Abstract

Smoothing, caused by the small-spatial-scale B integral, was measured on the OMEGA laser (a high-power, solid-state laser used for inertial confinement fusion research) without applied bandwidth. The intrinsic nonuniformity of laser irradiation [i.e., irradiation without smoothing by spectral dispersion] was determined from fluence distributions in equivalent-target-plane images of beams with phase plates. These data are compared with simulations that include both small-spatial-scale and whole-beam B integrals. The nonuniformity decreases with increasing average intensity. High-intensity beams can acquire bandwidth as a result of the intensity-dependent phase accumulated in the laser chain. The far-field speckle pattern produced by a phase plate can shift as the near-field phase front changes, which decreases the nonuniformity. The far-field power spectrum is affected mainly in the high spatial frequencies, where it is not expected to mitigate hydrodynamic instabilities.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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2000

F. J. Marshall, J. A. Delettrez, V. Yu. Glebov, R. P. J. Town, B. Yaakobi, R. L. Kremens, and M. Cable, “Direct-drive, hollow-shell implosion studies on the 60-beam, UV OMEGA laser system,” Phys. Plasmas 7, 1006–1013 (2000).

S. P. Regan, J. Marozas, J. H. Kelly, T. R. Boehly, W. R. Donaldson, P. A. Jaanimagi, R. L. Keck, T. J. Kessler, D. D. Meyerhofer, W. Seka, S. Skupsky, and V. A. Smalyuk, “Experimental investigation of smoothing by spectral dispersion,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1483–1489 (2000).

1999

S. Skupsky and R. S. Craxton, “Irradiation uniformity for high-compression laser-fusion experiments,” Phys. Plasmas 6, 2157–2163 (1999).

F. J. Marshall and G. R. Bennett, “A high-energy x-ray microscope for inertial confinement fusion,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 617–619 (1999).

1998

V. A. Smalyuk, T. R. Boehly, D. K. Bradley, V. N. Goncharov, J. A. Delettrez, J. P. Knauer, D. D. Meyerhofer, D. Oron, and D. Shvarts, “Saturation of the Rayleigh-Taylor growth of broad-bandwidth laser-imposed nonuniformities in planar targets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5342–5345 (1998).

S. E. Bodner, D. G. Colombant, J. H. Gardner, R. H. Lehmberg, S. P. Obenschain, L. Phillips, A. J. Schmitt, J. D. Sethian, R. L. McCrory, W. Seka, C. P. Verdon, J. P. Knauer, B. B. Afeyan, and H. T. Powell, “Direct-drive laser fusion: status and prospects,” Phys. Plasmas 5, 1901–1918 (1998).

1997

R. Epstein, “Reduction of time-averaged irradiation speckle nonuniformity in laser-driven plasmas due to target ablation,” J. Appl. Phys. 82, 2123–2139 (1997).

T. R. Boehly, D. L. Brown, R. S. Craxton, R. L. Keck, J. P. Knauer, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kessler, S. A. Kumpan, S. J. Loucks, S. A. Letzring, F. J. Marshall, R. L. McCrory, S. F. B. Morse, W. Seka, J. M. Soures, and C. P. Verdon, “Initial performance results of the OMEGA laser system,” Opt. Commun. 133, 495–506 (1997).

J. E. Rothenberg, “Comparison of beam-smoothing methods for direct-drive inertial confinement fusion,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1664–1671 (1997).

1996

1994

J. Delettrez, D. K. Bradley, and C. P. Verdon, “The role of the Rayleigh–Taylor instability in laser-driven burnthrough experiments,” Phys. Plasmas 1, 2342–2349 (1994).

J. D. Kilkenny, S. G. Glendinning, S. W. Haan, B. A. Hammel, J. D. Lindl, D. Munro, B. A. Remington, S. V. Weber, J. P. Knauer, and C. P. Verdon, “A review of the ablative stabilization of the Rayleigh–Taylor instability in regimes relevant to inertial confinement fusion,” Phys. Plasmas 1, 1379–1389 (1994).

1993

C. P. Verdon, “High-performance direct-drive capsule designs for the National Ignition Facility,” Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 38, 2010 (1993).

K. Tsubakimoto, T. Jitsuno, N. Miyanaga, M. Nakatsuka, T. Kanabe, and S. Nakai, “Suppression of speckle contrast by using polarization property on second harmonic generation,” Opt. Commun. 103, 185–188 (1993).

1992

K. Tsubakimoto, M. Nakatsuka, H. Nakano, T. Kanabe, T. Jitsuno, and S. Nakai, “Suppression of interference speckles produced by a random phase plate, using a polarization control plate,” Opt. Commun. 91, 9–12 (1992).

D. K. Bradley, J. A. Delettrez, and C. P. Verdon, “Measurements of the effect of laser beam smoothing on direct-drive inertial-confinement-fusion capsule implosions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2774–2777 (1992).

1989

S. Skupsky, R. W. Short, T. Kessler, R. S. Craxton, S. Letzring, and J. M. Soures, “Improved laser-beam uniformity using the angular dispersion of frequency-modulated light,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 3456–3462 (1989).

Afeyan, B. B.

S. E. Bodner, D. G. Colombant, J. H. Gardner, R. H. Lehmberg, S. P. Obenschain, L. Phillips, A. J. Schmitt, J. D. Sethian, R. L. McCrory, W. Seka, C. P. Verdon, J. P. Knauer, B. B. Afeyan, and H. T. Powell, “Direct-drive laser fusion: status and prospects,” Phys. Plasmas 5, 1901–1918 (1998).

Bennett, G. R.

F. J. Marshall and G. R. Bennett, “A high-energy x-ray microscope for inertial confinement fusion,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 617–619 (1999).

Bodner, S. E.

S. E. Bodner, D. G. Colombant, J. H. Gardner, R. H. Lehmberg, S. P. Obenschain, L. Phillips, A. J. Schmitt, J. D. Sethian, R. L. McCrory, W. Seka, C. P. Verdon, J. P. Knauer, B. B. Afeyan, and H. T. Powell, “Direct-drive laser fusion: status and prospects,” Phys. Plasmas 5, 1901–1918 (1998).

Boehly, T. R.

S. P. Regan, J. Marozas, J. H. Kelly, T. R. Boehly, W. R. Donaldson, P. A. Jaanimagi, R. L. Keck, T. J. Kessler, D. D. Meyerhofer, W. Seka, S. Skupsky, and V. A. Smalyuk, “Experimental investigation of smoothing by spectral dispersion,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1483–1489 (2000).

V. A. Smalyuk, T. R. Boehly, D. K. Bradley, V. N. Goncharov, J. A. Delettrez, J. P. Knauer, D. D. Meyerhofer, D. Oron, and D. Shvarts, “Saturation of the Rayleigh-Taylor growth of broad-bandwidth laser-imposed nonuniformities in planar targets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5342–5345 (1998).

T. R. Boehly, D. L. Brown, R. S. Craxton, R. L. Keck, J. P. Knauer, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kessler, S. A. Kumpan, S. J. Loucks, S. A. Letzring, F. J. Marshall, R. L. McCrory, S. F. B. Morse, W. Seka, J. M. Soures, and C. P. Verdon, “Initial performance results of the OMEGA laser system,” Opt. Commun. 133, 495–506 (1997).

Bradley, D. K.

V. A. Smalyuk, T. R. Boehly, D. K. Bradley, V. N. Goncharov, J. A. Delettrez, J. P. Knauer, D. D. Meyerhofer, D. Oron, and D. Shvarts, “Saturation of the Rayleigh-Taylor growth of broad-bandwidth laser-imposed nonuniformities in planar targets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5342–5345 (1998).

J. Delettrez, D. K. Bradley, and C. P. Verdon, “The role of the Rayleigh–Taylor instability in laser-driven burnthrough experiments,” Phys. Plasmas 1, 2342–2349 (1994).

D. K. Bradley, J. A. Delettrez, and C. P. Verdon, “Measurements of the effect of laser beam smoothing on direct-drive inertial-confinement-fusion capsule implosions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2774–2777 (1992).

Brown, D. L.

T. R. Boehly, D. L. Brown, R. S. Craxton, R. L. Keck, J. P. Knauer, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kessler, S. A. Kumpan, S. J. Loucks, S. A. Letzring, F. J. Marshall, R. L. McCrory, S. F. B. Morse, W. Seka, J. M. Soures, and C. P. Verdon, “Initial performance results of the OMEGA laser system,” Opt. Commun. 133, 495–506 (1997).

Cable, M.

F. J. Marshall, J. A. Delettrez, V. Yu. Glebov, R. P. J. Town, B. Yaakobi, R. L. Kremens, and M. Cable, “Direct-drive, hollow-shell implosion studies on the 60-beam, UV OMEGA laser system,” Phys. Plasmas 7, 1006–1013 (2000).

Colombant, D. G.

S. E. Bodner, D. G. Colombant, J. H. Gardner, R. H. Lehmberg, S. P. Obenschain, L. Phillips, A. J. Schmitt, J. D. Sethian, R. L. McCrory, W. Seka, C. P. Verdon, J. P. Knauer, B. B. Afeyan, and H. T. Powell, “Direct-drive laser fusion: status and prospects,” Phys. Plasmas 5, 1901–1918 (1998).

Craxton, R. S.

S. Skupsky and R. S. Craxton, “Irradiation uniformity for high-compression laser-fusion experiments,” Phys. Plasmas 6, 2157–2163 (1999).

T. R. Boehly, D. L. Brown, R. S. Craxton, R. L. Keck, J. P. Knauer, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kessler, S. A. Kumpan, S. J. Loucks, S. A. Letzring, F. J. Marshall, R. L. McCrory, S. F. B. Morse, W. Seka, J. M. Soures, and C. P. Verdon, “Initial performance results of the OMEGA laser system,” Opt. Commun. 133, 495–506 (1997).

S. Skupsky, R. W. Short, T. Kessler, R. S. Craxton, S. Letzring, and J. M. Soures, “Improved laser-beam uniformity using the angular dispersion of frequency-modulated light,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 3456–3462 (1989).

Delettrez, J.

J. Delettrez, D. K. Bradley, and C. P. Verdon, “The role of the Rayleigh–Taylor instability in laser-driven burnthrough experiments,” Phys. Plasmas 1, 2342–2349 (1994).

Delettrez, J. A.

F. J. Marshall, J. A. Delettrez, V. Yu. Glebov, R. P. J. Town, B. Yaakobi, R. L. Kremens, and M. Cable, “Direct-drive, hollow-shell implosion studies on the 60-beam, UV OMEGA laser system,” Phys. Plasmas 7, 1006–1013 (2000).

V. A. Smalyuk, T. R. Boehly, D. K. Bradley, V. N. Goncharov, J. A. Delettrez, J. P. Knauer, D. D. Meyerhofer, D. Oron, and D. Shvarts, “Saturation of the Rayleigh-Taylor growth of broad-bandwidth laser-imposed nonuniformities in planar targets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5342–5345 (1998).

D. K. Bradley, J. A. Delettrez, and C. P. Verdon, “Measurements of the effect of laser beam smoothing on direct-drive inertial-confinement-fusion capsule implosions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2774–2777 (1992).

Donaldson, W. R.

Epstein, R.

R. Epstein, “Reduction of time-averaged irradiation speckle nonuniformity in laser-driven plasmas due to target ablation,” J. Appl. Phys. 82, 2123–2139 (1997).

Gardner, J. H.

S. E. Bodner, D. G. Colombant, J. H. Gardner, R. H. Lehmberg, S. P. Obenschain, L. Phillips, A. J. Schmitt, J. D. Sethian, R. L. McCrory, W. Seka, C. P. Verdon, J. P. Knauer, B. B. Afeyan, and H. T. Powell, “Direct-drive laser fusion: status and prospects,” Phys. Plasmas 5, 1901–1918 (1998).

Glebov, V. Yu.

F. J. Marshall, J. A. Delettrez, V. Yu. Glebov, R. P. J. Town, B. Yaakobi, R. L. Kremens, and M. Cable, “Direct-drive, hollow-shell implosion studies on the 60-beam, UV OMEGA laser system,” Phys. Plasmas 7, 1006–1013 (2000).

Glendinning, S. G.

J. D. Kilkenny, S. G. Glendinning, S. W. Haan, B. A. Hammel, J. D. Lindl, D. Munro, B. A. Remington, S. V. Weber, J. P. Knauer, and C. P. Verdon, “A review of the ablative stabilization of the Rayleigh–Taylor instability in regimes relevant to inertial confinement fusion,” Phys. Plasmas 1, 1379–1389 (1994).

Goncharov, V. N.

V. A. Smalyuk, T. R. Boehly, D. K. Bradley, V. N. Goncharov, J. A. Delettrez, J. P. Knauer, D. D. Meyerhofer, D. Oron, and D. Shvarts, “Saturation of the Rayleigh-Taylor growth of broad-bandwidth laser-imposed nonuniformities in planar targets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5342–5345 (1998).

Haan, S. W.

J. D. Kilkenny, S. G. Glendinning, S. W. Haan, B. A. Hammel, J. D. Lindl, D. Munro, B. A. Remington, S. V. Weber, J. P. Knauer, and C. P. Verdon, “A review of the ablative stabilization of the Rayleigh–Taylor instability in regimes relevant to inertial confinement fusion,” Phys. Plasmas 1, 1379–1389 (1994).

Hammel, B. A.

J. D. Kilkenny, S. G. Glendinning, S. W. Haan, B. A. Hammel, J. D. Lindl, D. Munro, B. A. Remington, S. V. Weber, J. P. Knauer, and C. P. Verdon, “A review of the ablative stabilization of the Rayleigh–Taylor instability in regimes relevant to inertial confinement fusion,” Phys. Plasmas 1, 1379–1389 (1994).

Jaanimagi, P. A.

Jitsuno, T.

K. Tsubakimoto, T. Jitsuno, N. Miyanaga, M. Nakatsuka, T. Kanabe, and S. Nakai, “Suppression of speckle contrast by using polarization property on second harmonic generation,” Opt. Commun. 103, 185–188 (1993).

K. Tsubakimoto, M. Nakatsuka, H. Nakano, T. Kanabe, T. Jitsuno, and S. Nakai, “Suppression of interference speckles produced by a random phase plate, using a polarization control plate,” Opt. Commun. 91, 9–12 (1992).

Kanabe, T.

K. Tsubakimoto, T. Jitsuno, N. Miyanaga, M. Nakatsuka, T. Kanabe, and S. Nakai, “Suppression of speckle contrast by using polarization property on second harmonic generation,” Opt. Commun. 103, 185–188 (1993).

K. Tsubakimoto, M. Nakatsuka, H. Nakano, T. Kanabe, T. Jitsuno, and S. Nakai, “Suppression of interference speckles produced by a random phase plate, using a polarization control plate,” Opt. Commun. 91, 9–12 (1992).

Keck, R. L.

S. P. Regan, J. Marozas, J. H. Kelly, T. R. Boehly, W. R. Donaldson, P. A. Jaanimagi, R. L. Keck, T. J. Kessler, D. D. Meyerhofer, W. Seka, S. Skupsky, and V. A. Smalyuk, “Experimental investigation of smoothing by spectral dispersion,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1483–1489 (2000).

T. R. Boehly, D. L. Brown, R. S. Craxton, R. L. Keck, J. P. Knauer, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kessler, S. A. Kumpan, S. J. Loucks, S. A. Letzring, F. J. Marshall, R. L. McCrory, S. F. B. Morse, W. Seka, J. M. Soures, and C. P. Verdon, “Initial performance results of the OMEGA laser system,” Opt. Commun. 133, 495–506 (1997).

Kelly, J. H.

S. P. Regan, J. Marozas, J. H. Kelly, T. R. Boehly, W. R. Donaldson, P. A. Jaanimagi, R. L. Keck, T. J. Kessler, D. D. Meyerhofer, W. Seka, S. Skupsky, and V. A. Smalyuk, “Experimental investigation of smoothing by spectral dispersion,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1483–1489 (2000).

T. R. Boehly, D. L. Brown, R. S. Craxton, R. L. Keck, J. P. Knauer, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kessler, S. A. Kumpan, S. J. Loucks, S. A. Letzring, F. J. Marshall, R. L. McCrory, S. F. B. Morse, W. Seka, J. M. Soures, and C. P. Verdon, “Initial performance results of the OMEGA laser system,” Opt. Commun. 133, 495–506 (1997).

Kessler, T.

S. Skupsky, R. W. Short, T. Kessler, R. S. Craxton, S. Letzring, and J. M. Soures, “Improved laser-beam uniformity using the angular dispersion of frequency-modulated light,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 3456–3462 (1989).

Kessler, T. J.

Kilkenny, J. D.

J. D. Kilkenny, S. G. Glendinning, S. W. Haan, B. A. Hammel, J. D. Lindl, D. Munro, B. A. Remington, S. V. Weber, J. P. Knauer, and C. P. Verdon, “A review of the ablative stabilization of the Rayleigh–Taylor instability in regimes relevant to inertial confinement fusion,” Phys. Plasmas 1, 1379–1389 (1994).

Knauer, J. P.

S. E. Bodner, D. G. Colombant, J. H. Gardner, R. H. Lehmberg, S. P. Obenschain, L. Phillips, A. J. Schmitt, J. D. Sethian, R. L. McCrory, W. Seka, C. P. Verdon, J. P. Knauer, B. B. Afeyan, and H. T. Powell, “Direct-drive laser fusion: status and prospects,” Phys. Plasmas 5, 1901–1918 (1998).

V. A. Smalyuk, T. R. Boehly, D. K. Bradley, V. N. Goncharov, J. A. Delettrez, J. P. Knauer, D. D. Meyerhofer, D. Oron, and D. Shvarts, “Saturation of the Rayleigh-Taylor growth of broad-bandwidth laser-imposed nonuniformities in planar targets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5342–5345 (1998).

T. R. Boehly, D. L. Brown, R. S. Craxton, R. L. Keck, J. P. Knauer, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kessler, S. A. Kumpan, S. J. Loucks, S. A. Letzring, F. J. Marshall, R. L. McCrory, S. F. B. Morse, W. Seka, J. M. Soures, and C. P. Verdon, “Initial performance results of the OMEGA laser system,” Opt. Commun. 133, 495–506 (1997).

J. D. Kilkenny, S. G. Glendinning, S. W. Haan, B. A. Hammel, J. D. Lindl, D. Munro, B. A. Remington, S. V. Weber, J. P. Knauer, and C. P. Verdon, “A review of the ablative stabilization of the Rayleigh–Taylor instability in regimes relevant to inertial confinement fusion,” Phys. Plasmas 1, 1379–1389 (1994).

Kremens, R. L.

F. J. Marshall, J. A. Delettrez, V. Yu. Glebov, R. P. J. Town, B. Yaakobi, R. L. Kremens, and M. Cable, “Direct-drive, hollow-shell implosion studies on the 60-beam, UV OMEGA laser system,” Phys. Plasmas 7, 1006–1013 (2000).

Kumpan, S. A.

T. R. Boehly, D. L. Brown, R. S. Craxton, R. L. Keck, J. P. Knauer, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kessler, S. A. Kumpan, S. J. Loucks, S. A. Letzring, F. J. Marshall, R. L. McCrory, S. F. B. Morse, W. Seka, J. M. Soures, and C. P. Verdon, “Initial performance results of the OMEGA laser system,” Opt. Commun. 133, 495–506 (1997).

Lawrence, G. N.

Lehmberg, R. H.

S. E. Bodner, D. G. Colombant, J. H. Gardner, R. H. Lehmberg, S. P. Obenschain, L. Phillips, A. J. Schmitt, J. D. Sethian, R. L. McCrory, W. Seka, C. P. Verdon, J. P. Knauer, B. B. Afeyan, and H. T. Powell, “Direct-drive laser fusion: status and prospects,” Phys. Plasmas 5, 1901–1918 (1998).

Letzring, S.

S. Skupsky, R. W. Short, T. Kessler, R. S. Craxton, S. Letzring, and J. M. Soures, “Improved laser-beam uniformity using the angular dispersion of frequency-modulated light,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 3456–3462 (1989).

Letzring, S. A.

T. R. Boehly, D. L. Brown, R. S. Craxton, R. L. Keck, J. P. Knauer, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kessler, S. A. Kumpan, S. J. Loucks, S. A. Letzring, F. J. Marshall, R. L. McCrory, S. F. B. Morse, W. Seka, J. M. Soures, and C. P. Verdon, “Initial performance results of the OMEGA laser system,” Opt. Commun. 133, 495–506 (1997).

Lin, Y.

Lindl, J. D.

J. D. Kilkenny, S. G. Glendinning, S. W. Haan, B. A. Hammel, J. D. Lindl, D. Munro, B. A. Remington, S. V. Weber, J. P. Knauer, and C. P. Verdon, “A review of the ablative stabilization of the Rayleigh–Taylor instability in regimes relevant to inertial confinement fusion,” Phys. Plasmas 1, 1379–1389 (1994).

Loucks, S. J.

T. R. Boehly, D. L. Brown, R. S. Craxton, R. L. Keck, J. P. Knauer, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kessler, S. A. Kumpan, S. J. Loucks, S. A. Letzring, F. J. Marshall, R. L. McCrory, S. F. B. Morse, W. Seka, J. M. Soures, and C. P. Verdon, “Initial performance results of the OMEGA laser system,” Opt. Commun. 133, 495–506 (1997).

Marozas, J.

Marshall, F. J.

F. J. Marshall, J. A. Delettrez, V. Yu. Glebov, R. P. J. Town, B. Yaakobi, R. L. Kremens, and M. Cable, “Direct-drive, hollow-shell implosion studies on the 60-beam, UV OMEGA laser system,” Phys. Plasmas 7, 1006–1013 (2000).

F. J. Marshall and G. R. Bennett, “A high-energy x-ray microscope for inertial confinement fusion,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 617–619 (1999).

T. R. Boehly, D. L. Brown, R. S. Craxton, R. L. Keck, J. P. Knauer, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kessler, S. A. Kumpan, S. J. Loucks, S. A. Letzring, F. J. Marshall, R. L. McCrory, S. F. B. Morse, W. Seka, J. M. Soures, and C. P. Verdon, “Initial performance results of the OMEGA laser system,” Opt. Commun. 133, 495–506 (1997).

McCrory, R. L.

S. E. Bodner, D. G. Colombant, J. H. Gardner, R. H. Lehmberg, S. P. Obenschain, L. Phillips, A. J. Schmitt, J. D. Sethian, R. L. McCrory, W. Seka, C. P. Verdon, J. P. Knauer, B. B. Afeyan, and H. T. Powell, “Direct-drive laser fusion: status and prospects,” Phys. Plasmas 5, 1901–1918 (1998).

T. R. Boehly, D. L. Brown, R. S. Craxton, R. L. Keck, J. P. Knauer, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kessler, S. A. Kumpan, S. J. Loucks, S. A. Letzring, F. J. Marshall, R. L. McCrory, S. F. B. Morse, W. Seka, J. M. Soures, and C. P. Verdon, “Initial performance results of the OMEGA laser system,” Opt. Commun. 133, 495–506 (1997).

Meyerhofer, D. D.

S. P. Regan, J. Marozas, J. H. Kelly, T. R. Boehly, W. R. Donaldson, P. A. Jaanimagi, R. L. Keck, T. J. Kessler, D. D. Meyerhofer, W. Seka, S. Skupsky, and V. A. Smalyuk, “Experimental investigation of smoothing by spectral dispersion,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1483–1489 (2000).

V. A. Smalyuk, T. R. Boehly, D. K. Bradley, V. N. Goncharov, J. A. Delettrez, J. P. Knauer, D. D. Meyerhofer, D. Oron, and D. Shvarts, “Saturation of the Rayleigh-Taylor growth of broad-bandwidth laser-imposed nonuniformities in planar targets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5342–5345 (1998).

Miyanaga, N.

K. Tsubakimoto, T. Jitsuno, N. Miyanaga, M. Nakatsuka, T. Kanabe, and S. Nakai, “Suppression of speckle contrast by using polarization property on second harmonic generation,” Opt. Commun. 103, 185–188 (1993).

Morse, S. F. B.

T. R. Boehly, D. L. Brown, R. S. Craxton, R. L. Keck, J. P. Knauer, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kessler, S. A. Kumpan, S. J. Loucks, S. A. Letzring, F. J. Marshall, R. L. McCrory, S. F. B. Morse, W. Seka, J. M. Soures, and C. P. Verdon, “Initial performance results of the OMEGA laser system,” Opt. Commun. 133, 495–506 (1997).

Munro, D.

J. D. Kilkenny, S. G. Glendinning, S. W. Haan, B. A. Hammel, J. D. Lindl, D. Munro, B. A. Remington, S. V. Weber, J. P. Knauer, and C. P. Verdon, “A review of the ablative stabilization of the Rayleigh–Taylor instability in regimes relevant to inertial confinement fusion,” Phys. Plasmas 1, 1379–1389 (1994).

Nakai, S.

K. Tsubakimoto, T. Jitsuno, N. Miyanaga, M. Nakatsuka, T. Kanabe, and S. Nakai, “Suppression of speckle contrast by using polarization property on second harmonic generation,” Opt. Commun. 103, 185–188 (1993).

K. Tsubakimoto, M. Nakatsuka, H. Nakano, T. Kanabe, T. Jitsuno, and S. Nakai, “Suppression of interference speckles produced by a random phase plate, using a polarization control plate,” Opt. Commun. 91, 9–12 (1992).

Nakano, H.

K. Tsubakimoto, M. Nakatsuka, H. Nakano, T. Kanabe, T. Jitsuno, and S. Nakai, “Suppression of interference speckles produced by a random phase plate, using a polarization control plate,” Opt. Commun. 91, 9–12 (1992).

Nakatsuka, M.

K. Tsubakimoto, T. Jitsuno, N. Miyanaga, M. Nakatsuka, T. Kanabe, and S. Nakai, “Suppression of speckle contrast by using polarization property on second harmonic generation,” Opt. Commun. 103, 185–188 (1993).

K. Tsubakimoto, M. Nakatsuka, H. Nakano, T. Kanabe, T. Jitsuno, and S. Nakai, “Suppression of interference speckles produced by a random phase plate, using a polarization control plate,” Opt. Commun. 91, 9–12 (1992).

Obenschain, S. P.

S. E. Bodner, D. G. Colombant, J. H. Gardner, R. H. Lehmberg, S. P. Obenschain, L. Phillips, A. J. Schmitt, J. D. Sethian, R. L. McCrory, W. Seka, C. P. Verdon, J. P. Knauer, B. B. Afeyan, and H. T. Powell, “Direct-drive laser fusion: status and prospects,” Phys. Plasmas 5, 1901–1918 (1998).

Oron, D.

V. A. Smalyuk, T. R. Boehly, D. K. Bradley, V. N. Goncharov, J. A. Delettrez, J. P. Knauer, D. D. Meyerhofer, D. Oron, and D. Shvarts, “Saturation of the Rayleigh-Taylor growth of broad-bandwidth laser-imposed nonuniformities in planar targets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5342–5345 (1998).

Phillips, L.

S. E. Bodner, D. G. Colombant, J. H. Gardner, R. H. Lehmberg, S. P. Obenschain, L. Phillips, A. J. Schmitt, J. D. Sethian, R. L. McCrory, W. Seka, C. P. Verdon, J. P. Knauer, B. B. Afeyan, and H. T. Powell, “Direct-drive laser fusion: status and prospects,” Phys. Plasmas 5, 1901–1918 (1998).

Powell, H. T.

S. E. Bodner, D. G. Colombant, J. H. Gardner, R. H. Lehmberg, S. P. Obenschain, L. Phillips, A. J. Schmitt, J. D. Sethian, R. L. McCrory, W. Seka, C. P. Verdon, J. P. Knauer, B. B. Afeyan, and H. T. Powell, “Direct-drive laser fusion: status and prospects,” Phys. Plasmas 5, 1901–1918 (1998).

Regan, S. P.

Remington, B. A.

J. D. Kilkenny, S. G. Glendinning, S. W. Haan, B. A. Hammel, J. D. Lindl, D. Munro, B. A. Remington, S. V. Weber, J. P. Knauer, and C. P. Verdon, “A review of the ablative stabilization of the Rayleigh–Taylor instability in regimes relevant to inertial confinement fusion,” Phys. Plasmas 1, 1379–1389 (1994).

Rothenberg, J. E.

Schmitt, A. J.

S. E. Bodner, D. G. Colombant, J. H. Gardner, R. H. Lehmberg, S. P. Obenschain, L. Phillips, A. J. Schmitt, J. D. Sethian, R. L. McCrory, W. Seka, C. P. Verdon, J. P. Knauer, B. B. Afeyan, and H. T. Powell, “Direct-drive laser fusion: status and prospects,” Phys. Plasmas 5, 1901–1918 (1998).

Seka, W.

S. P. Regan, J. Marozas, J. H. Kelly, T. R. Boehly, W. R. Donaldson, P. A. Jaanimagi, R. L. Keck, T. J. Kessler, D. D. Meyerhofer, W. Seka, S. Skupsky, and V. A. Smalyuk, “Experimental investigation of smoothing by spectral dispersion,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1483–1489 (2000).

S. E. Bodner, D. G. Colombant, J. H. Gardner, R. H. Lehmberg, S. P. Obenschain, L. Phillips, A. J. Schmitt, J. D. Sethian, R. L. McCrory, W. Seka, C. P. Verdon, J. P. Knauer, B. B. Afeyan, and H. T. Powell, “Direct-drive laser fusion: status and prospects,” Phys. Plasmas 5, 1901–1918 (1998).

T. R. Boehly, D. L. Brown, R. S. Craxton, R. L. Keck, J. P. Knauer, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kessler, S. A. Kumpan, S. J. Loucks, S. A. Letzring, F. J. Marshall, R. L. McCrory, S. F. B. Morse, W. Seka, J. M. Soures, and C. P. Verdon, “Initial performance results of the OMEGA laser system,” Opt. Commun. 133, 495–506 (1997).

Sethian, J. D.

S. E. Bodner, D. G. Colombant, J. H. Gardner, R. H. Lehmberg, S. P. Obenschain, L. Phillips, A. J. Schmitt, J. D. Sethian, R. L. McCrory, W. Seka, C. P. Verdon, J. P. Knauer, B. B. Afeyan, and H. T. Powell, “Direct-drive laser fusion: status and prospects,” Phys. Plasmas 5, 1901–1918 (1998).

Short, R. W.

S. Skupsky, R. W. Short, T. Kessler, R. S. Craxton, S. Letzring, and J. M. Soures, “Improved laser-beam uniformity using the angular dispersion of frequency-modulated light,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 3456–3462 (1989).

Shvarts, D.

V. A. Smalyuk, T. R. Boehly, D. K. Bradley, V. N. Goncharov, J. A. Delettrez, J. P. Knauer, D. D. Meyerhofer, D. Oron, and D. Shvarts, “Saturation of the Rayleigh-Taylor growth of broad-bandwidth laser-imposed nonuniformities in planar targets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5342–5345 (1998).

Skupsky, S.

S. P. Regan, J. Marozas, J. H. Kelly, T. R. Boehly, W. R. Donaldson, P. A. Jaanimagi, R. L. Keck, T. J. Kessler, D. D. Meyerhofer, W. Seka, S. Skupsky, and V. A. Smalyuk, “Experimental investigation of smoothing by spectral dispersion,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1483–1489 (2000).

S. Skupsky and R. S. Craxton, “Irradiation uniformity for high-compression laser-fusion experiments,” Phys. Plasmas 6, 2157–2163 (1999).

S. Skupsky, R. W. Short, T. Kessler, R. S. Craxton, S. Letzring, and J. M. Soures, “Improved laser-beam uniformity using the angular dispersion of frequency-modulated light,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 3456–3462 (1989).

Smalyuk, V. A.

S. P. Regan, J. Marozas, J. H. Kelly, T. R. Boehly, W. R. Donaldson, P. A. Jaanimagi, R. L. Keck, T. J. Kessler, D. D. Meyerhofer, W. Seka, S. Skupsky, and V. A. Smalyuk, “Experimental investigation of smoothing by spectral dispersion,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1483–1489 (2000).

V. A. Smalyuk, T. R. Boehly, D. K. Bradley, V. N. Goncharov, J. A. Delettrez, J. P. Knauer, D. D. Meyerhofer, D. Oron, and D. Shvarts, “Saturation of the Rayleigh-Taylor growth of broad-bandwidth laser-imposed nonuniformities in planar targets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5342–5345 (1998).

Soures, J. M.

T. R. Boehly, D. L. Brown, R. S. Craxton, R. L. Keck, J. P. Knauer, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kessler, S. A. Kumpan, S. J. Loucks, S. A. Letzring, F. J. Marshall, R. L. McCrory, S. F. B. Morse, W. Seka, J. M. Soures, and C. P. Verdon, “Initial performance results of the OMEGA laser system,” Opt. Commun. 133, 495–506 (1997).

S. Skupsky, R. W. Short, T. Kessler, R. S. Craxton, S. Letzring, and J. M. Soures, “Improved laser-beam uniformity using the angular dispersion of frequency-modulated light,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 3456–3462 (1989).

Town, R. P. J.

F. J. Marshall, J. A. Delettrez, V. Yu. Glebov, R. P. J. Town, B. Yaakobi, R. L. Kremens, and M. Cable, “Direct-drive, hollow-shell implosion studies on the 60-beam, UV OMEGA laser system,” Phys. Plasmas 7, 1006–1013 (2000).

Tsubakimoto, K.

K. Tsubakimoto, T. Jitsuno, N. Miyanaga, M. Nakatsuka, T. Kanabe, and S. Nakai, “Suppression of speckle contrast by using polarization property on second harmonic generation,” Opt. Commun. 103, 185–188 (1993).

K. Tsubakimoto, M. Nakatsuka, H. Nakano, T. Kanabe, T. Jitsuno, and S. Nakai, “Suppression of interference speckles produced by a random phase plate, using a polarization control plate,” Opt. Commun. 91, 9–12 (1992).

Verdon, C. P.

S. E. Bodner, D. G. Colombant, J. H. Gardner, R. H. Lehmberg, S. P. Obenschain, L. Phillips, A. J. Schmitt, J. D. Sethian, R. L. McCrory, W. Seka, C. P. Verdon, J. P. Knauer, B. B. Afeyan, and H. T. Powell, “Direct-drive laser fusion: status and prospects,” Phys. Plasmas 5, 1901–1918 (1998).

T. R. Boehly, D. L. Brown, R. S. Craxton, R. L. Keck, J. P. Knauer, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kessler, S. A. Kumpan, S. J. Loucks, S. A. Letzring, F. J. Marshall, R. L. McCrory, S. F. B. Morse, W. Seka, J. M. Soures, and C. P. Verdon, “Initial performance results of the OMEGA laser system,” Opt. Commun. 133, 495–506 (1997).

J. D. Kilkenny, S. G. Glendinning, S. W. Haan, B. A. Hammel, J. D. Lindl, D. Munro, B. A. Remington, S. V. Weber, J. P. Knauer, and C. P. Verdon, “A review of the ablative stabilization of the Rayleigh–Taylor instability in regimes relevant to inertial confinement fusion,” Phys. Plasmas 1, 1379–1389 (1994).

J. Delettrez, D. K. Bradley, and C. P. Verdon, “The role of the Rayleigh–Taylor instability in laser-driven burnthrough experiments,” Phys. Plasmas 1, 2342–2349 (1994).

C. P. Verdon, “High-performance direct-drive capsule designs for the National Ignition Facility,” Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 38, 2010 (1993).

D. K. Bradley, J. A. Delettrez, and C. P. Verdon, “Measurements of the effect of laser beam smoothing on direct-drive inertial-confinement-fusion capsule implosions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2774–2777 (1992).

Weber, S. V.

J. D. Kilkenny, S. G. Glendinning, S. W. Haan, B. A. Hammel, J. D. Lindl, D. Munro, B. A. Remington, S. V. Weber, J. P. Knauer, and C. P. Verdon, “A review of the ablative stabilization of the Rayleigh–Taylor instability in regimes relevant to inertial confinement fusion,” Phys. Plasmas 1, 1379–1389 (1994).

Yaakobi, B.

F. J. Marshall, J. A. Delettrez, V. Yu. Glebov, R. P. J. Town, B. Yaakobi, R. L. Kremens, and M. Cable, “Direct-drive, hollow-shell implosion studies on the 60-beam, UV OMEGA laser system,” Phys. Plasmas 7, 1006–1013 (2000).

Bull. Am. Phys. Soc.

C. P. Verdon, “High-performance direct-drive capsule designs for the National Ignition Facility,” Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 38, 2010 (1993).

J. Appl. Phys.

R. Epstein, “Reduction of time-averaged irradiation speckle nonuniformity in laser-driven plasmas due to target ablation,” J. Appl. Phys. 82, 2123–2139 (1997).

S. Skupsky, R. W. Short, T. Kessler, R. S. Craxton, S. Letzring, and J. M. Soures, “Improved laser-beam uniformity using the angular dispersion of frequency-modulated light,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 3456–3462 (1989).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Commun.

K. Tsubakimoto, M. Nakatsuka, H. Nakano, T. Kanabe, T. Jitsuno, and S. Nakai, “Suppression of interference speckles produced by a random phase plate, using a polarization control plate,” Opt. Commun. 91, 9–12 (1992).

K. Tsubakimoto, T. Jitsuno, N. Miyanaga, M. Nakatsuka, T. Kanabe, and S. Nakai, “Suppression of speckle contrast by using polarization property on second harmonic generation,” Opt. Commun. 103, 185–188 (1993).

T. R. Boehly, D. L. Brown, R. S. Craxton, R. L. Keck, J. P. Knauer, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kessler, S. A. Kumpan, S. J. Loucks, S. A. Letzring, F. J. Marshall, R. L. McCrory, S. F. B. Morse, W. Seka, J. M. Soures, and C. P. Verdon, “Initial performance results of the OMEGA laser system,” Opt. Commun. 133, 495–506 (1997).

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Plasmas

F. J. Marshall, J. A. Delettrez, V. Yu. Glebov, R. P. J. Town, B. Yaakobi, R. L. Kremens, and M. Cable, “Direct-drive, hollow-shell implosion studies on the 60-beam, UV OMEGA laser system,” Phys. Plasmas 7, 1006–1013 (2000).

S. E. Bodner, D. G. Colombant, J. H. Gardner, R. H. Lehmberg, S. P. Obenschain, L. Phillips, A. J. Schmitt, J. D. Sethian, R. L. McCrory, W. Seka, C. P. Verdon, J. P. Knauer, B. B. Afeyan, and H. T. Powell, “Direct-drive laser fusion: status and prospects,” Phys. Plasmas 5, 1901–1918 (1998).

J. Delettrez, D. K. Bradley, and C. P. Verdon, “The role of the Rayleigh–Taylor instability in laser-driven burnthrough experiments,” Phys. Plasmas 1, 2342–2349 (1994).

J. D. Kilkenny, S. G. Glendinning, S. W. Haan, B. A. Hammel, J. D. Lindl, D. Munro, B. A. Remington, S. V. Weber, J. P. Knauer, and C. P. Verdon, “A review of the ablative stabilization of the Rayleigh–Taylor instability in regimes relevant to inertial confinement fusion,” Phys. Plasmas 1, 1379–1389 (1994).

S. Skupsky and R. S. Craxton, “Irradiation uniformity for high-compression laser-fusion experiments,” Phys. Plasmas 6, 2157–2163 (1999).

Phys. Rev. Lett.

D. K. Bradley, J. A. Delettrez, and C. P. Verdon, “Measurements of the effect of laser beam smoothing on direct-drive inertial-confinement-fusion capsule implosions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2774–2777 (1992).

V. A. Smalyuk, T. R. Boehly, D. K. Bradley, V. N. Goncharov, J. A. Delettrez, J. P. Knauer, D. D. Meyerhofer, D. Oron, and D. Shvarts, “Saturation of the Rayleigh-Taylor growth of broad-bandwidth laser-imposed nonuniformities in planar targets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5342–5345 (1998).

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

F. J. Marshall and G. R. Bennett, “A high-energy x-ray microscope for inertial confinement fusion,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 617–619 (1999).

Other

E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, Mill Valley, Calif., 1986).

D. C. Brown, “Glass laser physics,” in High-Peak-Power Nd: Glass Laser Systems, D. L. MacAdam, ed., Vol. 25 of Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1981).

Inspired by Anishinaabe words waasikwa’ and waasikwa’an, meaning “polishes someone” and “polishes something” (respectively), as in smoothing a rough surface. See J. D. Nichols and E. Nyholm, A Concise Dictionary ofMinnesota Ojibwe (U. Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, Minn., 1995).

D. Cortesi, “Topics in IRIX® Programming,” Doc. Number 007–2478–007 (Silicon Graphics, Mountain View, Calif., 1999).

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1968).

R. N. Bracewell, The Fourier Transform and Its Applications, 2nd Rev. ed., McGraw-Hill Series in Electrical Engineering. Circuits and Systems (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1986).

J. G. Proakis and D. G. Manolakis, Introduction to Digital Signal Processing (Macmillan, New York, 1988).

J. A. Marozas, “Angular spectrum representation of pulsed laser beams with two-dimensional smoothing by spectral dispersion,” LLE Review 78, pp. 62–81; NTIS doc. DOE/SF/19460–295(1999) (National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Va).

B. Carlson, Communication Systems: An Introduction to Signals and Noise in Electrical Communication, McGraw-Hill Electrical and Electronic Engineering Series (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1968), p. 154.

Y. Kato, Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka, Japan (personal communication, 1984).

Laboratory for Laser Energetics, “Two-dimensional SSD on OMEGA,” LLE Review 69, pp. 1–10; NTIS Doc DOE/SF/19460–152(1996) (National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Va.).

Laboratory for Laser Energetics, “Phase conversion using distributed polarization rotation,” LLE Review 45, pp. 1–12; NTIS Doc. DOE/DP40200–149(1990) (National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Va.).

T. E. Gunderman, J.-C. Lee, T. J. Kessler, S. D. Jacobs, D. J. Smith, and S. Skupsky, “Liquid crystal distributed polarization rotator for improved uniformity of focused laser light,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 7 of 1990 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), p. 354.

T. J. Kessler, Y. Lin, J. J. Armstrong, and B. Velazquez, “Phase conversion of lasers with low-loss distributed phase plates,” in Laser Coherence Control: Technology and Applications, H. T. Powell and T. J. Kessler, eds., Proc. SPIE 1870, 95–104 (1993).

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