Abstract

We propose a new scheme for achieving inversionless gain that depends on both an internal interference effect and external coherent fields. We have found that, owing to the quantum interference effect that originates from spontaneous emissions from two closely lying levels, large inversionless gains can be achieved under appropriate conditions. In particular, in addition to the amplitudes, the phases of the applied fields also affect inversionless gain remarkably. That is to say, we can use the relative phase between two intense fields to control probe gain without inversion.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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  1. N. A. Ansari, J. Gea-Banacloche, and M. S. Zubairy, “Phase-sensitive amplification in a three-level atomic system,” Phys. Rev. A 41, 5179–5186 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. A. G. Martinez, P. R. Herezfeld, C. Samuels, L. M. Narducci, and C. H. Keitel, “Quantum interference effects in spontaneous atomic emission: dependence of the resonance fluorescence spectrum on the phase of the driving field,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 4483–4491 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Y. Zhu, H. Chen, and H. Huang, “Quantum interference effects in spontaneous emission from an atom embedded in a photonic band gap structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 205–208 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Menon and G. S. Agarwal, “Effects of spontaneously generated coherence on the pump–probe response of a Λ system,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 4014–4018 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. E. Paspalakis and P. L. Knight, “Phase control of spontaneous emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 293–296 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. Zhou and S. Swain, “Phase-dependent spectra in a driven two-level atom,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2500–2504 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. F. Ghafoor, S. Y. Zhu, and M. S. Zubairy, “Amplitude and phase control of spontaneous emission,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 013811 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. E. Paspalakis, S. Q. Gong, and P. L. Knight, “Spontaneous emission-induced coherent effects in absorption and dispersion of a V-type three-level atom,” Opt. Commun. 152, 293–298 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Javanainen, “Effect of state superpositions created by spontaneous emission on laser-driven transitions,” Europhys. Lett. 17, 407–412 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. E. Harris, “Lasers without inversion: interference of lifetime-broadened resonances,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 1033–1036 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. M. O. Scully, S. Y. Zhu, and A. Gavrielides, “Degenerate quantum-beat laser: lasing without inversion and inversion without lasing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 2813–2816 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. A. Imamoglu, J. E. Field, and S. E. Harris, “Lasers without inversion: a closed lifetime broadened system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1154–1156 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. Nottelmann, C. Peters, and W. Lange, “Inversionless amplification of picosecond pulses due to Zeeman coherence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1783–1786 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. C. H. Keitel, O. Kocharovskya, L. M. Narducci, M. O. Scully, S. Y. Zhu, and H. M. Doss, “Two mechanisms for inversionless amplification in four-level atoms with Raman pumping,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 3196–3202 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. Y. F. Zhu, “Light amplification mechanisms in a coherently coupled atomic system,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 4568–4575 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. Y. Zhu, D. Z. Wang, and J. Y. Gao, “Nonlinear theory of noninversion lasers of an open three-level system,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 1339–1345 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. Y. Gao, C. Guo, X. Z. Guo, G. X. Jin, P. W. Wang, J. Zhao, H. Z. Zhang, Y. Jiang, D. Z. Wang, and D. M. Jiang, “Observation of light amplification without population inversion in sodium,” Opt. Commun. 93, 323–327 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  18. H. M. Doss, L. M. Narducci, M. O. Scully, and J. Y. Gao, “Theoretical analysis of a four-level laser without inversion driven by a pulsed Raman field,” Opt. Commun. 95, 57–63 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  19. A. S. Zibrov, M. D. Lukin, D. E. Nikonov, L. Hollberg, M. O. Scully, V. L. Velichansky, and H. G. Robinson, “Experimental demonstration of laser oscillation without population inversion via quantum interference in Rb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1499–1502 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. M. Fleischhauer, C. H. Keitel, L. M. Narducci, M. O. Scully, S. Y. Zhu, and M. S. Zubairy, “Lasing without inversion: interference of radiatively broadened resonances in dressed atomic systems,” Opt. Commun. 94, 599–608 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  21. P. Zhou and S. Swain, “Ultranarrow spectral lines via quantum interference,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3995–3998 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. P. Zhou and S. Swain, “Quantum interference in probe absorption: narrow resonances, transparency, and gain without population inversion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 832–835 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  23. H. R. Xia, C. Y. Ye, and S. Y. Zhu, “Experimental observation of spontaneous emission cancellation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1032–1037 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

F. Ghafoor, S. Y. Zhu, and M. S. Zubairy, “Amplitude and phase control of spontaneous emission,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 013811 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

P. Zhou and S. Swain, “Phase-dependent spectra in a driven two-level atom,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2500–2504 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

E. Paspalakis, S. Q. Gong, and P. L. Knight, “Spontaneous emission-induced coherent effects in absorption and dispersion of a V-type three-level atom,” Opt. Commun. 152, 293–298 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Menon and G. S. Agarwal, “Effects of spontaneously generated coherence on the pump–probe response of a Λ system,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 4014–4018 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. Paspalakis and P. L. Knight, “Phase control of spontaneous emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 293–296 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (5)

M. A. G. Martinez, P. R. Herezfeld, C. Samuels, L. M. Narducci, and C. H. Keitel, “Quantum interference effects in spontaneous atomic emission: dependence of the resonance fluorescence spectrum on the phase of the driving field,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 4483–4491 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Zhu, H. Chen, and H. Huang, “Quantum interference effects in spontaneous emission from an atom embedded in a photonic band gap structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 205–208 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Zhu, “Light amplification mechanisms in a coherently coupled atomic system,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 4568–4575 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Zhu, D. Z. Wang, and J. Y. Gao, “Nonlinear theory of noninversion lasers of an open three-level system,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 1339–1345 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Zhou and S. Swain, “Quantum interference in probe absorption: narrow resonances, transparency, and gain without population inversion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 832–835 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

H. R. Xia, C. Y. Ye, and S. Y. Zhu, “Experimental observation of spontaneous emission cancellation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1032–1037 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Zhou and S. Swain, “Ultranarrow spectral lines via quantum interference,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3995–3998 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

A. S. Zibrov, M. D. Lukin, D. E. Nikonov, L. Hollberg, M. O. Scully, V. L. Velichansky, and H. G. Robinson, “Experimental demonstration of laser oscillation without population inversion via quantum interference in Rb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1499–1502 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (3)

H. M. Doss, L. M. Narducci, M. O. Scully, and J. Y. Gao, “Theoretical analysis of a four-level laser without inversion driven by a pulsed Raman field,” Opt. Commun. 95, 57–63 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Nottelmann, C. Peters, and W. Lange, “Inversionless amplification of picosecond pulses due to Zeeman coherence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1783–1786 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. H. Keitel, O. Kocharovskya, L. M. Narducci, M. O. Scully, S. Y. Zhu, and H. M. Doss, “Two mechanisms for inversionless amplification in four-level atoms with Raman pumping,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 3196–3202 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (3)

J. Y. Gao, C. Guo, X. Z. Guo, G. X. Jin, P. W. Wang, J. Zhao, H. Z. Zhang, Y. Jiang, D. Z. Wang, and D. M. Jiang, “Observation of light amplification without population inversion in sodium,” Opt. Commun. 93, 323–327 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Javanainen, “Effect of state superpositions created by spontaneous emission on laser-driven transitions,” Europhys. Lett. 17, 407–412 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Fleischhauer, C. H. Keitel, L. M. Narducci, M. O. Scully, S. Y. Zhu, and M. S. Zubairy, “Lasing without inversion: interference of radiatively broadened resonances in dressed atomic systems,” Opt. Commun. 94, 599–608 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

A. Imamoglu, J. E. Field, and S. E. Harris, “Lasers without inversion: a closed lifetime broadened system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1154–1156 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

N. A. Ansari, J. Gea-Banacloche, and M. S. Zubairy, “Phase-sensitive amplification in a three-level atomic system,” Phys. Rev. A 41, 5179–5186 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (2)

S. E. Harris, “Lasers without inversion: interference of lifetime-broadened resonances,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 1033–1036 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. O. Scully, S. Y. Zhu, and A. Gavrielides, “Degenerate quantum-beat laser: lasing without inversion and inversion without lasing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 2813–2816 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Agarwal, G. S.

S. Menon and G. S. Agarwal, “Effects of spontaneously generated coherence on the pump–probe response of a Λ system,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 4014–4018 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ansari, N. A.

N. A. Ansari, J. Gea-Banacloche, and M. S. Zubairy, “Phase-sensitive amplification in a three-level atomic system,” Phys. Rev. A 41, 5179–5186 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, H.

S. Y. Zhu, H. Chen, and H. Huang, “Quantum interference effects in spontaneous emission from an atom embedded in a photonic band gap structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 205–208 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Doss, H. M.

C. H. Keitel, O. Kocharovskya, L. M. Narducci, M. O. Scully, S. Y. Zhu, and H. M. Doss, “Two mechanisms for inversionless amplification in four-level atoms with Raman pumping,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 3196–3202 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. M. Doss, L. M. Narducci, M. O. Scully, and J. Y. Gao, “Theoretical analysis of a four-level laser without inversion driven by a pulsed Raman field,” Opt. Commun. 95, 57–63 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Field, J. E.

A. Imamoglu, J. E. Field, and S. E. Harris, “Lasers without inversion: a closed lifetime broadened system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1154–1156 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Fleischhauer, M.

M. Fleischhauer, C. H. Keitel, L. M. Narducci, M. O. Scully, S. Y. Zhu, and M. S. Zubairy, “Lasing without inversion: interference of radiatively broadened resonances in dressed atomic systems,” Opt. Commun. 94, 599–608 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gao, J. Y.

S. Y. Zhu, D. Z. Wang, and J. Y. Gao, “Nonlinear theory of noninversion lasers of an open three-level system,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 1339–1345 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Doss, L. M. Narducci, M. O. Scully, and J. Y. Gao, “Theoretical analysis of a four-level laser without inversion driven by a pulsed Raman field,” Opt. Commun. 95, 57–63 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Gao, C. Guo, X. Z. Guo, G. X. Jin, P. W. Wang, J. Zhao, H. Z. Zhang, Y. Jiang, D. Z. Wang, and D. M. Jiang, “Observation of light amplification without population inversion in sodium,” Opt. Commun. 93, 323–327 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gavrielides, A.

M. O. Scully, S. Y. Zhu, and A. Gavrielides, “Degenerate quantum-beat laser: lasing without inversion and inversion without lasing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 2813–2816 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gea-Banacloche, J.

N. A. Ansari, J. Gea-Banacloche, and M. S. Zubairy, “Phase-sensitive amplification in a three-level atomic system,” Phys. Rev. A 41, 5179–5186 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ghafoor, F.

F. Ghafoor, S. Y. Zhu, and M. S. Zubairy, “Amplitude and phase control of spontaneous emission,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 013811 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gong, S. Q.

E. Paspalakis, S. Q. Gong, and P. L. Knight, “Spontaneous emission-induced coherent effects in absorption and dispersion of a V-type three-level atom,” Opt. Commun. 152, 293–298 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Guo, C.

J. Y. Gao, C. Guo, X. Z. Guo, G. X. Jin, P. W. Wang, J. Zhao, H. Z. Zhang, Y. Jiang, D. Z. Wang, and D. M. Jiang, “Observation of light amplification without population inversion in sodium,” Opt. Commun. 93, 323–327 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Guo, X. Z.

J. Y. Gao, C. Guo, X. Z. Guo, G. X. Jin, P. W. Wang, J. Zhao, H. Z. Zhang, Y. Jiang, D. Z. Wang, and D. M. Jiang, “Observation of light amplification without population inversion in sodium,” Opt. Commun. 93, 323–327 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Harris, S. E.

A. Imamoglu, J. E. Field, and S. E. Harris, “Lasers without inversion: a closed lifetime broadened system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1154–1156 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Harris, “Lasers without inversion: interference of lifetime-broadened resonances,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 1033–1036 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Herezfeld, P. R.

M. A. G. Martinez, P. R. Herezfeld, C. Samuels, L. M. Narducci, and C. H. Keitel, “Quantum interference effects in spontaneous atomic emission: dependence of the resonance fluorescence spectrum on the phase of the driving field,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 4483–4491 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hollberg, L.

A. S. Zibrov, M. D. Lukin, D. E. Nikonov, L. Hollberg, M. O. Scully, V. L. Velichansky, and H. G. Robinson, “Experimental demonstration of laser oscillation without population inversion via quantum interference in Rb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1499–1502 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, H.

S. Y. Zhu, H. Chen, and H. Huang, “Quantum interference effects in spontaneous emission from an atom embedded in a photonic band gap structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 205–208 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Imamoglu, A.

A. Imamoglu, J. E. Field, and S. E. Harris, “Lasers without inversion: a closed lifetime broadened system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1154–1156 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Javanainen, J.

J. Javanainen, “Effect of state superpositions created by spontaneous emission on laser-driven transitions,” Europhys. Lett. 17, 407–412 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, D. M.

J. Y. Gao, C. Guo, X. Z. Guo, G. X. Jin, P. W. Wang, J. Zhao, H. Z. Zhang, Y. Jiang, D. Z. Wang, and D. M. Jiang, “Observation of light amplification without population inversion in sodium,” Opt. Commun. 93, 323–327 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Y.

J. Y. Gao, C. Guo, X. Z. Guo, G. X. Jin, P. W. Wang, J. Zhao, H. Z. Zhang, Y. Jiang, D. Z. Wang, and D. M. Jiang, “Observation of light amplification without population inversion in sodium,” Opt. Commun. 93, 323–327 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Jin, G. X.

J. Y. Gao, C. Guo, X. Z. Guo, G. X. Jin, P. W. Wang, J. Zhao, H. Z. Zhang, Y. Jiang, D. Z. Wang, and D. M. Jiang, “Observation of light amplification without population inversion in sodium,” Opt. Commun. 93, 323–327 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Keitel, C. H.

M. A. G. Martinez, P. R. Herezfeld, C. Samuels, L. M. Narducci, and C. H. Keitel, “Quantum interference effects in spontaneous atomic emission: dependence of the resonance fluorescence spectrum on the phase of the driving field,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 4483–4491 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Keitel, O. Kocharovskya, L. M. Narducci, M. O. Scully, S. Y. Zhu, and H. M. Doss, “Two mechanisms for inversionless amplification in four-level atoms with Raman pumping,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 3196–3202 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Fleischhauer, C. H. Keitel, L. M. Narducci, M. O. Scully, S. Y. Zhu, and M. S. Zubairy, “Lasing without inversion: interference of radiatively broadened resonances in dressed atomic systems,” Opt. Commun. 94, 599–608 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Knight, P. L.

E. Paspalakis, S. Q. Gong, and P. L. Knight, “Spontaneous emission-induced coherent effects in absorption and dispersion of a V-type three-level atom,” Opt. Commun. 152, 293–298 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. Paspalakis and P. L. Knight, “Phase control of spontaneous emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 293–296 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kocharovskya, O.

C. H. Keitel, O. Kocharovskya, L. M. Narducci, M. O. Scully, S. Y. Zhu, and H. M. Doss, “Two mechanisms for inversionless amplification in four-level atoms with Raman pumping,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 3196–3202 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lange, W.

A. Nottelmann, C. Peters, and W. Lange, “Inversionless amplification of picosecond pulses due to Zeeman coherence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1783–1786 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lukin, M. D.

A. S. Zibrov, M. D. Lukin, D. E. Nikonov, L. Hollberg, M. O. Scully, V. L. Velichansky, and H. G. Robinson, “Experimental demonstration of laser oscillation without population inversion via quantum interference in Rb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1499–1502 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martinez, M. A. G.

M. A. G. Martinez, P. R. Herezfeld, C. Samuels, L. M. Narducci, and C. H. Keitel, “Quantum interference effects in spontaneous atomic emission: dependence of the resonance fluorescence spectrum on the phase of the driving field,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 4483–4491 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Menon, S.

S. Menon and G. S. Agarwal, “Effects of spontaneously generated coherence on the pump–probe response of a Λ system,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 4014–4018 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Narducci, L. M.

M. A. G. Martinez, P. R. Herezfeld, C. Samuels, L. M. Narducci, and C. H. Keitel, “Quantum interference effects in spontaneous atomic emission: dependence of the resonance fluorescence spectrum on the phase of the driving field,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 4483–4491 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Keitel, O. Kocharovskya, L. M. Narducci, M. O. Scully, S. Y. Zhu, and H. M. Doss, “Two mechanisms for inversionless amplification in four-level atoms with Raman pumping,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 3196–3202 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. M. Doss, L. M. Narducci, M. O. Scully, and J. Y. Gao, “Theoretical analysis of a four-level laser without inversion driven by a pulsed Raman field,” Opt. Commun. 95, 57–63 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Fleischhauer, C. H. Keitel, L. M. Narducci, M. O. Scully, S. Y. Zhu, and M. S. Zubairy, “Lasing without inversion: interference of radiatively broadened resonances in dressed atomic systems,” Opt. Commun. 94, 599–608 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nikonov, D. E.

A. S. Zibrov, M. D. Lukin, D. E. Nikonov, L. Hollberg, M. O. Scully, V. L. Velichansky, and H. G. Robinson, “Experimental demonstration of laser oscillation without population inversion via quantum interference in Rb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1499–1502 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nottelmann, A.

A. Nottelmann, C. Peters, and W. Lange, “Inversionless amplification of picosecond pulses due to Zeeman coherence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1783–1786 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paspalakis, E.

E. Paspalakis, S. Q. Gong, and P. L. Knight, “Spontaneous emission-induced coherent effects in absorption and dispersion of a V-type three-level atom,” Opt. Commun. 152, 293–298 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. Paspalakis and P. L. Knight, “Phase control of spontaneous emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 293–296 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Peters, C.

A. Nottelmann, C. Peters, and W. Lange, “Inversionless amplification of picosecond pulses due to Zeeman coherence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1783–1786 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robinson, H. G.

A. S. Zibrov, M. D. Lukin, D. E. Nikonov, L. Hollberg, M. O. Scully, V. L. Velichansky, and H. G. Robinson, “Experimental demonstration of laser oscillation without population inversion via quantum interference in Rb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1499–1502 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Samuels, C.

M. A. G. Martinez, P. R. Herezfeld, C. Samuels, L. M. Narducci, and C. H. Keitel, “Quantum interference effects in spontaneous atomic emission: dependence of the resonance fluorescence spectrum on the phase of the driving field,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 4483–4491 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Scully, M. O.

A. S. Zibrov, M. D. Lukin, D. E. Nikonov, L. Hollberg, M. O. Scully, V. L. Velichansky, and H. G. Robinson, “Experimental demonstration of laser oscillation without population inversion via quantum interference in Rb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1499–1502 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. M. Doss, L. M. Narducci, M. O. Scully, and J. Y. Gao, “Theoretical analysis of a four-level laser without inversion driven by a pulsed Raman field,” Opt. Commun. 95, 57–63 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Keitel, O. Kocharovskya, L. M. Narducci, M. O. Scully, S. Y. Zhu, and H. M. Doss, “Two mechanisms for inversionless amplification in four-level atoms with Raman pumping,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 3196–3202 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Fleischhauer, C. H. Keitel, L. M. Narducci, M. O. Scully, S. Y. Zhu, and M. S. Zubairy, “Lasing without inversion: interference of radiatively broadened resonances in dressed atomic systems,” Opt. Commun. 94, 599–608 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. O. Scully, S. Y. Zhu, and A. Gavrielides, “Degenerate quantum-beat laser: lasing without inversion and inversion without lasing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 2813–2816 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swain, S.

P. Zhou and S. Swain, “Phase-dependent spectra in a driven two-level atom,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2500–2504 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Zhou and S. Swain, “Quantum interference in probe absorption: narrow resonances, transparency, and gain without population inversion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 832–835 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Zhou and S. Swain, “Ultranarrow spectral lines via quantum interference,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3995–3998 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Velichansky, V. L.

A. S. Zibrov, M. D. Lukin, D. E. Nikonov, L. Hollberg, M. O. Scully, V. L. Velichansky, and H. G. Robinson, “Experimental demonstration of laser oscillation without population inversion via quantum interference in Rb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1499–1502 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, D. Z.

S. Y. Zhu, D. Z. Wang, and J. Y. Gao, “Nonlinear theory of noninversion lasers of an open three-level system,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 1339–1345 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Gao, C. Guo, X. Z. Guo, G. X. Jin, P. W. Wang, J. Zhao, H. Z. Zhang, Y. Jiang, D. Z. Wang, and D. M. Jiang, “Observation of light amplification without population inversion in sodium,” Opt. Commun. 93, 323–327 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wang, P. W.

J. Y. Gao, C. Guo, X. Z. Guo, G. X. Jin, P. W. Wang, J. Zhao, H. Z. Zhang, Y. Jiang, D. Z. Wang, and D. M. Jiang, “Observation of light amplification without population inversion in sodium,” Opt. Commun. 93, 323–327 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Xia, H. R.

H. R. Xia, C. Y. Ye, and S. Y. Zhu, “Experimental observation of spontaneous emission cancellation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1032–1037 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ye, C. Y.

H. R. Xia, C. Y. Ye, and S. Y. Zhu, “Experimental observation of spontaneous emission cancellation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1032–1037 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, H. Z.

J. Y. Gao, C. Guo, X. Z. Guo, G. X. Jin, P. W. Wang, J. Zhao, H. Z. Zhang, Y. Jiang, D. Z. Wang, and D. M. Jiang, “Observation of light amplification without population inversion in sodium,” Opt. Commun. 93, 323–327 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, J.

J. Y. Gao, C. Guo, X. Z. Guo, G. X. Jin, P. W. Wang, J. Zhao, H. Z. Zhang, Y. Jiang, D. Z. Wang, and D. M. Jiang, “Observation of light amplification without population inversion in sodium,” Opt. Commun. 93, 323–327 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, P.

P. Zhou and S. Swain, “Phase-dependent spectra in a driven two-level atom,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2500–2504 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Zhou and S. Swain, “Quantum interference in probe absorption: narrow resonances, transparency, and gain without population inversion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 832–835 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Zhou and S. Swain, “Ultranarrow spectral lines via quantum interference,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3995–3998 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, S. Y.

F. Ghafoor, S. Y. Zhu, and M. S. Zubairy, “Amplitude and phase control of spontaneous emission,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 013811 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Zhu, H. Chen, and H. Huang, “Quantum interference effects in spontaneous emission from an atom embedded in a photonic band gap structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 205–208 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Zhu, D. Z. Wang, and J. Y. Gao, “Nonlinear theory of noninversion lasers of an open three-level system,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 1339–1345 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Xia, C. Y. Ye, and S. Y. Zhu, “Experimental observation of spontaneous emission cancellation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1032–1037 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. H. Keitel, O. Kocharovskya, L. M. Narducci, M. O. Scully, S. Y. Zhu, and H. M. Doss, “Two mechanisms for inversionless amplification in four-level atoms with Raman pumping,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 3196–3202 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Fleischhauer, C. H. Keitel, L. M. Narducci, M. O. Scully, S. Y. Zhu, and M. S. Zubairy, “Lasing without inversion: interference of radiatively broadened resonances in dressed atomic systems,” Opt. Commun. 94, 599–608 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. O. Scully, S. Y. Zhu, and A. Gavrielides, “Degenerate quantum-beat laser: lasing without inversion and inversion without lasing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 2813–2816 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, Y. F.

Y. F. Zhu, “Light amplification mechanisms in a coherently coupled atomic system,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 4568–4575 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zibrov, A. S.

A. S. Zibrov, M. D. Lukin, D. E. Nikonov, L. Hollberg, M. O. Scully, V. L. Velichansky, and H. G. Robinson, “Experimental demonstration of laser oscillation without population inversion via quantum interference in Rb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1499–1502 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zubairy, M. S.

F. Ghafoor, S. Y. Zhu, and M. S. Zubairy, “Amplitude and phase control of spontaneous emission,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 013811 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Fleischhauer, C. H. Keitel, L. M. Narducci, M. O. Scully, S. Y. Zhu, and M. S. Zubairy, “Lasing without inversion: interference of radiatively broadened resonances in dressed atomic systems,” Opt. Commun. 94, 599–608 (1992).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Ansari, J. Gea-Banacloche, and M. S. Zubairy, “Phase-sensitive amplification in a three-level atomic system,” Phys. Rev. A 41, 5179–5186 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Europhys. Lett. (1)

J. Javanainen, “Effect of state superpositions created by spontaneous emission on laser-driven transitions,” Europhys. Lett. 17, 407–412 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (4)

E. Paspalakis, S. Q. Gong, and P. L. Knight, “Spontaneous emission-induced coherent effects in absorption and dispersion of a V-type three-level atom,” Opt. Commun. 152, 293–298 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Fleischhauer, C. H. Keitel, L. M. Narducci, M. O. Scully, S. Y. Zhu, and M. S. Zubairy, “Lasing without inversion: interference of radiatively broadened resonances in dressed atomic systems,” Opt. Commun. 94, 599–608 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Gao, C. Guo, X. Z. Guo, G. X. Jin, P. W. Wang, J. Zhao, H. Z. Zhang, Y. Jiang, D. Z. Wang, and D. M. Jiang, “Observation of light amplification without population inversion in sodium,” Opt. Commun. 93, 323–327 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Doss, L. M. Narducci, M. O. Scully, and J. Y. Gao, “Theoretical analysis of a four-level laser without inversion driven by a pulsed Raman field,” Opt. Commun. 95, 57–63 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (7)

F. Ghafoor, S. Y. Zhu, and M. S. Zubairy, “Amplitude and phase control of spontaneous emission,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 013811 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Keitel, O. Kocharovskya, L. M. Narducci, M. O. Scully, S. Y. Zhu, and H. M. Doss, “Two mechanisms for inversionless amplification in four-level atoms with Raman pumping,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 3196–3202 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. F. Zhu, “Light amplification mechanisms in a coherently coupled atomic system,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 4568–4575 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Zhu, D. Z. Wang, and J. Y. Gao, “Nonlinear theory of noninversion lasers of an open three-level system,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 1339–1345 (1997).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Ansari, J. Gea-Banacloche, and M. S. Zubairy, “Phase-sensitive amplification in a three-level atomic system,” Phys. Rev. A 41, 5179–5186 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. G. Martinez, P. R. Herezfeld, C. Samuels, L. M. Narducci, and C. H. Keitel, “Quantum interference effects in spontaneous atomic emission: dependence of the resonance fluorescence spectrum on the phase of the driving field,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 4483–4491 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Menon and G. S. Agarwal, “Effects of spontaneously generated coherence on the pump–probe response of a Λ system,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 4014–4018 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (11)

E. Paspalakis and P. L. Knight, “Phase control of spontaneous emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 293–296 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Zhou and S. Swain, “Phase-dependent spectra in a driven two-level atom,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2500–2504 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Zhu, H. Chen, and H. Huang, “Quantum interference effects in spontaneous emission from an atom embedded in a photonic band gap structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 205–208 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Harris, “Lasers without inversion: interference of lifetime-broadened resonances,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 1033–1036 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. O. Scully, S. Y. Zhu, and A. Gavrielides, “Degenerate quantum-beat laser: lasing without inversion and inversion without lasing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 2813–2816 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Imamoglu, J. E. Field, and S. E. Harris, “Lasers without inversion: a closed lifetime broadened system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1154–1156 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. Nottelmann, C. Peters, and W. Lange, “Inversionless amplification of picosecond pulses due to Zeeman coherence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1783–1786 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Zhou and S. Swain, “Ultranarrow spectral lines via quantum interference,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3995–3998 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Zhou and S. Swain, “Quantum interference in probe absorption: narrow resonances, transparency, and gain without population inversion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 832–835 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Xia, C. Y. Ye, and S. Y. Zhu, “Experimental observation of spontaneous emission cancellation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1032–1037 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Zibrov, M. D. Lukin, D. E. Nikonov, L. Hollberg, M. O. Scully, V. L. Velichansky, and H. G. Robinson, “Experimental demonstration of laser oscillation without population inversion via quantum interference in Rb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1499–1502 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic representation of a four-level V-type atomic system driven by three coherent fields. The field polarizations are so arranged that one field drives only one transition.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Probe gain or absorption Im(ρ14/Gp) relative to probe detuning Δp for (a) Φ=0 and three values of θ and (b) θ=π/12 and three values of Φ. Other parameters are γ1=γ2=γ3=1, Δc=Δd=0, Gp=0.1, and Gc=Gd=15 sin θ.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Probe gain or absorption Im(ρ14/Gp) relative to phase Φ for Δp=0. Other parameters are the same as those in Fig. 2(b).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Probe gain or absorption Im(ρ14/Gp) relative to probe detuning Δp for Δc=12 and three values of Φ. Other parameters are γ1=γ2=γ3=1, Δd=0, Gp=0.1, Gc=Gd=15 sin θ, and θ=π/4.

Equations (11)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

HI=Δc|22|+Δd|33|+Δp|44|-[Ωc|21|+Ωd|31|+Ωp|41|+H.c.].
ρ˜t=-i[HI,ρ˜]+Λρ˜.
ρ·22=-2γ1ρ22+iGc(ρ12-ρ21)-ηρ23-η*ρ32,
ρ·33=-2γ2ρ33+iGd(ρ13-ρ31)-ηρ23-η*ρ32,
ρ·44=-2γ3ρ44+2Λρ11+iGpρ14-iGpρ41,
ρ·12=(iΔc-γ1-Λ)ρ12+iGc(ρ22-ρ11)+iGdρ32+iGpρ42-ηρ13,
ρ·13=(iΔd-γ2-Λ)ρ13+iGd(ρ33-ρ11)+iGcρ23+iGpρ43-η*ρ12,
ρ·14=(iΔp-γ3-Λ)ρ14+iGp(ρ44-ρ11)+iGcρ24+iGdρ34,
ρ·23=(iΔd-iΔc-γ1-γ2)ρ23+iGcρ13-iGdρ21-η *(ρ22+ρ33),
ρ·24=(iΔp-iΔc-γ1-γ3)ρ24+iGcρ14-iGpρ21,
ρ·34=(iΔp-iΔd-γ2-γ3)ρ34+iGdρ14-iGpρ31.

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