Abstract

We report the upconversion processes that produce violet, blue, green, orange, and red emissions in K5Nd(MoO4)4 stoichiometric crystal together with the dynamics and spectral properties of the laser emission. The influence of upconversion energy-transfer processes on the energy storage capacity through the reduction of fluorescence lifetimes of the metastable  4F3/2 level is investigated. The experiments were conducted in such a way that the dynamics of the infrared and visible fluorescence was performed under lasing and nonlasing conditions. The dynamics of the upconverted emission shows that both energy-transfer upconversion and excited-state absorption of the laser emission occur. A brief analysis about the polarization properties of the laser emission is presented.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. A. Kaminskii, S. E. Sarkisov, J. Bohm, P. Reiche, D. Schultze, and R. Uecker, “Growth, spectroscopic and laser properties of crystals in the K5Bi1−xNdx(MoO4)4 system,” Phys. Status Solidi A 43, 71–79 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. W. Klevtsov, L. P. Kozeeva, V. I. Protasova, L. Yu. Kharchenko, L. A. Glinskaya, R. F. Klevtsova, and V. V. Bakakin, “Synthesis of crystals and x-ray diffraction investigation of double molybdates K5Ln(MoO4)4, Ln=La-Tb,” Sov. Phys. Crystallogr. 20, 31–33 (1975).
  3. B. I. Lazoryak and V. A. Efremov, “Structure of palmierite-like K5Nd(MoO4)4, K5Bi(MoO4)4, and Rb5Gd(MoO4)4,” Sov. Phys. Crystallogr. 31, 138–142 (1986).
  4. W. Lenth, H.-D. Hattendorff, G. Huber, and F. Lutz, “Quasi-cw laser action in K5Nd(MoO4)4,” Appl. Phys. 17, 367–370 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Y. Guyot, H. Manaa, J. Y. Rivoire, R. Moncorgé, N. Garnier, E. Descroix, M. Bon, and P. Laporte, “Excited-state-absorption and upconversion studies of Nd3+-doped single crystals Y3Al5O12, YLiF4, and LaMgAl11O19,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 784–799 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. Chuang and H. R. Verdún, “Energy-transfer up-conversion and excited state absorption of laser radiation in Nd:YLF crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 79–91 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. H. Schloss, L. L. Chase, and L. K. Smith, “Dynamics of laser-pumped Nd3+ laser media at high excitation energy,” J. Lumin. 48&49, 857–862 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. D. Zuegel and W. Seka, “Upconversion and reduced 4F3/2 upper-state lifetime in intensely pumped Nd:YLF,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2714–2723 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. E. J. Baran, M. B. Vasallo, C. Cascales, and P. Porcher, “Vibrational spectra of double molybdates and tungstates of the type Na2Ln(XO4)4,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 54, 1005–1008 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Lüthi, H. U. Güdel, and M. P. Hehlen, “Power dependence of upconversion luminescence in lanthanide and transition-metal-ion systems,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 3337–3346 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  11. F. E. Auzel, “Materials and devices using double-pumped phosphors with energy transfer,” Proc. IEEE 61, 758–786 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. C. Wright, “Up-conversion and excited state energy transfer in rare earth doped materials,” in Radiationless Processes in Molecules and Condensed Phases, F. K. Fong, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, Germany, 1976), pp. 239–295.
  13. O. S. Wenger, D. R. Gamelin, H. U. Güdel, A. V. Butashin, and A. A. Kaminskii, “Site-selective yellow to violet and near-infrared to green upconversion in BaLu2F8:Nd3+,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 16530–16537 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  14. T. Y. Fan and R. L. Byer, “Two-step excitation and blue fluorescence under continuous-wave pumping in Nd:YLF,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 1519–1525 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  15. B. R. Reddy and P. Venkateswarlu, “Energy up-conversion in LaF3:Nd3+,” J. Chem. Phys. 79, 5845–5850 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  16. G. E. Venikouas, G. J. Quarles, J. P. King, and R. C. Powell, “Spectroscopy of Y3Al5O12:Nd3+ under high-power, picosecond-pulsed excitation,” Phys. Rev. B 30, 2401–2410 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  17. S. A. Payne, G. D. Wilke, L. K. Smith, and W. F. Krupke, “Auger upconversion losses in Nd-doped laser glasses,” Opt. Commun. 111, 263–268 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  18. S. Guy, C. L. Bonner, D. P. Shepherd, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, and B. Ferrand, “High-inversion densities in Nd:YAG: upconversion and bleaching,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 900–909 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  19. D. A. Zubenko, M. A. Noginov, V. A. Smirnov, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Different mechanisms of nonlinear quenching of luminescence,” Phys. Rev. B 55, 8881–8886 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  20. M. Voda, I. Iparraguirre, J. Fernández, R. Balda, M. Al-Saleh, A. Mendioroz, G. Lobera, M. Cano, M. Sanz, and J. Azkargorta, “Laser properties of Nd3+ in K5Nd(MoO4)4 stoichiometric disordered crystal,” Opt. Mater. 16, 227–231 (2001).
    [CrossRef]

2001 (1)

M. Voda, I. Iparraguirre, J. Fernández, R. Balda, M. Al-Saleh, A. Mendioroz, G. Lobera, M. Cano, M. Sanz, and J. Azkargorta, “Laser properties of Nd3+ in K5Nd(MoO4)4 stoichiometric disordered crystal,” Opt. Mater. 16, 227–231 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Lüthi, H. U. Güdel, and M. P. Hehlen, “Power dependence of upconversion luminescence in lanthanide and transition-metal-ion systems,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 3337–3346 (2000).
[CrossRef]

O. S. Wenger, D. R. Gamelin, H. U. Güdel, A. V. Butashin, and A. A. Kaminskii, “Site-selective yellow to violet and near-infrared to green upconversion in BaLu2F8:Nd3+,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 16530–16537 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

S. Guy, C. L. Bonner, D. P. Shepherd, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, and B. Ferrand, “High-inversion densities in Nd:YAG: upconversion and bleaching,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 900–909 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

D. A. Zubenko, M. A. Noginov, V. A. Smirnov, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Different mechanisms of nonlinear quenching of luminescence,” Phys. Rev. B 55, 8881–8886 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

T. Chuang and H. R. Verdún, “Energy-transfer up-conversion and excited state absorption of laser radiation in Nd:YLF crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 79–91 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

Y. Guyot, H. Manaa, J. Y. Rivoire, R. Moncorgé, N. Garnier, E. Descroix, M. Bon, and P. Laporte, “Excited-state-absorption and upconversion studies of Nd3+-doped single crystals Y3Al5O12, YLiF4, and LaMgAl11O19,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 784–799 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

S. A. Payne, G. D. Wilke, L. K. Smith, and W. F. Krupke, “Auger upconversion losses in Nd-doped laser glasses,” Opt. Commun. 111, 263–268 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

E. J. Baran, M. B. Vasallo, C. Cascales, and P. Porcher, “Vibrational spectra of double molybdates and tungstates of the type Na2Ln(XO4)4,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 54, 1005–1008 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

J. H. Schloss, L. L. Chase, and L. K. Smith, “Dynamics of laser-pumped Nd3+ laser media at high excitation energy,” J. Lumin. 48&49, 857–862 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1986 (2)

B. I. Lazoryak and V. A. Efremov, “Structure of palmierite-like K5Nd(MoO4)4, K5Bi(MoO4)4, and Rb5Gd(MoO4)4,” Sov. Phys. Crystallogr. 31, 138–142 (1986).

T. Y. Fan and R. L. Byer, “Two-step excitation and blue fluorescence under continuous-wave pumping in Nd:YLF,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 1519–1525 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

G. E. Venikouas, G. J. Quarles, J. P. King, and R. C. Powell, “Spectroscopy of Y3Al5O12:Nd3+ under high-power, picosecond-pulsed excitation,” Phys. Rev. B 30, 2401–2410 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

B. R. Reddy and P. Venkateswarlu, “Energy up-conversion in LaF3:Nd3+,” J. Chem. Phys. 79, 5845–5850 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

W. Lenth, H.-D. Hattendorff, G. Huber, and F. Lutz, “Quasi-cw laser action in K5Nd(MoO4)4,” Appl. Phys. 17, 367–370 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

A. A. Kaminskii, S. E. Sarkisov, J. Bohm, P. Reiche, D. Schultze, and R. Uecker, “Growth, spectroscopic and laser properties of crystals in the K5Bi1−xNdx(MoO4)4 system,” Phys. Status Solidi A 43, 71–79 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

P. W. Klevtsov, L. P. Kozeeva, V. I. Protasova, L. Yu. Kharchenko, L. A. Glinskaya, R. F. Klevtsova, and V. V. Bakakin, “Synthesis of crystals and x-ray diffraction investigation of double molybdates K5Ln(MoO4)4, Ln=La-Tb,” Sov. Phys. Crystallogr. 20, 31–33 (1975).

1973 (1)

F. E. Auzel, “Materials and devices using double-pumped phosphors with energy transfer,” Proc. IEEE 61, 758–786 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Al-Saleh, M.

M. Voda, I. Iparraguirre, J. Fernández, R. Balda, M. Al-Saleh, A. Mendioroz, G. Lobera, M. Cano, M. Sanz, and J. Azkargorta, “Laser properties of Nd3+ in K5Nd(MoO4)4 stoichiometric disordered crystal,” Opt. Mater. 16, 227–231 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Auzel, F. E.

F. E. Auzel, “Materials and devices using double-pumped phosphors with energy transfer,” Proc. IEEE 61, 758–786 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Azkargorta, J.

M. Voda, I. Iparraguirre, J. Fernández, R. Balda, M. Al-Saleh, A. Mendioroz, G. Lobera, M. Cano, M. Sanz, and J. Azkargorta, “Laser properties of Nd3+ in K5Nd(MoO4)4 stoichiometric disordered crystal,” Opt. Mater. 16, 227–231 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bakakin, V. V.

P. W. Klevtsov, L. P. Kozeeva, V. I. Protasova, L. Yu. Kharchenko, L. A. Glinskaya, R. F. Klevtsova, and V. V. Bakakin, “Synthesis of crystals and x-ray diffraction investigation of double molybdates K5Ln(MoO4)4, Ln=La-Tb,” Sov. Phys. Crystallogr. 20, 31–33 (1975).

Balda, R.

M. Voda, I. Iparraguirre, J. Fernández, R. Balda, M. Al-Saleh, A. Mendioroz, G. Lobera, M. Cano, M. Sanz, and J. Azkargorta, “Laser properties of Nd3+ in K5Nd(MoO4)4 stoichiometric disordered crystal,” Opt. Mater. 16, 227–231 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Baran, E. J.

E. J. Baran, M. B. Vasallo, C. Cascales, and P. Porcher, “Vibrational spectra of double molybdates and tungstates of the type Na2Ln(XO4)4,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 54, 1005–1008 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bohm, J.

A. A. Kaminskii, S. E. Sarkisov, J. Bohm, P. Reiche, D. Schultze, and R. Uecker, “Growth, spectroscopic and laser properties of crystals in the K5Bi1−xNdx(MoO4)4 system,” Phys. Status Solidi A 43, 71–79 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Bon, M.

Y. Guyot, H. Manaa, J. Y. Rivoire, R. Moncorgé, N. Garnier, E. Descroix, M. Bon, and P. Laporte, “Excited-state-absorption and upconversion studies of Nd3+-doped single crystals Y3Al5O12, YLiF4, and LaMgAl11O19,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 784–799 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bonner, C. L.

S. Guy, C. L. Bonner, D. P. Shepherd, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, and B. Ferrand, “High-inversion densities in Nd:YAG: upconversion and bleaching,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 900–909 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Butashin, A. V.

O. S. Wenger, D. R. Gamelin, H. U. Güdel, A. V. Butashin, and A. A. Kaminskii, “Site-selective yellow to violet and near-infrared to green upconversion in BaLu2F8:Nd3+,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 16530–16537 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Byer, R. L.

Cano, M.

M. Voda, I. Iparraguirre, J. Fernández, R. Balda, M. Al-Saleh, A. Mendioroz, G. Lobera, M. Cano, M. Sanz, and J. Azkargorta, “Laser properties of Nd3+ in K5Nd(MoO4)4 stoichiometric disordered crystal,” Opt. Mater. 16, 227–231 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cascales, C.

E. J. Baran, M. B. Vasallo, C. Cascales, and P. Porcher, “Vibrational spectra of double molybdates and tungstates of the type Na2Ln(XO4)4,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 54, 1005–1008 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chase, L. L.

J. H. Schloss, L. L. Chase, and L. K. Smith, “Dynamics of laser-pumped Nd3+ laser media at high excitation energy,” J. Lumin. 48&49, 857–862 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chuang, T.

T. Chuang and H. R. Verdún, “Energy-transfer up-conversion and excited state absorption of laser radiation in Nd:YLF crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 79–91 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Descroix, E.

Y. Guyot, H. Manaa, J. Y. Rivoire, R. Moncorgé, N. Garnier, E. Descroix, M. Bon, and P. Laporte, “Excited-state-absorption and upconversion studies of Nd3+-doped single crystals Y3Al5O12, YLiF4, and LaMgAl11O19,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 784–799 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Efremov, V. A.

B. I. Lazoryak and V. A. Efremov, “Structure of palmierite-like K5Nd(MoO4)4, K5Bi(MoO4)4, and Rb5Gd(MoO4)4,” Sov. Phys. Crystallogr. 31, 138–142 (1986).

Fan, T. Y.

Fernández, J.

M. Voda, I. Iparraguirre, J. Fernández, R. Balda, M. Al-Saleh, A. Mendioroz, G. Lobera, M. Cano, M. Sanz, and J. Azkargorta, “Laser properties of Nd3+ in K5Nd(MoO4)4 stoichiometric disordered crystal,” Opt. Mater. 16, 227–231 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ferrand, B.

S. Guy, C. L. Bonner, D. P. Shepherd, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, and B. Ferrand, “High-inversion densities in Nd:YAG: upconversion and bleaching,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 900–909 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gamelin, D. R.

M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Lüthi, H. U. Güdel, and M. P. Hehlen, “Power dependence of upconversion luminescence in lanthanide and transition-metal-ion systems,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 3337–3346 (2000).
[CrossRef]

O. S. Wenger, D. R. Gamelin, H. U. Güdel, A. V. Butashin, and A. A. Kaminskii, “Site-selective yellow to violet and near-infrared to green upconversion in BaLu2F8:Nd3+,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 16530–16537 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Garnier, N.

Y. Guyot, H. Manaa, J. Y. Rivoire, R. Moncorgé, N. Garnier, E. Descroix, M. Bon, and P. Laporte, “Excited-state-absorption and upconversion studies of Nd3+-doped single crystals Y3Al5O12, YLiF4, and LaMgAl11O19,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 784–799 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Glinskaya, L. A.

P. W. Klevtsov, L. P. Kozeeva, V. I. Protasova, L. Yu. Kharchenko, L. A. Glinskaya, R. F. Klevtsova, and V. V. Bakakin, “Synthesis of crystals and x-ray diffraction investigation of double molybdates K5Ln(MoO4)4, Ln=La-Tb,” Sov. Phys. Crystallogr. 20, 31–33 (1975).

Güdel, H. U.

O. S. Wenger, D. R. Gamelin, H. U. Güdel, A. V. Butashin, and A. A. Kaminskii, “Site-selective yellow to violet and near-infrared to green upconversion in BaLu2F8:Nd3+,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 16530–16537 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Lüthi, H. U. Güdel, and M. P. Hehlen, “Power dependence of upconversion luminescence in lanthanide and transition-metal-ion systems,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 3337–3346 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Guy, S.

S. Guy, C. L. Bonner, D. P. Shepherd, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, and B. Ferrand, “High-inversion densities in Nd:YAG: upconversion and bleaching,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 900–909 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Guyot, Y.

Y. Guyot, H. Manaa, J. Y. Rivoire, R. Moncorgé, N. Garnier, E. Descroix, M. Bon, and P. Laporte, “Excited-state-absorption and upconversion studies of Nd3+-doped single crystals Y3Al5O12, YLiF4, and LaMgAl11O19,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 784–799 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hanna, D. C.

S. Guy, C. L. Bonner, D. P. Shepherd, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, and B. Ferrand, “High-inversion densities in Nd:YAG: upconversion and bleaching,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 900–909 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hattendorff, H.-D.

W. Lenth, H.-D. Hattendorff, G. Huber, and F. Lutz, “Quasi-cw laser action in K5Nd(MoO4)4,” Appl. Phys. 17, 367–370 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Hehlen, M. P.

M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Lüthi, H. U. Güdel, and M. P. Hehlen, “Power dependence of upconversion luminescence in lanthanide and transition-metal-ion systems,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 3337–3346 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Huber, G.

W. Lenth, H.-D. Hattendorff, G. Huber, and F. Lutz, “Quasi-cw laser action in K5Nd(MoO4)4,” Appl. Phys. 17, 367–370 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Iparraguirre, I.

M. Voda, I. Iparraguirre, J. Fernández, R. Balda, M. Al-Saleh, A. Mendioroz, G. Lobera, M. Cano, M. Sanz, and J. Azkargorta, “Laser properties of Nd3+ in K5Nd(MoO4)4 stoichiometric disordered crystal,” Opt. Mater. 16, 227–231 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kaminskii, A. A.

O. S. Wenger, D. R. Gamelin, H. U. Güdel, A. V. Butashin, and A. A. Kaminskii, “Site-selective yellow to violet and near-infrared to green upconversion in BaLu2F8:Nd3+,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 16530–16537 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kaminskii, S. E. Sarkisov, J. Bohm, P. Reiche, D. Schultze, and R. Uecker, “Growth, spectroscopic and laser properties of crystals in the K5Bi1−xNdx(MoO4)4 system,” Phys. Status Solidi A 43, 71–79 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Kharchenko, L. Yu.

P. W. Klevtsov, L. P. Kozeeva, V. I. Protasova, L. Yu. Kharchenko, L. A. Glinskaya, R. F. Klevtsova, and V. V. Bakakin, “Synthesis of crystals and x-ray diffraction investigation of double molybdates K5Ln(MoO4)4, Ln=La-Tb,” Sov. Phys. Crystallogr. 20, 31–33 (1975).

King, J. P.

G. E. Venikouas, G. J. Quarles, J. P. King, and R. C. Powell, “Spectroscopy of Y3Al5O12:Nd3+ under high-power, picosecond-pulsed excitation,” Phys. Rev. B 30, 2401–2410 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Klevtsov, P. W.

P. W. Klevtsov, L. P. Kozeeva, V. I. Protasova, L. Yu. Kharchenko, L. A. Glinskaya, R. F. Klevtsova, and V. V. Bakakin, “Synthesis of crystals and x-ray diffraction investigation of double molybdates K5Ln(MoO4)4, Ln=La-Tb,” Sov. Phys. Crystallogr. 20, 31–33 (1975).

Klevtsova, R. F.

P. W. Klevtsov, L. P. Kozeeva, V. I. Protasova, L. Yu. Kharchenko, L. A. Glinskaya, R. F. Klevtsova, and V. V. Bakakin, “Synthesis of crystals and x-ray diffraction investigation of double molybdates K5Ln(MoO4)4, Ln=La-Tb,” Sov. Phys. Crystallogr. 20, 31–33 (1975).

Kozeeva, L. P.

P. W. Klevtsov, L. P. Kozeeva, V. I. Protasova, L. Yu. Kharchenko, L. A. Glinskaya, R. F. Klevtsova, and V. V. Bakakin, “Synthesis of crystals and x-ray diffraction investigation of double molybdates K5Ln(MoO4)4, Ln=La-Tb,” Sov. Phys. Crystallogr. 20, 31–33 (1975).

Krupke, W. F.

S. A. Payne, G. D. Wilke, L. K. Smith, and W. F. Krupke, “Auger upconversion losses in Nd-doped laser glasses,” Opt. Commun. 111, 263–268 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Laporte, P.

Y. Guyot, H. Manaa, J. Y. Rivoire, R. Moncorgé, N. Garnier, E. Descroix, M. Bon, and P. Laporte, “Excited-state-absorption and upconversion studies of Nd3+-doped single crystals Y3Al5O12, YLiF4, and LaMgAl11O19,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 784–799 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lazoryak, B. I.

B. I. Lazoryak and V. A. Efremov, “Structure of palmierite-like K5Nd(MoO4)4, K5Bi(MoO4)4, and Rb5Gd(MoO4)4,” Sov. Phys. Crystallogr. 31, 138–142 (1986).

Lenth, W.

W. Lenth, H.-D. Hattendorff, G. Huber, and F. Lutz, “Quasi-cw laser action in K5Nd(MoO4)4,” Appl. Phys. 17, 367–370 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Lobera, G.

M. Voda, I. Iparraguirre, J. Fernández, R. Balda, M. Al-Saleh, A. Mendioroz, G. Lobera, M. Cano, M. Sanz, and J. Azkargorta, “Laser properties of Nd3+ in K5Nd(MoO4)4 stoichiometric disordered crystal,” Opt. Mater. 16, 227–231 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lüthi, S. R.

M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Lüthi, H. U. Güdel, and M. P. Hehlen, “Power dependence of upconversion luminescence in lanthanide and transition-metal-ion systems,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 3337–3346 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lutz, F.

W. Lenth, H.-D. Hattendorff, G. Huber, and F. Lutz, “Quasi-cw laser action in K5Nd(MoO4)4,” Appl. Phys. 17, 367–370 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Manaa, H.

Y. Guyot, H. Manaa, J. Y. Rivoire, R. Moncorgé, N. Garnier, E. Descroix, M. Bon, and P. Laporte, “Excited-state-absorption and upconversion studies of Nd3+-doped single crystals Y3Al5O12, YLiF4, and LaMgAl11O19,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 784–799 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mendioroz, A.

M. Voda, I. Iparraguirre, J. Fernández, R. Balda, M. Al-Saleh, A. Mendioroz, G. Lobera, M. Cano, M. Sanz, and J. Azkargorta, “Laser properties of Nd3+ in K5Nd(MoO4)4 stoichiometric disordered crystal,” Opt. Mater. 16, 227–231 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Moncorgé, R.

Y. Guyot, H. Manaa, J. Y. Rivoire, R. Moncorgé, N. Garnier, E. Descroix, M. Bon, and P. Laporte, “Excited-state-absorption and upconversion studies of Nd3+-doped single crystals Y3Al5O12, YLiF4, and LaMgAl11O19,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 784–799 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Noginov, M. A.

D. A. Zubenko, M. A. Noginov, V. A. Smirnov, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Different mechanisms of nonlinear quenching of luminescence,” Phys. Rev. B 55, 8881–8886 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Payne, S. A.

S. A. Payne, G. D. Wilke, L. K. Smith, and W. F. Krupke, “Auger upconversion losses in Nd-doped laser glasses,” Opt. Commun. 111, 263–268 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Pollnau, M.

M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Lüthi, H. U. Güdel, and M. P. Hehlen, “Power dependence of upconversion luminescence in lanthanide and transition-metal-ion systems,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 3337–3346 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Porcher, P.

E. J. Baran, M. B. Vasallo, C. Cascales, and P. Porcher, “Vibrational spectra of double molybdates and tungstates of the type Na2Ln(XO4)4,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 54, 1005–1008 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Powell, R. C.

G. E. Venikouas, G. J. Quarles, J. P. King, and R. C. Powell, “Spectroscopy of Y3Al5O12:Nd3+ under high-power, picosecond-pulsed excitation,” Phys. Rev. B 30, 2401–2410 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Protasova, V. I.

P. W. Klevtsov, L. P. Kozeeva, V. I. Protasova, L. Yu. Kharchenko, L. A. Glinskaya, R. F. Klevtsova, and V. V. Bakakin, “Synthesis of crystals and x-ray diffraction investigation of double molybdates K5Ln(MoO4)4, Ln=La-Tb,” Sov. Phys. Crystallogr. 20, 31–33 (1975).

Quarles, G. J.

G. E. Venikouas, G. J. Quarles, J. P. King, and R. C. Powell, “Spectroscopy of Y3Al5O12:Nd3+ under high-power, picosecond-pulsed excitation,” Phys. Rev. B 30, 2401–2410 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Reddy, B. R.

B. R. Reddy and P. Venkateswarlu, “Energy up-conversion in LaF3:Nd3+,” J. Chem. Phys. 79, 5845–5850 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Reiche, P.

A. A. Kaminskii, S. E. Sarkisov, J. Bohm, P. Reiche, D. Schultze, and R. Uecker, “Growth, spectroscopic and laser properties of crystals in the K5Bi1−xNdx(MoO4)4 system,” Phys. Status Solidi A 43, 71–79 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Rivoire, J. Y.

Y. Guyot, H. Manaa, J. Y. Rivoire, R. Moncorgé, N. Garnier, E. Descroix, M. Bon, and P. Laporte, “Excited-state-absorption and upconversion studies of Nd3+-doped single crystals Y3Al5O12, YLiF4, and LaMgAl11O19,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 784–799 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sanz, M.

M. Voda, I. Iparraguirre, J. Fernández, R. Balda, M. Al-Saleh, A. Mendioroz, G. Lobera, M. Cano, M. Sanz, and J. Azkargorta, “Laser properties of Nd3+ in K5Nd(MoO4)4 stoichiometric disordered crystal,” Opt. Mater. 16, 227–231 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sarkisov, S. E.

A. A. Kaminskii, S. E. Sarkisov, J. Bohm, P. Reiche, D. Schultze, and R. Uecker, “Growth, spectroscopic and laser properties of crystals in the K5Bi1−xNdx(MoO4)4 system,” Phys. Status Solidi A 43, 71–79 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Schloss, J. H.

J. H. Schloss, L. L. Chase, and L. K. Smith, “Dynamics of laser-pumped Nd3+ laser media at high excitation energy,” J. Lumin. 48&49, 857–862 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Schultze, D.

A. A. Kaminskii, S. E. Sarkisov, J. Bohm, P. Reiche, D. Schultze, and R. Uecker, “Growth, spectroscopic and laser properties of crystals in the K5Bi1−xNdx(MoO4)4 system,” Phys. Status Solidi A 43, 71–79 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Seka, W.

Shcherbakov, I. A.

D. A. Zubenko, M. A. Noginov, V. A. Smirnov, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Different mechanisms of nonlinear quenching of luminescence,” Phys. Rev. B 55, 8881–8886 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shepherd, D. P.

S. Guy, C. L. Bonner, D. P. Shepherd, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, and B. Ferrand, “High-inversion densities in Nd:YAG: upconversion and bleaching,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 900–909 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Smirnov, V. A.

D. A. Zubenko, M. A. Noginov, V. A. Smirnov, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Different mechanisms of nonlinear quenching of luminescence,” Phys. Rev. B 55, 8881–8886 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Smith, L. K.

S. A. Payne, G. D. Wilke, L. K. Smith, and W. F. Krupke, “Auger upconversion losses in Nd-doped laser glasses,” Opt. Commun. 111, 263–268 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Schloss, L. L. Chase, and L. K. Smith, “Dynamics of laser-pumped Nd3+ laser media at high excitation energy,” J. Lumin. 48&49, 857–862 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tropper, A. C.

S. Guy, C. L. Bonner, D. P. Shepherd, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, and B. Ferrand, “High-inversion densities in Nd:YAG: upconversion and bleaching,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 900–909 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Uecker, R.

A. A. Kaminskii, S. E. Sarkisov, J. Bohm, P. Reiche, D. Schultze, and R. Uecker, “Growth, spectroscopic and laser properties of crystals in the K5Bi1−xNdx(MoO4)4 system,” Phys. Status Solidi A 43, 71–79 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Vasallo, M. B.

E. J. Baran, M. B. Vasallo, C. Cascales, and P. Porcher, “Vibrational spectra of double molybdates and tungstates of the type Na2Ln(XO4)4,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 54, 1005–1008 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Venikouas, G. E.

G. E. Venikouas, G. J. Quarles, J. P. King, and R. C. Powell, “Spectroscopy of Y3Al5O12:Nd3+ under high-power, picosecond-pulsed excitation,” Phys. Rev. B 30, 2401–2410 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Venkateswarlu, P.

B. R. Reddy and P. Venkateswarlu, “Energy up-conversion in LaF3:Nd3+,” J. Chem. Phys. 79, 5845–5850 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Verdún, H. R.

T. Chuang and H. R. Verdún, “Energy-transfer up-conversion and excited state absorption of laser radiation in Nd:YLF crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 79–91 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Voda, M.

M. Voda, I. Iparraguirre, J. Fernández, R. Balda, M. Al-Saleh, A. Mendioroz, G. Lobera, M. Cano, M. Sanz, and J. Azkargorta, “Laser properties of Nd3+ in K5Nd(MoO4)4 stoichiometric disordered crystal,” Opt. Mater. 16, 227–231 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wenger, O. S.

O. S. Wenger, D. R. Gamelin, H. U. Güdel, A. V. Butashin, and A. A. Kaminskii, “Site-selective yellow to violet and near-infrared to green upconversion in BaLu2F8:Nd3+,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 16530–16537 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wilke, G. D.

S. A. Payne, G. D. Wilke, L. K. Smith, and W. F. Krupke, “Auger upconversion losses in Nd-doped laser glasses,” Opt. Commun. 111, 263–268 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Zubenko, D. A.

D. A. Zubenko, M. A. Noginov, V. A. Smirnov, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Different mechanisms of nonlinear quenching of luminescence,” Phys. Rev. B 55, 8881–8886 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zuegel, J. D.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. (1)

W. Lenth, H.-D. Hattendorff, G. Huber, and F. Lutz, “Quasi-cw laser action in K5Nd(MoO4)4,” Appl. Phys. 17, 367–370 (1978).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

T. Chuang and H. R. Verdún, “Energy-transfer up-conversion and excited state absorption of laser radiation in Nd:YLF crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 79–91 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Guy, C. L. Bonner, D. P. Shepherd, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, and B. Ferrand, “High-inversion densities in Nd:YAG: upconversion and bleaching,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 900–909 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

B. R. Reddy and P. Venkateswarlu, “Energy up-conversion in LaF3:Nd3+,” J. Chem. Phys. 79, 5845–5850 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumin. (1)

J. H. Schloss, L. L. Chase, and L. K. Smith, “Dynamics of laser-pumped Nd3+ laser media at high excitation energy,” J. Lumin. 48&49, 857–862 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. Chem. Solids (1)

E. J. Baran, M. B. Vasallo, C. Cascales, and P. Porcher, “Vibrational spectra of double molybdates and tungstates of the type Na2Ln(XO4)4,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 54, 1005–1008 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

S. A. Payne, G. D. Wilke, L. K. Smith, and W. F. Krupke, “Auger upconversion losses in Nd-doped laser glasses,” Opt. Commun. 111, 263–268 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Mater. (1)

M. Voda, I. Iparraguirre, J. Fernández, R. Balda, M. Al-Saleh, A. Mendioroz, G. Lobera, M. Cano, M. Sanz, and J. Azkargorta, “Laser properties of Nd3+ in K5Nd(MoO4)4 stoichiometric disordered crystal,” Opt. Mater. 16, 227–231 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (5)

M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Lüthi, H. U. Güdel, and M. P. Hehlen, “Power dependence of upconversion luminescence in lanthanide and transition-metal-ion systems,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 3337–3346 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Guyot, H. Manaa, J. Y. Rivoire, R. Moncorgé, N. Garnier, E. Descroix, M. Bon, and P. Laporte, “Excited-state-absorption and upconversion studies of Nd3+-doped single crystals Y3Al5O12, YLiF4, and LaMgAl11O19,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 784–799 (1995).
[CrossRef]

O. S. Wenger, D. R. Gamelin, H. U. Güdel, A. V. Butashin, and A. A. Kaminskii, “Site-selective yellow to violet and near-infrared to green upconversion in BaLu2F8:Nd3+,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 16530–16537 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Venikouas, G. J. Quarles, J. P. King, and R. C. Powell, “Spectroscopy of Y3Al5O12:Nd3+ under high-power, picosecond-pulsed excitation,” Phys. Rev. B 30, 2401–2410 (1984).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Zubenko, M. A. Noginov, V. A. Smirnov, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Different mechanisms of nonlinear quenching of luminescence,” Phys. Rev. B 55, 8881–8886 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi A (1)

A. A. Kaminskii, S. E. Sarkisov, J. Bohm, P. Reiche, D. Schultze, and R. Uecker, “Growth, spectroscopic and laser properties of crystals in the K5Bi1−xNdx(MoO4)4 system,” Phys. Status Solidi A 43, 71–79 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (1)

F. E. Auzel, “Materials and devices using double-pumped phosphors with energy transfer,” Proc. IEEE 61, 758–786 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Sov. Phys. Crystallogr. (2)

P. W. Klevtsov, L. P. Kozeeva, V. I. Protasova, L. Yu. Kharchenko, L. A. Glinskaya, R. F. Klevtsova, and V. V. Bakakin, “Synthesis of crystals and x-ray diffraction investigation of double molybdates K5Ln(MoO4)4, Ln=La-Tb,” Sov. Phys. Crystallogr. 20, 31–33 (1975).

B. I. Lazoryak and V. A. Efremov, “Structure of palmierite-like K5Nd(MoO4)4, K5Bi(MoO4)4, and Rb5Gd(MoO4)4,” Sov. Phys. Crystallogr. 31, 138–142 (1986).

Other (1)

J. C. Wright, “Up-conversion and excited state energy transfer in rare earth doped materials,” in Radiationless Processes in Molecules and Condensed Phases, F. K. Fong, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, Germany, 1976), pp. 239–295.

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Time-resolved emission spectra that we obtained by exciting at 867 nm in resonance with the  4I9/24F3/2 transition at 1 µs after the laser pulse for both π and σ polarizations (electric field of the exciting light parallel and perpendicular to the crystalline c axis). Data correspond to 77 K.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Energy-level diagram of Nd3+ in KNM crystal obtained from the low-temperature absorption spectrum (T=10 K). The upconversion emissions observed in this study and the pump level are indicated.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Excitation spectra of Stokes and anti-Stokes fluorescence from levels  4F3/2 and  4G7/2 at 10 K.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental emission decay curves of the blue (420-nm) and orange (599-nm) emissions obtained under excitation at 867 nm. Data correspond to 295 K.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Schematic representation of the upconversion mechanisms in KNM crystal after excitation in the  4F3/2 state. Wavy arrows indicate the multiphonon relaxation process and the connected dashed lines indicate a nonradiative energy-transfer process.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Luminescence kinetics of the  4F3/2 state of Nd3+ in KNM crystal plotted versus [1-exp(-t/τ)] and erf(t/τ)1/2. Data correspond to 295 K.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Experimental decays from the  4F3/2 state for weak excitation (upper curve) and high excitation (lower curve).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Variation of the average lifetimes with the initial  4F3/2 population and the fit (solid curves) to Eq. (5).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Diagram of the resonator used for laser experiments.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Room-temperature stimulated emission spectra of Nd3+ in KNM crystal obtained at two different polarizations of the laser output radiation (a) parallel and (b) perpendicular to the orientation of the crystal optical axis.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Details of the polarized spectra of the  4F3/24I11/2 spontaneous emission between 1060 and 1072 nm.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Experimental decay curves of the orange and blue upconverted emissions obtained under laser action inside the resonator (solid curves) and laser output pulse (circles).

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Energy Levels of Some Relevant Multiplets in KNM Crystal Obtained from Low Temperature Absorption and Emission Spectraa

Tables Icon

Table 2 Fluorescence Decay Times for Upconversion Emissions Originating from  2P3/2 and  4G7/2 Levels Obtained under Excitation at 867 nm at 295 Ka

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

dNdt=-Nτ-2WETUN2,
N(t)=N0 exp-tτ1+2WETUN0τ1-exp-tτ.
N0 exp-tτN(t)-1versus1-exp-tτ.
N(t)=N0 exp-tτ1+23N0τCdaπ2 erftτ,
erf(x)=2π0x exp(-t2)dt
τ=ln(1+2τWETUN0)2WETUN0.

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