Abstract

We propose a new, to our knowledge, method for an all-optical analog-to-digital converter by using self-frequency shifting in a fiber and a pulse-shaping technique. Preliminary experimental results show that various digitized temporal bit signals can be generated by the variation of the power of an ultrashort analog input pulse of less than 1 ps.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

2001 (6)

T. Konishi, T. Kotanigawa, K. Tanimura, H. Furukawa, Y. Oshita, and Y. Ichioka, “Fundamental functions for ultrafast optical routing by use of temporal frequency-to-space conversion,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1445–1447 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Yamada, H. Takara, T. Ohara, K. Sato, K. Jinguji, Y. Inoue, T. Shibata, T. Morioka, “106 channel/spl times/10 Gbit/s, 640 km DWDM transmission with 25 GHz spacing with supercontinuum multi-carrier source,” Electron. Lett. 37, 1534–1536 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. W. Juodawlkis, J. C. Twichell, G. E. Betts, J. J. Hargreaves, R. D. Younger, J. L. Wasserman, F. J. O’Donnell, K. G. Ray, and R. C. Williamson, “Optically sampled analog-to-digital converters,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 1840–1853 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Urata, R. Takahashi, V. A. Sabnis, and D. A. B. Miller, “Ultrafast differential sample and hold using low-temperature-grown GaAs MSM for photonic A/D conversion,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 13, 717–719 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Brzozowski and E. H. Sargent, “All-optical analog-to-digital converters, hard limiters, and logic gates,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 114–119 (2001).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, C. Xu, W. H. Knox, J. K. Candalia, B. J. Eggleton, S. G. Kosinski, and R. S. Windeler, “Soliton self-frequency in a short tapered air–silica microstructure fiber,” Opt. Lett. 26, 358–360 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (5)

D. H. Chang, H. Erlig, M. C. Oh, C. Zhang, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, and H. R. Fetterman, “Time stretching of 102-GHz millimeter waves using novel 1.55-μm polymer electro-optic modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 537–539 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Rabiei and A. F. J. Levi, “Analysis of hybrid optoelectronic WDM ADC,” J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 1264–1270 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Nakazawa, H. Kubota, K. Suzuki, E. Yamada, and A. Sahara, “Ultrahigh-speed long-distance TDM and WDM soliton transmission technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 363–396 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Aoyama, Special Issue on Advanced Internetworking Based on Photonic Network Technologies, IEICE Trans. Commun. E83-B, 2151–2152 (2000).

K. Kitayama, N. Wada, and H. Sotobayashi, “Architectural considerations for photonic IP router based upon optical code correlation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 1834–1844 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (5)

S. Kawanishi, H. Takara, K. Uchiyama, I. Shake, and K. Mori, “3 Tbit/s (160 Gbit/s/spl times/19 channel) optical TDM and WDM transmission experiment,” Electron. Lett. 35, 826–827 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Coppinger, A. S. Bhushan, and B. Jalali, “Photonic time stretch and its application to analog-to-digital conversion,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 1309–1314 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Clark, J. U. Kang, and R. D. Esman, “Performance of a time- and wavelength-interleaved photonic sampler for analog–digital conversion,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 1168–1170 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Konishi and Y. Ichioka, “Optical spectrogram scope using time-to-two-dimensional space conversion and interferometric time-of-flight cross correlation,” Opt. Rev. 6, 507–512 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. Nishizawa, R. Okamura, and T. Goto, “Analysis of widely wavelength tunable femtosecond soliton pulse generation using optical fibers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 4768–4771 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

A. S. Bhushan, F. Coppinger, and B. Jalali, “Time-stretched analogue-to-digital conversion,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1081–1083 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1988 (1)

A. S. Gouveia-Neto, M. E. Falcon, and J. R. Taylor, “Temporal and spectral evolution of femtosecond solitons in the region of the zero group verocity dispersion of a single mode optical fibre,” Opt. Commun. 69, 173–176 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

1986 (2)

Alfano, R. R.

Aoyama, T.

T. Aoyama, Special Issue on Advanced Internetworking Based on Photonic Network Technologies, IEICE Trans. Commun. E83-B, 2151–2152 (2000).

Betts, G. E.

P. W. Juodawlkis, J. C. Twichell, G. E. Betts, J. J. Hargreaves, R. D. Younger, J. L. Wasserman, F. J. O’Donnell, K. G. Ray, and R. C. Williamson, “Optically sampled analog-to-digital converters,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 1840–1853 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bhushan, A. S.

F. Coppinger, A. S. Bhushan, and B. Jalali, “Photonic time stretch and its application to analog-to-digital conversion,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 1309–1314 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Bhushan, F. Coppinger, and B. Jalali, “Time-stretched analogue-to-digital conversion,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1081–1083 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Brzozowski, L.

Candalia, J. K.

Chang, D. H.

D. H. Chang, H. Erlig, M. C. Oh, C. Zhang, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, and H. R. Fetterman, “Time stretching of 102-GHz millimeter waves using novel 1.55-μm polymer electro-optic modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 537–539 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H. H.

Chen, J.

Clark, T. R.

T. R. Clark, J. U. Kang, and R. D. Esman, “Performance of a time- and wavelength-interleaved photonic sampler for analog–digital conversion,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 1168–1170 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Coppinger, F.

F. Coppinger, A. S. Bhushan, and B. Jalali, “Photonic time stretch and its application to analog-to-digital conversion,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 1309–1314 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Bhushan, F. Coppinger, and B. Jalali, “Time-stretched analogue-to-digital conversion,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1081–1083 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dalton, L. R.

D. H. Chang, H. Erlig, M. C. Oh, C. Zhang, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, and H. R. Fetterman, “Time stretching of 102-GHz millimeter waves using novel 1.55-μm polymer electro-optic modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 537–539 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Eggleton, B. J.

Erlig, H.

D. H. Chang, H. Erlig, M. C. Oh, C. Zhang, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, and H. R. Fetterman, “Time stretching of 102-GHz millimeter waves using novel 1.55-μm polymer electro-optic modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 537–539 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Esman, R. D.

T. R. Clark, J. U. Kang, and R. D. Esman, “Performance of a time- and wavelength-interleaved photonic sampler for analog–digital conversion,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 1168–1170 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Falcon, M. E.

A. S. Gouveia-Neto, M. E. Falcon, and J. R. Taylor, “Temporal and spectral evolution of femtosecond solitons in the region of the zero group verocity dispersion of a single mode optical fibre,” Opt. Commun. 69, 173–176 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Fetterman, H. R.

D. H. Chang, H. Erlig, M. C. Oh, C. Zhang, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, and H. R. Fetterman, “Time stretching of 102-GHz millimeter waves using novel 1.55-μm polymer electro-optic modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 537–539 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Furukawa, H.

Gordon, J. P.

Goto, T.

N. Nishizawa, R. Okamura, and T. Goto, “Analysis of widely wavelength tunable femtosecond soliton pulse generation using optical fibers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 4768–4771 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gouveia-Neto, A. S.

A. S. Gouveia-Neto, M. E. Falcon, and J. R. Taylor, “Temporal and spectral evolution of femtosecond solitons in the region of the zero group verocity dispersion of a single mode optical fibre,” Opt. Commun. 69, 173–176 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Hargreaves, J. J.

P. W. Juodawlkis, J. C. Twichell, G. E. Betts, J. J. Hargreaves, R. D. Younger, J. L. Wasserman, F. J. O’Donnell, K. G. Ray, and R. C. Williamson, “Optically sampled analog-to-digital converters,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 1840–1853 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ho, P. P.

Ichioka, Y.

T. Konishi, T. Kotanigawa, K. Tanimura, H. Furukawa, Y. Oshita, and Y. Ichioka, “Fundamental functions for ultrafast optical routing by use of temporal frequency-to-space conversion,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1445–1447 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Konishi and Y. Ichioka, “Optical spectrogram scope using time-to-two-dimensional space conversion and interferometric time-of-flight cross correlation,” Opt. Rev. 6, 507–512 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, Y.

E. Yamada, H. Takara, T. Ohara, K. Sato, K. Jinguji, Y. Inoue, T. Shibata, T. Morioka, “106 channel/spl times/10 Gbit/s, 640 km DWDM transmission with 25 GHz spacing with supercontinuum multi-carrier source,” Electron. Lett. 37, 1534–1536 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jalali, B.

F. Coppinger, A. S. Bhushan, and B. Jalali, “Photonic time stretch and its application to analog-to-digital conversion,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 1309–1314 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Bhushan, F. Coppinger, and B. Jalali, “Time-stretched analogue-to-digital conversion,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1081–1083 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jinguji, K.

E. Yamada, H. Takara, T. Ohara, K. Sato, K. Jinguji, Y. Inoue, T. Shibata, T. Morioka, “106 channel/spl times/10 Gbit/s, 640 km DWDM transmission with 25 GHz spacing with supercontinuum multi-carrier source,” Electron. Lett. 37, 1534–1536 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Juodawlkis, P. W.

P. W. Juodawlkis, J. C. Twichell, G. E. Betts, J. J. Hargreaves, R. D. Younger, J. L. Wasserman, F. J. O’Donnell, K. G. Ray, and R. C. Williamson, “Optically sampled analog-to-digital converters,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 1840–1853 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kang, J. U.

T. R. Clark, J. U. Kang, and R. D. Esman, “Performance of a time- and wavelength-interleaved photonic sampler for analog–digital conversion,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 1168–1170 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kawanishi, S.

S. Kawanishi, H. Takara, K. Uchiyama, I. Shake, and K. Mori, “3 Tbit/s (160 Gbit/s/spl times/19 channel) optical TDM and WDM transmission experiment,” Electron. Lett. 35, 826–827 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kitayama, K.

Knox, W. H.

Konishi, T.

T. Konishi, T. Kotanigawa, K. Tanimura, H. Furukawa, Y. Oshita, and Y. Ichioka, “Fundamental functions for ultrafast optical routing by use of temporal frequency-to-space conversion,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1445–1447 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Konishi and Y. Ichioka, “Optical spectrogram scope using time-to-two-dimensional space conversion and interferometric time-of-flight cross correlation,” Opt. Rev. 6, 507–512 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kosinski, S. G.

Kotanigawa, T.

Kubota, H.

M. Nakazawa, H. Kubota, K. Suzuki, E. Yamada, and A. Sahara, “Ultrahigh-speed long-distance TDM and WDM soliton transmission technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 363–396 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. C.

Levi, A. F. J.

Liu, Q. D.

Liu, X.

Menyuk, C. R.

Miller, D. A. B.

R. Urata, R. Takahashi, V. A. Sabnis, and D. A. B. Miller, “Ultrafast differential sample and hold using low-temperature-grown GaAs MSM for photonic A/D conversion,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 13, 717–719 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mitschke, F. M.

Mollenauer, L. F.

Mori, K.

S. Kawanishi, H. Takara, K. Uchiyama, I. Shake, and K. Mori, “3 Tbit/s (160 Gbit/s/spl times/19 channel) optical TDM and WDM transmission experiment,” Electron. Lett. 35, 826–827 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Morioka, T.

E. Yamada, H. Takara, T. Ohara, K. Sato, K. Jinguji, Y. Inoue, T. Shibata, T. Morioka, “106 channel/spl times/10 Gbit/s, 640 km DWDM transmission with 25 GHz spacing with supercontinuum multi-carrier source,” Electron. Lett. 37, 1534–1536 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nakazawa, M.

M. Nakazawa, H. Kubota, K. Suzuki, E. Yamada, and A. Sahara, “Ultrahigh-speed long-distance TDM and WDM soliton transmission technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 363–396 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nishizawa, N.

N. Nishizawa, R. Okamura, and T. Goto, “Analysis of widely wavelength tunable femtosecond soliton pulse generation using optical fibers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 4768–4771 (1999).
[CrossRef]

O’Donnell, F. J.

P. W. Juodawlkis, J. C. Twichell, G. E. Betts, J. J. Hargreaves, R. D. Younger, J. L. Wasserman, F. J. O’Donnell, K. G. Ray, and R. C. Williamson, “Optically sampled analog-to-digital converters,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 1840–1853 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Oh, M. C.

D. H. Chang, H. Erlig, M. C. Oh, C. Zhang, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, and H. R. Fetterman, “Time stretching of 102-GHz millimeter waves using novel 1.55-μm polymer electro-optic modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 537–539 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ohara, T.

E. Yamada, H. Takara, T. Ohara, K. Sato, K. Jinguji, Y. Inoue, T. Shibata, T. Morioka, “106 channel/spl times/10 Gbit/s, 640 km DWDM transmission with 25 GHz spacing with supercontinuum multi-carrier source,” Electron. Lett. 37, 1534–1536 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Okamura, R.

N. Nishizawa, R. Okamura, and T. Goto, “Analysis of widely wavelength tunable femtosecond soliton pulse generation using optical fibers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 4768–4771 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Oshita, Y.

Rabiei, P.

Ray, K. G.

P. W. Juodawlkis, J. C. Twichell, G. E. Betts, J. J. Hargreaves, R. D. Younger, J. L. Wasserman, F. J. O’Donnell, K. G. Ray, and R. C. Williamson, “Optically sampled analog-to-digital converters,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 1840–1853 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sabnis, V. A.

R. Urata, R. Takahashi, V. A. Sabnis, and D. A. B. Miller, “Ultrafast differential sample and hold using low-temperature-grown GaAs MSM for photonic A/D conversion,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 13, 717–719 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sahara, A.

M. Nakazawa, H. Kubota, K. Suzuki, E. Yamada, and A. Sahara, “Ultrahigh-speed long-distance TDM and WDM soliton transmission technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 363–396 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sargent, E. H.

Sato, K.

E. Yamada, H. Takara, T. Ohara, K. Sato, K. Jinguji, Y. Inoue, T. Shibata, T. Morioka, “106 channel/spl times/10 Gbit/s, 640 km DWDM transmission with 25 GHz spacing with supercontinuum multi-carrier source,” Electron. Lett. 37, 1534–1536 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shake, I.

S. Kawanishi, H. Takara, K. Uchiyama, I. Shake, and K. Mori, “3 Tbit/s (160 Gbit/s/spl times/19 channel) optical TDM and WDM transmission experiment,” Electron. Lett. 35, 826–827 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shibata, T.

E. Yamada, H. Takara, T. Ohara, K. Sato, K. Jinguji, Y. Inoue, T. Shibata, T. Morioka, “106 channel/spl times/10 Gbit/s, 640 km DWDM transmission with 25 GHz spacing with supercontinuum multi-carrier source,” Electron. Lett. 37, 1534–1536 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sotobayashi, H.

Steier, W. H.

D. H. Chang, H. Erlig, M. C. Oh, C. Zhang, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, and H. R. Fetterman, “Time stretching of 102-GHz millimeter waves using novel 1.55-μm polymer electro-optic modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 537–539 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, K.

M. Nakazawa, H. Kubota, K. Suzuki, E. Yamada, and A. Sahara, “Ultrahigh-speed long-distance TDM and WDM soliton transmission technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 363–396 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, R.

R. Urata, R. Takahashi, V. A. Sabnis, and D. A. B. Miller, “Ultrafast differential sample and hold using low-temperature-grown GaAs MSM for photonic A/D conversion,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 13, 717–719 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Takara, H.

E. Yamada, H. Takara, T. Ohara, K. Sato, K. Jinguji, Y. Inoue, T. Shibata, T. Morioka, “106 channel/spl times/10 Gbit/s, 640 km DWDM transmission with 25 GHz spacing with supercontinuum multi-carrier source,” Electron. Lett. 37, 1534–1536 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Kawanishi, H. Takara, K. Uchiyama, I. Shake, and K. Mori, “3 Tbit/s (160 Gbit/s/spl times/19 channel) optical TDM and WDM transmission experiment,” Electron. Lett. 35, 826–827 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tanimura, K.

Taylor, J. R.

A. S. Gouveia-Neto, M. E. Falcon, and J. R. Taylor, “Temporal and spectral evolution of femtosecond solitons in the region of the zero group verocity dispersion of a single mode optical fibre,” Opt. Commun. 69, 173–176 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Twichell, J. C.

P. W. Juodawlkis, J. C. Twichell, G. E. Betts, J. J. Hargreaves, R. D. Younger, J. L. Wasserman, F. J. O’Donnell, K. G. Ray, and R. C. Williamson, “Optically sampled analog-to-digital converters,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 1840–1853 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Uchiyama, K.

S. Kawanishi, H. Takara, K. Uchiyama, I. Shake, and K. Mori, “3 Tbit/s (160 Gbit/s/spl times/19 channel) optical TDM and WDM transmission experiment,” Electron. Lett. 35, 826–827 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Urata, R.

R. Urata, R. Takahashi, V. A. Sabnis, and D. A. B. Miller, “Ultrafast differential sample and hold using low-temperature-grown GaAs MSM for photonic A/D conversion,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 13, 717–719 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wada, N.

Wai, P. K. A.

Wang, Q. Z.

Wasserman, J. L.

P. W. Juodawlkis, J. C. Twichell, G. E. Betts, J. J. Hargreaves, R. D. Younger, J. L. Wasserman, F. J. O’Donnell, K. G. Ray, and R. C. Williamson, “Optically sampled analog-to-digital converters,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 1840–1853 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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P. W. Juodawlkis, J. C. Twichell, G. E. Betts, J. J. Hargreaves, R. D. Younger, J. L. Wasserman, F. J. O’Donnell, K. G. Ray, and R. C. Williamson, “Optically sampled analog-to-digital converters,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 1840–1853 (2001).
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E. Yamada, H. Takara, T. Ohara, K. Sato, K. Jinguji, Y. Inoue, T. Shibata, T. Morioka, “106 channel/spl times/10 Gbit/s, 640 km DWDM transmission with 25 GHz spacing with supercontinuum multi-carrier source,” Electron. Lett. 37, 1534–1536 (2001).
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Younger, R. D.

P. W. Juodawlkis, J. C. Twichell, G. E. Betts, J. J. Hargreaves, R. D. Younger, J. L. Wasserman, F. J. O’Donnell, K. G. Ray, and R. C. Williamson, “Optically sampled analog-to-digital converters,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 1840–1853 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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Appl. Opt. (1)

Electron. Lett. (3)

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A. S. Bhushan, F. Coppinger, and B. Jalali, “Time-stretched analogue-to-digital conversion,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1081–1083 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Nakazawa, H. Kubota, K. Suzuki, E. Yamada, and A. Sahara, “Ultrahigh-speed long-distance TDM and WDM soliton transmission technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 363–396 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (3)

D. H. Chang, H. Erlig, M. C. Oh, C. Zhang, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, and H. R. Fetterman, “Time stretching of 102-GHz millimeter waves using novel 1.55-μm polymer electro-optic modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 537–539 (2000).
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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Typical pulse-shaping system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of the proposed all-optical A/D converter.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic diagram of multilevel thresholding by use of self-frequency shifting.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic diagram of the generation of a digitized temporal bit signal by use of the pulse-shaping technique.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Schematic diagram of a spatial filter for the generation of various digitized temporal bit signals.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Experimental setup of the proposed all-optical A/D converter. B.S., beam splitter.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Schematic diagram of a fabricated spatial filter.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Spectrogram of an input pulse measured with the OSS.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Variation of the shift of the center wavelength of an output signal from a DSF by the varying of the power of the input signal.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Spectral profiles measured by spectrum analyzer (ADVANTEST Corporation, Model Q8384) at each input power: (a) 0.947 mW, (b) 1.78 mW.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Converted spatial outputs at each input power: (a) 0.947 mW, (b) 1.78 mW.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Experimental result of cross correlation between output signals and a temporal gate pulse at input powers of (a) 0.947 mW, (b) 1.78 mW.

Equations (6)

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dκdZ=815σRη4,
smod(t)=FTtime[Sorig(X:ω)·F(X:ω)],
Fg(X)=n=1NFn(X)rectX-nΔXΔX,
rect(X)=1(|X|1/2)0(otherwise)
sdign(t)=FTtime[Sn(X : ω)·Fn(X)],
N=WS+FWHMFWHM,

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