fiber laser and amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 33, 863–864 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ostroumov, V.

Payne, D. N.

Pedrini, C.

A. Brenier, C. Pedrini, B. Moine, J. L. Adam, and C. Pledel, “Fluorescence mechanisms in Tm3+ singly doped and Tm3+, Ho3+ doubly doped indium-based fluoride glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 41, 5364–5371 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Pierce, M. C.

M. C. Pierce, S. D. Jackson, M. R. Dickinson, T. A. King, and P. Sloan, “Laser-tissue interaction with continuous wave 3 μm fiber laser: preliminary studies with soft tissue,” Lasers Surg. Med. 26, 491–495 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pledel, C.

A. Brenier, C. Pedrini, B. Moine, J. L. Adam, and C. Pledel, “Fluorescence mechanisms in Tm3+ singly doped and Tm3+, Ho3+ doubly doped indium-based fluoride glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 41, 5364–5371 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Pollnau, M.

P. S. Golding, S. D. Jackson, T. A. King, and M. Pollnau, “Energy transfer processes in Er3+-doped and Er3+, Pr3+-codoped ZBLAN glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 856–864 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Jackson, T. A. King, and M. Pollnau, “Diode pumped 1.7-W erbium fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1133–1134 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Pollnau, Th. Graf, J. E. Balmer, W. Luthy, and H. P. Weber, “Explanation of the cw operation of the Er3+ 3-μm crystal laser,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 3990–3996 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quagliano, J. R.

S. R. Luthi, H. U. Gudel, M. P. Hehlen, and J. R. Quagliano, “Electronic energy-level structure, correlation crystal-field effects, and f–f transition intensities of Er3+ in Cs3Lu2Cl9,” Phys. Rev. B 57, 15, 229–15, 241 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Gruber, J. R. Quagliano, M. F. Reid, F. S. Richardson, M. E. Hills, M. D. Seltzer, S. B. Stevens, C. A. Morrison, and T. H. Allik, “Energy levels and correlation crystal-field effects in Er3+-doped garnets,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 15, 561–15, 573 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Quimby, R. S.

R. S. Quimby, W. J. Miniscalco, and B. Thomson, “Excited state absorption in erbium doped glass,” in Fiber Laser Source and Amplifiers III, M. J. Digonnet and E. Snitzer, eds., Proc. SPIE 1581, 72–79 (1991).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Miniscalco and R. S. Quimby, “General procedure for the analysis of Er3+ cross sections,” Opt. Lett. 16, 258–260 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ray, C. S.

W. H. Huang, C. S. Ray, and D. E. Day, “Color and selected properties of PbO–BiO1.5–GaO1.5 glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 77, 1017–1024 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Reid, M. F.

J. B. Gruber, J. R. Quagliano, M. F. Reid, F. S. Richardson, M. E. Hills, M. D. Seltzer, S. B. Stevens, C. A. Morrison, and T. H. Allik, “Energy levels and correlation crystal-field effects in Er3+-doped garnets,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 15, 561–15, 573 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, F. S.

J. B. Gruber, J. R. Quagliano, M. F. Reid, F. S. Richardson, M. E. Hills, M. D. Seltzer, S. B. Stevens, C. A. Morrison, and T. H. Allik, “Energy levels and correlation crystal-field effects in Er3+-doped garnets,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 15, 561–15, 573 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sakka, S.

F. Miyaji and S. Sakka, “Structure of PbO–Bi2O3–Ga2O3 glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 134, 77–85 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Samson, B. N.

C. C. Ye, D. W. Hewak, M. Hempstead, B. N. Samson, and D. N. Payne, “Spectral properties of Er3+-doped gallium lanthanum sulphide glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 208, 56–63 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. Schweizer, D. W. Hewak, B. N. Samson, and D. N. Payne, “Spectroscopic data of the 1.8-, 2.9-, and 4.3-μm transitions in dysprosium-doped gallium lanthanum sulfide glass,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1594–1602 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Santos, I. M. G.

J. A. Cerri, I. M. G. Santos, E. Longo, E. R. Leite, R. M. Lebullenger, A. C. Heranades, and J. A. Varela, “Characteristics of PbO–GaO1.5–GaO1.5 glasses melted in SnO2 crucibles,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 81, 705–708 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sanz, M.

R. Balda, J. Fernandez, M. Sanz, A. De Pablos, J. M. Fdez-Navarro, and J. Mugnier, “Laser spectroscopy of Nd3+ ions in GeO2–PbO–Bi2O3 glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 3384–3390 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schwartz, R. N.

K. W. Kramer, H. U. Gudel, and R. N. Schwartz, “Infrared-to-visible upconversion in LaCl3:1%Er3+: energy-level and line-strength calculations,” Phys. Rev. B 56, 13, 830–13, 840 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schweizer, T.

Seltzer, M. D.

J. B. Gruber, J. R. Quagliano, M. F. Reid, F. S. Richardson, M. E. Hills, M. D. Seltzer, S. B. Stevens, C. A. Morrison, and T. H. Allik, “Energy levels and correlation crystal-field effects in Er3+-doped garnets,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 15, 561–15, 573 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Shcherbakov, I. A.

D. A. Zubenko, M. A. Noginov, V. A. Smirnov, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Different mechanisms of nonlinear quenching of luminescence,” Phys. Rev. B 55, 8881–8886 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shen, S.

A. Jha, S. Shen, and M. Naftaly, “Structural origin of spectral broadening of 1.5-μm emission in Er3+-doped tellurite glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 6215–6227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shin, Y. B.

Y. B. Shin, H. T. Lim, Y. G. Choi, Y. S. Kim, and J. Heo, “2.0 μm emission properties and energy transfer between Ho3+ and Tm3+ in PbO–Bi2O3–Ga2O3 glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 83, 787–791 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. B. Shin, J. N. Jang, and J. Heo, “Mid-infrared light emission characteristics of Ho3+-doped chalcogenide and heavy-metal oxide glasses,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 27, 379–386 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Heo, Y. B. Shin, and J. N. Jang, “Spectroscopic analysis of Tm3+ in PbO–Bi2O3–Ga2O3 glass,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4284–4289 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sigel Jr., G. H.

J. S. Wang, E. Snitzer, E. M. Vogel, and G. H. Sigel, Jr., “1.47, 1.88 and 2.8 μm emissions of Tm3+ and Tm3+–Ho3+-codoped tellurite glasses,” J. Lumin. 60–61, 145–149 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sloan, P.

M. C. Pierce, S. D. Jackson, M. R. Dickinson, T. A. King, and P. Sloan, “Laser-tissue interaction with continuous wave 3 μm fiber laser: preliminary studies with soft tissue,” Lasers Surg. Med. 26, 491–495 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Smirnov, V. A.

D. A. Zubenko, M. A. Noginov, V. A. Smirnov, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Different mechanisms of nonlinear quenching of luminescence,” Phys. Rev. B 55, 8881–8886 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Snitzer, E.

J. S. Wang, E. Snitzer, E. M. Vogel, and G. H. Sigel, Jr., “1.47, 1.88 and 2.8 μm emissions of Tm3+ and Tm3+–Ho3+-codoped tellurite glasses,” J. Lumin. 60–61, 145–149 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Wang, D. P. Machewirth, F. Wu, E. Snitzer, and E. M. Vogel, “Neodymium-doped tellurite single-mode fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1448–1449 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srinivasan, B.

Stevens, S. B.

J. B. Gruber, J. R. Quagliano, M. F. Reid, F. S. Richardson, M. E. Hills, M. D. Seltzer, S. B. Stevens, C. A. Morrison, and T. H. Allik, “Energy levels and correlation crystal-field effects in Er3+-doped garnets,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 15, 561–15, 573 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Stoffer, J. O.

H. Lin, L. W. Decent, D. E. Day, and J. O. Stoffer, “IR transmission and corrosion of lead-bismuth gallate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 171, 299–303 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sudo, S.

A. Mori, Y. Ohishi, and S. Sudo, “Erbium-doped tellurite glass fiber laser and amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 33, 863–864 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sumida, D. S.

Tafoya, J.

Takebe, H.

Tarbox, E. J.

W. L. Barnes, R. I. Laming, E. J. Tarbox, and P. R. Morkel, “Absorption and emission cross section of Er3+ doped silica fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1004–1010 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Thomson, B.

R. S. Quimby, W. J. Miniscalco, and B. Thomson, “Excited state absorption in erbium doped glass,” in Fiber Laser Source and Amplifiers III, M. J. Digonnet and E. Snitzer, eds., Proc. SPIE 1581, 72–79 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Varela, J. A.

J. A. Cerri, I. M. G. Santos, E. Longo, E. R. Leite, R. M. Lebullenger, A. C. Heranades, and J. A. Varela, “Characteristics of PbO–GaO1.5–GaO1.5 glasses melted in SnO2 crucibles,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 81, 705–708 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vogel, E. M.

J. S. Wang, D. P. Machewirth, F. Wu, E. Snitzer, and E. M. Vogel, “Neodymium-doped tellurite single-mode fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1448–1449 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Wang, E. Snitzer, E. M. Vogel, and G. H. Sigel, Jr., “1.47, 1.88 and 2.8 μm emissions of Tm3+ and Tm3+–Ho3+-codoped tellurite glasses,” J. Lumin. 60–61, 145–149 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

Wang, J. S.

J. S. Wang, D. P. Machewirth, F. Wu, E. Snitzer, and E. M. Vogel, “Neodymium-doped tellurite single-mode fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1448–1449 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Wang, E. Snitzer, E. M. Vogel, and G. H. Sigel, Jr., “1.47, 1.88 and 2.8 μm emissions of Tm3+ and Tm3+–Ho3+-codoped tellurite glasses,” J. Lumin. 60–61, 145–149 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wasylak, J.

M. Janewicz, J. Wasylak, and E. Czerwosz, “Raman investigation of PbO–BiO1.5-GaO1.5 glasses,” Phys. Chem. Glasses 353, 169–173 (1994).

Weber, H. P.

M. Pollnau, Th. Graf, J. E. Balmer, W. Luthy, and H. P. Weber, “Explanation of the cw operation of the Er3+ 3-μm crystal laser,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 3990–3996 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weidman, D. L.

D. W. Hall, M. A. Newhouse, N. F. Borrelli, W. H. Dumbaugh, and D. L. Weidman, “Nonlinear optical susceptibilities of high-index glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1293–1295 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Wu, F.

Ye, C. C.

C. C. Ye, D. W. Hewak, M. Hempstead, B. N. Samson, and D. N. Payne, “Spectral properties of Er3+-doped gallium lanthanum sulphide glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 208, 56–63 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yoshino, K.

Zhang, L.

L. Zhang, H. Hu, and F. Lin, “Emission properties of highly doped Er3+ fluoroaluminate glass,” Mater. Lett. 47, 189–193 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zubenko, D. A.

D. A. Zubenko, M. A. Noginov, V. A. Smirnov, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Different mechanisms of nonlinear quenching of luminescence,” Phys. Rev. B 55, 8881–8886 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

D. W. Hall, M. A. Newhouse, N. F. Borrelli, W. H. Dumbaugh, and D. L. Weidman, “Nonlinear optical susceptibilities of high-index glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1293–1295 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

A. Mori, Y. Ohishi, and S. Sudo, “Erbium-doped tellurite glass fiber laser and amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 33, 863–864 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (3)

V. Lupei, S. Georgesecu, and V. Florea, “On the dynamics of population inversion for 3 μm Er3+ lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 426–434 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Knowles and H. P. Jenssen, “Upconversion versus Pr-deactivation for efficient 3 μm laser operation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1197–1208 (1992).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Barnes, R. I. Laming, E. J. Tarbox, and P. R. Morkel, “Absorption and emission cross section of Er3+ doped silica fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1004–1010 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Alloys Compd. (1)

M. Mortier, Y. D. Huang, and F. Auzel, “Crystal field analysis of Er3+-doped glasses: germanate, silicate and ZBLAN,” J. Alloys Compd. 300–301, 407–413 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Ceram. Soc. (5)

J. A. Cerri, I. M. G. Santos, E. Longo, E. R. Leite, R. M. Lebullenger, A. C. Heranades, and J. A. Varela, “Characteristics of PbO–GaO1.5–GaO1.5 glasses melted in SnO2 crucibles,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 81, 705–708 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Huang, C. S. Ray, and D. E. Day, “Color and selected properties of PbO–BiO1.5–GaO1.5 glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 77, 1017–1024 (1994).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Dumbaugh and J. C. Lapp, “Heavy-metal oxide glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 75, 2315–2325 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Y. B. Shin, H. T. Lim, Y. G. Choi, Y. S. Kim, and J. Heo, “2.0 μm emission properties and energy transfer between Ho3+ and Tm3+ in PbO–Bi2O3–Ga2O3 glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 83, 787–791 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. G. Choi, K. H. Kim, and J. Heo, “Spectroscopic properties of and energy transfer in PbO–Bi2O3Ga2O3 glass doped with Er2O3,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 82, 2762–2768 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Soc. (1)

D. L. Dexter, “A theory of sensitized luminescence in solids,” J. Chem. Soc. 21, 836–850 (1953).

J. Lumin. (1)

J. S. Wang, E. Snitzer, E. M. Vogel, and G. H. Sigel, Jr., “1.47, 1.88 and 2.8 μm emissions of Tm3+ and Tm3+–Ho3+-codoped tellurite glasses,” J. Lumin. 60–61, 145–149 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (6)

A. A. Kharlamov, R. M. Almeide, and J. Heo, “Vibrationalspectra and structure of heavy metal oxide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 202, 233–240 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. Miyaji and S. Sakka, “Structure of PbO–Bi2O3–Ga2O3 glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 134, 77–85 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Y. G. Choi and J. Heo, “1.3-μm emission and multiphonon relaxation phenomena in PbO–Bi2O3–Ga2O3 glasses doped with rare-earths,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 217, 199–207 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Lin, L. W. Decent, D. E. Day, and J. O. Stoffer, “IR transmission and corrosion of lead-bismuth gallate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 171, 299–303 (1994).
[CrossRef]

V. K. Bogdanov, W. E. K. Gibbs, D. J. Booth, J. S. Javorniczky, P. J. Newman, and D. R. MacFarlane, “Energy exchange processes in Er3+-doped fluorozirconate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256&257, 288–293 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Ye, D. W. Hewak, M. Hempstead, B. N. Samson, and D. N. Payne, “Spectral properties of Er3+-doped gallium lanthanum sulphide glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 208, 56–63 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

V. Ostroumov, T. Jensen, J.-P. Meyn, G. Huber, and M. A. Noginov, “Study of luminescence concentration quenching and energy transfer upconversion in Nd-doped LaSc3(BO3)4 and GdVO4 laser crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1052–1060 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Coleman, P. Golding, T. A. King, and S. D. Jackson, “Spectroscopic and energy transfer parameters for Er3+-doped and Er3+, Pr3+-codoped GeGaS glasses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1982–1989 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Condens. Matter (1)

Z. Mazurak and J. B. Gruber, “Energy levels and crystal field parameters of Nd3+ and Er3+ in LiRP4O12 single crystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 4, 3453–3458 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Key Eng. Mater. (1)

J. C. Lapp and W. H. Dumbaugh, “Gallium oxide glasses,” Key Eng. Mater. 94–95, 257–178 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lasers Surg. Med. (1)

M. C. Pierce, S. D. Jackson, M. R. Dickinson, T. A. King, and P. Sloan, “Laser-tissue interaction with continuous wave 3 μm fiber laser: preliminary studies with soft tissue,” Lasers Surg. Med. 26, 491–495 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Lett. (1)

L. Zhang, H. Hu, and F. Lin, “Emission properties of highly doped Er3+ fluoroaluminate glass,” Mater. Lett. 47, 189–193 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Opt. Mater. (1)

Y. D. Huang, M. Mortier, and F. Auzel, “Stark levels analysis for Er3+-doped oxide glasses: germanate and silicate,” Opt. Mater. 15, 243–260 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

Y. B. Shin, J. N. Jang, and J. Heo, “Mid-infrared light emission characteristics of Ho3+-doped chalcogenide and heavy-metal oxide glasses,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 27, 379–386 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Chem. Glasses (4)

W. H. Dumbaugh, “Lead bismuthate glasses,” Phys. Chem. Glasses 19, 121–125 (1978).

W. H. Dumbaugh, “Heavy metal oxide glasses containing Bi2O3,” Phys. Chem. Glasses 27, 119–123 (1986).

Y. G. Choi and J. Heo, “Influence of OH and Nd3+ concentrations on the lifetimes of the Nd3+:4F3/2 level in PbO–Bi2O3–Ga2O3 glasses,” Phys. Chem. Glasses 39, 311–317 (1998).

M. Janewicz, J. Wasylak, and E. Czerwosz, “Raman investigation of PbO–BiO1.5-GaO1.5 glasses,” Phys. Chem. Glasses 353, 169–173 (1994).

Phys. Rev. (1)

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[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

M. Pollnau, Th. Graf, J. E. Balmer, W. Luthy, and H. P. Weber, “Explanation of the cw operation of the Er3+ 3-μm crystal laser,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 3990–3996 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. B (8)

P. S. Golding, S. D. Jackson, T. A. King, and M. Pollnau, “Energy transfer processes in Er3+-doped and Er3+, Pr3+-codoped ZBLAN glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 856–864 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Kramer, H. U. Gudel, and R. N. Schwartz, “Infrared-to-visible upconversion in LaCl3:1%Er3+: energy-level and line-strength calculations,” Phys. Rev. B 56, 13, 830–13, 840 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Gruber, J. R. Quagliano, M. F. Reid, F. S. Richardson, M. E. Hills, M. D. Seltzer, S. B. Stevens, C. A. Morrison, and T. H. Allik, “Energy levels and correlation crystal-field effects in Er3+-doped garnets,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 15, 561–15, 573 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Luthi, H. U. Gudel, M. P. Hehlen, and J. R. Quagliano, “Electronic energy-level structure, correlation crystal-field effects, and f–f transition intensities of Er3+ in Cs3Lu2Cl9,” Phys. Rev. B 57, 15, 229–15, 241 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Zubenko, M. A. Noginov, V. A. Smirnov, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Different mechanisms of nonlinear quenching of luminescence,” Phys. Rev. B 55, 8881–8886 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Balda, J. Fernandez, M. Sanz, A. De Pablos, J. M. Fdez-Navarro, and J. Mugnier, “Laser spectroscopy of Nd3+ ions in GeO2–PbO–Bi2O3 glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 3384–3390 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Brenier, C. Pedrini, B. Moine, J. L. Adam, and C. Pledel, “Fluorescence mechanisms in Tm3+ singly doped and Tm3+, Ho3+ doubly doped indium-based fluoride glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 41, 5364–5371 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. Jha, S. Shen, and M. Naftaly, “Structural origin of spectral broadening of 1.5-μm emission in Er3+-doped tellurite glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 6215–6227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

R. S. Quimby, W. J. Miniscalco, and B. Thomson, “Excited state absorption in erbium doped glass,” in Fiber Laser Source and Amplifiers III, M. J. Digonnet and E. Snitzer, eds., Proc. SPIE 1581, 72–79 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

M. J. F. Digonnet, Rare Earth Doped Fiber Lasers and Amplifiers (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1993), pp. 462–472.

P. W. France, “Extrinsic absorption,” in Fluoride Glass Optical Fibers, M. G. Drexhage, J. M. Parker, M. W. Moore, S. F. Carter, and J. W. Wright, eds. (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1990), pp. 132–185.

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram illustrating the main energy levels, pump processes, and upconversion processes involved in the 2.7-µm-laser transition of Er3+. The energy transfer process relevant to Er3+ that is codoped with Pr3+ is also included.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured ground-state absorption spectrum of Er3+- doped PBG glass for an Er3+-doping concentration of 8.69×1019 cm-3. Inset, transmission spectrum including absorption that is due to the Urbach edge.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured mid-infrared absorption spectrum in the range 2.5–8 µm of Er3+-doped PBG glass, showing the multiphonon absorption edge and the absorption that is due to OH impurities.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured concentrations of OH in the Er3+-doped PBG samples prepared for this study.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured and calculated (McCumber) emission spectrum from the  4I13/24I15/2 transition in Er3+-doped PBG glass. The Er3+-doping concentration was 8.69×1019 cm-3.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measured emission spectrum from the  4I11/24I13/2 transition in Er3+-doped PBG glass. The Er3+-doping concentration was 3.47×1020 cm-3.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Measured values for τ(Er:4I13/2) and τ(Er:4I11/2) in Er3+-doped PBG glass as a function of the Er3+ concentration.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Calculated degree of nonexponential behavior in the luminescent decay from the  4I11/2 energy level in Er3+-doped PBG glass for the range of Er3+-doping concentrations.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Calculated macroscopic ETU parameter, WETU, for the ETU processes ETU1 and ETU2 for a range of Er3+-doping concentrations in PBG glass.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Measured change in the values for τ(Er:4I13/2) and τ(Er:4I11/2) as a result of Pr3+ codoping in Er3+-doped PBG glass.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Measured intrinsic Urbach edge in PBG glass. The Er3+ absorption peaks have been removed for clarity.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Macroscopic energy transfer parameters, WEr-Pr, for the  4I13/2 level in Er3+, Pr3+-codoped PBG glass.

Tables (5)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Average Composition of the 0.25 mol. % Er2O3-Doped PBG Glass Sample As Measured by Electron Probe Analysisa

Tables Icon

Table 2 Composition of the Singly Er3+-Doped Samples

Tables Icon

Table 3 Position, Peak Cross Section, and Oscillator Strength of Er3+ Absorption Peaks in PBG Glass

Tables Icon

Table 4 Typical Emission Cross Sections and Luminescent Lifetimes in Popular Er3+-Doped Glasses

Tables Icon

Table 5 Energy Transfer Parameters for Three Er3+-Doped Low Phonon Energy Glasses

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

concentrationEr2O3 [wt. %]=CEr2O3MEr2O3CPbOMPbO+CBi2O3MBi2O3+CGa2O3MGa2O3+CEr2O3MEr2O3,
concentrationEr2O3 [m-3]
=concentration[wt. %] ρPBGLMEr2O3,
c=1εzlnTbackgroundTpeak,
1τ=8πn2c2 ν2σe(ν)dν,
I(t)=I0 exp-tτ0-γt1/2,
dNdt=-Nτ-2WETUN2,
REr-Pr=WEr-PrN(Er:4I13/2)N(Pr3+),

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