Abstract

We investigate the generation of amplitude-squeezed states with degenerate optical parametric amplifiers that are pumped by focused Gaussian beams. We present a model that facilitates the calculation of the squeezing level for an experimentally realistic configuration in which there is a Gaussian input signal beam that has the same confocal parameter and waist location as the Gaussian pump beam, with no restriction on the interaction length-to-confocal parameter ratio. We show that the 3-dB squeezing limit that was thought to be imposed by the Gaussian pump profile can be exceeded in the (previously uninvestigated) tight-focusing regime. We find the maximum possible amplitude squeezing in this regime to be 4.65 dB. However, it is possible to increase the squeezing level further by spatially filtering the tails of the output signal beam, resulting in squeezing levels in excess of 10 dB.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. L. Mandel and E. Wolf, Optical Coherence and Quantum Optics (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1995), Chap. 12.
  2. R. Short and L. Mandel, “Observation of sub-Poissonian photon statistics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 384–387 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. C. Teich and B. E. A. Saleh, “Observation of sub-Poissonian Franck–Hertz light at 253.7 nm,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 275–282 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Machida and Y. Yamamoto, “Observation of sub-Poissonian photoelectron statistics in a negative feedback semiconductor laser,” Opt. Commun. 57, 290–296 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Machida and Y. Yamamoto, “Ultrabroadband amplitude squeezing in a semiconductor laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 792–794 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. S. Machida and Y. Yamamoto, “Observation of amplitude squeezing from semiconductor lasers by balanced direct detectors with a delay line,” Opt. Lett. 14, 1045–1047 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. W. H. Richardson and R. M. Shelby, “Nonclassical light from a semiconductor laser operating at 4 K,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 400–403 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. J. Freeman, H. Wang, D. G. Steel, R. Craig, and D. R. Scifres, “Amplitude-squeezed light from quantum-well lasers,” Opt. Lett. 18, 379–381 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. H. Wang, M. J. Freeman, and D. G. Steel, “Squeezed light from injection-locked quantum well lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3951–3954 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. W. H. Richardson, S. Machida, and Y. Yamamoto, “Squeezed photon-number noise and sub-Poissonian electrical partition noise in a semiconductor laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2867–2870 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. S. Machida, Y. Yamamoto, and Y. Itaya, “Observation of amplitude squeezing in a constant-current-driven semiconductor laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1000–1003 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. M. J. Freeman, H. Wang, D. G. Steel, R. Craig, and D. R. Scifres, “Wavelength-tunable amplitude-squeezed light from a room-temperature quantum-well laser,” Opt. Lett. 18, 2141–2143 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. M. J. Freeman, D. C. Kilper, D. G. Steel, R. Craig, and D. R. Scifres, “Room-temperature amplitude-squeezed light from an injection-locked quantum-well laser with a time-varying drive current,” Opt. Lett. 20, 183–185 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. J. Kitching, D. Provenzano, and A. Yariv, “Generation of amplitude-squeezed light from a room-temperature Fabry–Perot semiconductor laser,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2526–2528 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. Kitching and A. Yariv, “Room temperature generation of amplitude squeezed light from a semiconductor laser with weak optical feedback,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3372–3375 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. P. R. Tapster, J. G. Rarity, and J. S. Satchell, “Generation of sub-Poissonian light by high-efficiency light-emitting diodes,” Europhys. Lett. 4, 293–299 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  17. P. R. Tapster, J. G. Rarity, and J. S. Satchell, “Use of parametric down-conversion to generate sub-Poissonian light,” Phys. Rev. A 37, 2963–2967 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. J. Mertz, A. Heidmann, C. Fabre, E. Giacobino, and S. Reynaud, “Observation of high-intensity sub-Poissonian light using an optical parametric oscillator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2897–2900 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. S. F. Pereira, M. Xiao, H. J. Kimble, and J. L. Hall, “Generation of squeezed light by intracavity frequency doubling,” Phys. Rev. A 38, 4931–4934 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. R. Kürz, R. Paschotta, K. Fiedler, and J. Mlynek, “Bright squeezed light by second-harmonic generation in a monolithic resonator,” Europhys. Lett. 24, 449–454 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  21. A. Sizmann, R. J. Horowicz, G. Wagner, and G. Leuchs, “Observation of amplitude squeezing of the up-converted mode in second harmonic generation,” Opt. Commun. 80, 138–142 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  22. R. Paschotta, M. Collett, P. Kürz, K. Fiedler, H. A. Bachor, and J. Mlynek, “Bright squeezed light from a singly resonant frequency doubler,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3807–3810 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. H. Tsuchida, “Generation of amplitude-squeezed light at 431 nm from a singly resonant frequency doubler,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2240–2242 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. D. K. Serkland, P. Kumar, M. A. Arbore, and M. M. Fejer, “Amplitude squeezing by means of quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation in a lithium niobate waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1497–1499 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  25. R. D. Li, S. K. Choi, C. Kim, and P. Kumar, “Generation of sub-Poissonian pulses of light,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 3429–3432 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  26. E. M. Daly, A. S. Bell, E. Riis, and A. I. Ferguson, “Generation of picosecond squeezed pulses using an all-solid-state cw mode-locked source,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 3127–3130 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  27. R. D. Li, S. K. Choi, and P. Kumar, “Gaussian-wave theory of sub-Poissonian light generation by means of travelling-wave parametric deamplification,” Quantum Semiclassic. Opt. 7, 705–713 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  28. S. H. Youn, S. K. Choi, P. Kumar, and R. D. Li, “Observation of sub-Poissonian light in traveling-wave second-harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1597–1599 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. K. Schneider, R. Bruckmeier, H. Hansen, S. Schiller, and J. Mlynek, “Bright squeezed-light generation by a continuous-wave semimonolithic parametric amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1396–1398 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. D. Levandovsky, M. Vasilyev, and P. Kumar, “Amplitude squeezing of light by means of a phase-sensitive fiber parametric amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 24, 984–986 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  31. Y. Yamamoto, S. Machida, and O. Nilsson, “Amplitude squeezing in a pump-noise-suppressed laser oscillator,” Phys. Rev. A 34, 4025–4042 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. C. Kim and P. Kumar, “Tunable sub-Poissonian light generation from a parametric amplifier using an intensity feedforward scheme,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 5237–5242 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. R. D. Li and P. Kumar, “Quantum-noise reduction in traveling-wave second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2157–2166 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. K. G. Köprülü and O. Aytür, “Analysis of Gaussian-beam degenerate optical parametric amplifiers for the generation of quadrature-squeezed states,” Phys. Rev. A 60, 4122–4134 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  35. C. M. Caves, “Particles and fields,” Phys. Rev. D 26, 1817–1839 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  36. A. La Porta and R. Slusher, “Squeezing limits at high parametric gains,” Phys. Rev. A 44, 2013–2022 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

K. G. Köprülü and O. Aytür, “Analysis of Gaussian-beam degenerate optical parametric amplifiers for the generation of quadrature-squeezed states,” Phys. Rev. A 60, 4122–4134 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Levandovsky, M. Vasilyev, and P. Kumar, “Amplitude squeezing of light by means of a phase-sensitive fiber parametric amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 24, 984–986 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

E. M. Daly, A. S. Bell, E. Riis, and A. I. Ferguson, “Generation of picosecond squeezed pulses using an all-solid-state cw mode-locked source,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 3127–3130 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1996 (2)

1995 (6)

M. J. Freeman, D. C. Kilper, D. G. Steel, R. Craig, and D. R. Scifres, “Room-temperature amplitude-squeezed light from an injection-locked quantum-well laser with a time-varying drive current,” Opt. Lett. 20, 183–185 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Tsuchida, “Generation of amplitude-squeezed light at 431 nm from a singly resonant frequency doubler,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2240–2242 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kitching, D. Provenzano, and A. Yariv, “Generation of amplitude-squeezed light from a room-temperature Fabry–Perot semiconductor laser,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2526–2528 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Li, S. K. Choi, C. Kim, and P. Kumar, “Generation of sub-Poissonian pulses of light,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 3429–3432 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Li, S. K. Choi, and P. Kumar, “Gaussian-wave theory of sub-Poissonian light generation by means of travelling-wave parametric deamplification,” Quantum Semiclassic. Opt. 7, 705–713 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Kitching and A. Yariv, “Room temperature generation of amplitude squeezed light from a semiconductor laser with weak optical feedback,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3372–3375 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (2)

R. Paschotta, M. Collett, P. Kürz, K. Fiedler, H. A. Bachor, and J. Mlynek, “Bright squeezed light from a singly resonant frequency doubler,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3807–3810 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. Li and P. Kumar, “Quantum-noise reduction in traveling-wave second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2157–2166 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (4)

M. J. Freeman, H. Wang, D. G. Steel, R. Craig, and D. R. Scifres, “Amplitude-squeezed light from quantum-well lasers,” Opt. Lett. 18, 379–381 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Freeman, H. Wang, D. G. Steel, R. Craig, and D. R. Scifres, “Wavelength-tunable amplitude-squeezed light from a room-temperature quantum-well laser,” Opt. Lett. 18, 2141–2143 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wang, M. J. Freeman, and D. G. Steel, “Squeezed light from injection-locked quantum well lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3951–3954 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kürz, R. Paschotta, K. Fiedler, and J. Mlynek, “Bright squeezed light by second-harmonic generation in a monolithic resonator,” Europhys. Lett. 24, 449–454 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

C. Kim and P. Kumar, “Tunable sub-Poissonian light generation from a parametric amplifier using an intensity feedforward scheme,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 5237–5242 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (2)

A. La Porta and R. Slusher, “Squeezing limits at high parametric gains,” Phys. Rev. A 44, 2013–2022 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. H. Richardson, S. Machida, and Y. Yamamoto, “Squeezed photon-number noise and sub-Poissonian electrical partition noise in a semiconductor laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2867–2870 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (3)

A. Sizmann, R. J. Horowicz, G. Wagner, and G. Leuchs, “Observation of amplitude squeezing of the up-converted mode in second harmonic generation,” Opt. Commun. 80, 138–142 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Mertz, A. Heidmann, C. Fabre, E. Giacobino, and S. Reynaud, “Observation of high-intensity sub-Poissonian light using an optical parametric oscillator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2897–2900 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. H. Richardson and R. M. Shelby, “Nonclassical light from a semiconductor laser operating at 4 K,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 400–403 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

1988 (3)

S. F. Pereira, M. Xiao, H. J. Kimble, and J. L. Hall, “Generation of squeezed light by intracavity frequency doubling,” Phys. Rev. A 38, 4931–4934 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Machida and Y. Yamamoto, “Ultrabroadband amplitude squeezing in a semiconductor laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 792–794 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. R. Tapster, J. G. Rarity, and J. S. Satchell, “Use of parametric down-conversion to generate sub-Poissonian light,” Phys. Rev. A 37, 2963–2967 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (2)

P. R. Tapster, J. G. Rarity, and J. S. Satchell, “Generation of sub-Poissonian light by high-efficiency light-emitting diodes,” Europhys. Lett. 4, 293–299 (1987).
[CrossRef]

S. Machida, Y. Yamamoto, and Y. Itaya, “Observation of amplitude squeezing in a constant-current-driven semiconductor laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1000–1003 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (2)

S. Machida and Y. Yamamoto, “Observation of sub-Poissonian photoelectron statistics in a negative feedback semiconductor laser,” Opt. Commun. 57, 290–296 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yamamoto, S. Machida, and O. Nilsson, “Amplitude squeezing in a pump-noise-suppressed laser oscillator,” Phys. Rev. A 34, 4025–4042 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

1983 (1)

R. Short and L. Mandel, “Observation of sub-Poissonian photon statistics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 384–387 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

C. M. Caves, “Particles and fields,” Phys. Rev. D 26, 1817–1839 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Arbore, M. A.

Aytür, O.

K. G. Köprülü and O. Aytür, “Analysis of Gaussian-beam degenerate optical parametric amplifiers for the generation of quadrature-squeezed states,” Phys. Rev. A 60, 4122–4134 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bachor, H. A.

R. Paschotta, M. Collett, P. Kürz, K. Fiedler, H. A. Bachor, and J. Mlynek, “Bright squeezed light from a singly resonant frequency doubler,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3807–3810 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bell, A. S.

E. M. Daly, A. S. Bell, E. Riis, and A. I. Ferguson, “Generation of picosecond squeezed pulses using an all-solid-state cw mode-locked source,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 3127–3130 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bruckmeier, R.

Caves, C. M.

C. M. Caves, “Particles and fields,” Phys. Rev. D 26, 1817–1839 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Choi, S. K.

S. H. Youn, S. K. Choi, P. Kumar, and R. D. Li, “Observation of sub-Poissonian light in traveling-wave second-harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1597–1599 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. Li, S. K. Choi, C. Kim, and P. Kumar, “Generation of sub-Poissonian pulses of light,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 3429–3432 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Li, S. K. Choi, and P. Kumar, “Gaussian-wave theory of sub-Poissonian light generation by means of travelling-wave parametric deamplification,” Quantum Semiclassic. Opt. 7, 705–713 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Collett, M.

R. Paschotta, M. Collett, P. Kürz, K. Fiedler, H. A. Bachor, and J. Mlynek, “Bright squeezed light from a singly resonant frequency doubler,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3807–3810 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Craig, R.

Daly, E. M.

E. M. Daly, A. S. Bell, E. Riis, and A. I. Ferguson, “Generation of picosecond squeezed pulses using an all-solid-state cw mode-locked source,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 3127–3130 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fabre, C.

J. Mertz, A. Heidmann, C. Fabre, E. Giacobino, and S. Reynaud, “Observation of high-intensity sub-Poissonian light using an optical parametric oscillator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2897–2900 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fejer, M. M.

Ferguson, A. I.

E. M. Daly, A. S. Bell, E. Riis, and A. I. Ferguson, “Generation of picosecond squeezed pulses using an all-solid-state cw mode-locked source,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 3127–3130 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fiedler, K.

R. Paschotta, M. Collett, P. Kürz, K. Fiedler, H. A. Bachor, and J. Mlynek, “Bright squeezed light from a singly resonant frequency doubler,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3807–3810 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kürz, R. Paschotta, K. Fiedler, and J. Mlynek, “Bright squeezed light by second-harmonic generation in a monolithic resonator,” Europhys. Lett. 24, 449–454 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Freeman, M. J.

Giacobino, E.

J. Mertz, A. Heidmann, C. Fabre, E. Giacobino, and S. Reynaud, “Observation of high-intensity sub-Poissonian light using an optical parametric oscillator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2897–2900 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hall, J. L.

S. F. Pereira, M. Xiao, H. J. Kimble, and J. L. Hall, “Generation of squeezed light by intracavity frequency doubling,” Phys. Rev. A 38, 4931–4934 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hansen, H.

Heidmann, A.

J. Mertz, A. Heidmann, C. Fabre, E. Giacobino, and S. Reynaud, “Observation of high-intensity sub-Poissonian light using an optical parametric oscillator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2897–2900 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Horowicz, R. J.

A. Sizmann, R. J. Horowicz, G. Wagner, and G. Leuchs, “Observation of amplitude squeezing of the up-converted mode in second harmonic generation,” Opt. Commun. 80, 138–142 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Itaya, Y.

S. Machida, Y. Yamamoto, and Y. Itaya, “Observation of amplitude squeezing in a constant-current-driven semiconductor laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1000–1003 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kilper, D. C.

Kim, C.

R. D. Li, S. K. Choi, C. Kim, and P. Kumar, “Generation of sub-Poissonian pulses of light,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 3429–3432 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. Kim and P. Kumar, “Tunable sub-Poissonian light generation from a parametric amplifier using an intensity feedforward scheme,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 5237–5242 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kimble, H. J.

S. F. Pereira, M. Xiao, H. J. Kimble, and J. L. Hall, “Generation of squeezed light by intracavity frequency doubling,” Phys. Rev. A 38, 4931–4934 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kitching, J.

J. Kitching and A. Yariv, “Room temperature generation of amplitude squeezed light from a semiconductor laser with weak optical feedback,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3372–3375 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kitching, D. Provenzano, and A. Yariv, “Generation of amplitude-squeezed light from a room-temperature Fabry–Perot semiconductor laser,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2526–2528 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Köprülü, K. G.

K. G. Köprülü and O. Aytür, “Analysis of Gaussian-beam degenerate optical parametric amplifiers for the generation of quadrature-squeezed states,” Phys. Rev. A 60, 4122–4134 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, P.

D. Levandovsky, M. Vasilyev, and P. Kumar, “Amplitude squeezing of light by means of a phase-sensitive fiber parametric amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 24, 984–986 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Serkland, P. Kumar, M. A. Arbore, and M. M. Fejer, “Amplitude squeezing by means of quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation in a lithium niobate waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1497–1499 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Youn, S. K. Choi, P. Kumar, and R. D. Li, “Observation of sub-Poissonian light in traveling-wave second-harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1597–1599 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. Li, S. K. Choi, C. Kim, and P. Kumar, “Generation of sub-Poissonian pulses of light,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 3429–3432 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Li, S. K. Choi, and P. Kumar, “Gaussian-wave theory of sub-Poissonian light generation by means of travelling-wave parametric deamplification,” Quantum Semiclassic. Opt. 7, 705–713 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Li and P. Kumar, “Quantum-noise reduction in traveling-wave second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2157–2166 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Kim and P. Kumar, “Tunable sub-Poissonian light generation from a parametric amplifier using an intensity feedforward scheme,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 5237–5242 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kürz, P.

R. Paschotta, M. Collett, P. Kürz, K. Fiedler, H. A. Bachor, and J. Mlynek, “Bright squeezed light from a singly resonant frequency doubler,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3807–3810 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kürz, R.

R. Kürz, R. Paschotta, K. Fiedler, and J. Mlynek, “Bright squeezed light by second-harmonic generation in a monolithic resonator,” Europhys. Lett. 24, 449–454 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Leuchs, G.

A. Sizmann, R. J. Horowicz, G. Wagner, and G. Leuchs, “Observation of amplitude squeezing of the up-converted mode in second harmonic generation,” Opt. Commun. 80, 138–142 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Levandovsky, D.

Li, R. D.

S. H. Youn, S. K. Choi, P. Kumar, and R. D. Li, “Observation of sub-Poissonian light in traveling-wave second-harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1597–1599 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. Li, S. K. Choi, C. Kim, and P. Kumar, “Generation of sub-Poissonian pulses of light,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 3429–3432 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Li, S. K. Choi, and P. Kumar, “Gaussian-wave theory of sub-Poissonian light generation by means of travelling-wave parametric deamplification,” Quantum Semiclassic. Opt. 7, 705–713 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Li and P. Kumar, “Quantum-noise reduction in traveling-wave second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2157–2166 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Machida, S.

W. H. Richardson, S. Machida, and Y. Yamamoto, “Squeezed photon-number noise and sub-Poissonian electrical partition noise in a semiconductor laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2867–2870 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Machida and Y. Yamamoto, “Observation of amplitude squeezing from semiconductor lasers by balanced direct detectors with a delay line,” Opt. Lett. 14, 1045–1047 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Machida and Y. Yamamoto, “Ultrabroadband amplitude squeezing in a semiconductor laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 792–794 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Machida, Y. Yamamoto, and Y. Itaya, “Observation of amplitude squeezing in a constant-current-driven semiconductor laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1000–1003 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Machida and Y. Yamamoto, “Observation of sub-Poissonian photoelectron statistics in a negative feedback semiconductor laser,” Opt. Commun. 57, 290–296 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yamamoto, S. Machida, and O. Nilsson, “Amplitude squeezing in a pump-noise-suppressed laser oscillator,” Phys. Rev. A 34, 4025–4042 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mandel, L.

R. Short and L. Mandel, “Observation of sub-Poissonian photon statistics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 384–387 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Mertz, J.

J. Mertz, A. Heidmann, C. Fabre, E. Giacobino, and S. Reynaud, “Observation of high-intensity sub-Poissonian light using an optical parametric oscillator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2897–2900 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mlynek, J.

K. Schneider, R. Bruckmeier, H. Hansen, S. Schiller, and J. Mlynek, “Bright squeezed-light generation by a continuous-wave semimonolithic parametric amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1396–1398 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Paschotta, M. Collett, P. Kürz, K. Fiedler, H. A. Bachor, and J. Mlynek, “Bright squeezed light from a singly resonant frequency doubler,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3807–3810 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kürz, R. Paschotta, K. Fiedler, and J. Mlynek, “Bright squeezed light by second-harmonic generation in a monolithic resonator,” Europhys. Lett. 24, 449–454 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nilsson, O.

Y. Yamamoto, S. Machida, and O. Nilsson, “Amplitude squeezing in a pump-noise-suppressed laser oscillator,” Phys. Rev. A 34, 4025–4042 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paschotta, R.

R. Paschotta, M. Collett, P. Kürz, K. Fiedler, H. A. Bachor, and J. Mlynek, “Bright squeezed light from a singly resonant frequency doubler,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3807–3810 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kürz, R. Paschotta, K. Fiedler, and J. Mlynek, “Bright squeezed light by second-harmonic generation in a monolithic resonator,” Europhys. Lett. 24, 449–454 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Pereira, S. F.

S. F. Pereira, M. Xiao, H. J. Kimble, and J. L. Hall, “Generation of squeezed light by intracavity frequency doubling,” Phys. Rev. A 38, 4931–4934 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Porta, A. La

A. La Porta and R. Slusher, “Squeezing limits at high parametric gains,” Phys. Rev. A 44, 2013–2022 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Provenzano, D.

Rarity, J. G.

P. R. Tapster, J. G. Rarity, and J. S. Satchell, “Use of parametric down-conversion to generate sub-Poissonian light,” Phys. Rev. A 37, 2963–2967 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. R. Tapster, J. G. Rarity, and J. S. Satchell, “Generation of sub-Poissonian light by high-efficiency light-emitting diodes,” Europhys. Lett. 4, 293–299 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Reynaud, S.

J. Mertz, A. Heidmann, C. Fabre, E. Giacobino, and S. Reynaud, “Observation of high-intensity sub-Poissonian light using an optical parametric oscillator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2897–2900 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richardson, W. H.

W. H. Richardson, S. Machida, and Y. Yamamoto, “Squeezed photon-number noise and sub-Poissonian electrical partition noise in a semiconductor laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2867–2870 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. H. Richardson and R. M. Shelby, “Nonclassical light from a semiconductor laser operating at 4 K,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 400–403 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Riis, E.

E. M. Daly, A. S. Bell, E. Riis, and A. I. Ferguson, “Generation of picosecond squeezed pulses using an all-solid-state cw mode-locked source,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 3127–3130 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Saleh, B. E. A.

Satchell, J. S.

P. R. Tapster, J. G. Rarity, and J. S. Satchell, “Use of parametric down-conversion to generate sub-Poissonian light,” Phys. Rev. A 37, 2963–2967 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. R. Tapster, J. G. Rarity, and J. S. Satchell, “Generation of sub-Poissonian light by high-efficiency light-emitting diodes,” Europhys. Lett. 4, 293–299 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Schiller, S.

Schneider, K.

Scifres, D. R.

Serkland, D. K.

Shelby, R. M.

W. H. Richardson and R. M. Shelby, “Nonclassical light from a semiconductor laser operating at 4 K,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 400–403 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Short, R.

R. Short and L. Mandel, “Observation of sub-Poissonian photon statistics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 384–387 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Sizmann, A.

A. Sizmann, R. J. Horowicz, G. Wagner, and G. Leuchs, “Observation of amplitude squeezing of the up-converted mode in second harmonic generation,” Opt. Commun. 80, 138–142 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Slusher, R.

A. La Porta and R. Slusher, “Squeezing limits at high parametric gains,” Phys. Rev. A 44, 2013–2022 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steel, D. G.

Tapster, P. R.

P. R. Tapster, J. G. Rarity, and J. S. Satchell, “Use of parametric down-conversion to generate sub-Poissonian light,” Phys. Rev. A 37, 2963–2967 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. R. Tapster, J. G. Rarity, and J. S. Satchell, “Generation of sub-Poissonian light by high-efficiency light-emitting diodes,” Europhys. Lett. 4, 293–299 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Teich, M. C.

Tsuchida, H.

Vasilyev, M.

Wagner, G.

A. Sizmann, R. J. Horowicz, G. Wagner, and G. Leuchs, “Observation of amplitude squeezing of the up-converted mode in second harmonic generation,” Opt. Commun. 80, 138–142 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.

Xiao, M.

S. F. Pereira, M. Xiao, H. J. Kimble, and J. L. Hall, “Generation of squeezed light by intracavity frequency doubling,” Phys. Rev. A 38, 4931–4934 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamamoto, Y.

W. H. Richardson, S. Machida, and Y. Yamamoto, “Squeezed photon-number noise and sub-Poissonian electrical partition noise in a semiconductor laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2867–2870 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Machida and Y. Yamamoto, “Observation of amplitude squeezing from semiconductor lasers by balanced direct detectors with a delay line,” Opt. Lett. 14, 1045–1047 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Machida and Y. Yamamoto, “Ultrabroadband amplitude squeezing in a semiconductor laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 792–794 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Machida, Y. Yamamoto, and Y. Itaya, “Observation of amplitude squeezing in a constant-current-driven semiconductor laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1000–1003 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Machida and Y. Yamamoto, “Observation of sub-Poissonian photoelectron statistics in a negative feedback semiconductor laser,” Opt. Commun. 57, 290–296 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yamamoto, S. Machida, and O. Nilsson, “Amplitude squeezing in a pump-noise-suppressed laser oscillator,” Phys. Rev. A 34, 4025–4042 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yariv, A.

J. Kitching, D. Provenzano, and A. Yariv, “Generation of amplitude-squeezed light from a room-temperature Fabry–Perot semiconductor laser,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2526–2528 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Kitching and A. Yariv, “Room temperature generation of amplitude squeezed light from a semiconductor laser with weak optical feedback,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3372–3375 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Youn, S. H.

Europhys. Lett. (2)

P. R. Tapster, J. G. Rarity, and J. S. Satchell, “Generation of sub-Poissonian light by high-efficiency light-emitting diodes,” Europhys. Lett. 4, 293–299 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. Kürz, R. Paschotta, K. Fiedler, and J. Mlynek, “Bright squeezed light by second-harmonic generation in a monolithic resonator,” Europhys. Lett. 24, 449–454 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Commun. (2)

A. Sizmann, R. J. Horowicz, G. Wagner, and G. Leuchs, “Observation of amplitude squeezing of the up-converted mode in second harmonic generation,” Opt. Commun. 80, 138–142 (1990).
[CrossRef]

S. Machida and Y. Yamamoto, “Observation of sub-Poissonian photoelectron statistics in a negative feedback semiconductor laser,” Opt. Commun. 57, 290–296 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (10)

S. Machida and Y. Yamamoto, “Observation of amplitude squeezing from semiconductor lasers by balanced direct detectors with a delay line,” Opt. Lett. 14, 1045–1047 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Freeman, H. Wang, D. G. Steel, R. Craig, and D. R. Scifres, “Amplitude-squeezed light from quantum-well lasers,” Opt. Lett. 18, 379–381 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Freeman, H. Wang, D. G. Steel, R. Craig, and D. R. Scifres, “Wavelength-tunable amplitude-squeezed light from a room-temperature quantum-well laser,” Opt. Lett. 18, 2141–2143 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Freeman, D. C. Kilper, D. G. Steel, R. Craig, and D. R. Scifres, “Room-temperature amplitude-squeezed light from an injection-locked quantum-well laser with a time-varying drive current,” Opt. Lett. 20, 183–185 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Tsuchida, “Generation of amplitude-squeezed light at 431 nm from a singly resonant frequency doubler,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2240–2242 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kitching, D. Provenzano, and A. Yariv, “Generation of amplitude-squeezed light from a room-temperature Fabry–Perot semiconductor laser,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2526–2528 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Serkland, P. Kumar, M. A. Arbore, and M. M. Fejer, “Amplitude squeezing by means of quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation in a lithium niobate waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1497–1499 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Schneider, R. Bruckmeier, H. Hansen, S. Schiller, and J. Mlynek, “Bright squeezed-light generation by a continuous-wave semimonolithic parametric amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1396–1398 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Youn, S. K. Choi, P. Kumar, and R. D. Li, “Observation of sub-Poissonian light in traveling-wave second-harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1597–1599 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Levandovsky, M. Vasilyev, and P. Kumar, “Amplitude squeezing of light by means of a phase-sensitive fiber parametric amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 24, 984–986 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (9)

S. F. Pereira, M. Xiao, H. J. Kimble, and J. L. Hall, “Generation of squeezed light by intracavity frequency doubling,” Phys. Rev. A 38, 4931–4934 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. La Porta and R. Slusher, “Squeezing limits at high parametric gains,” Phys. Rev. A 44, 2013–2022 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. R. Tapster, J. G. Rarity, and J. S. Satchell, “Use of parametric down-conversion to generate sub-Poissonian light,” Phys. Rev. A 37, 2963–2967 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. Li, S. K. Choi, C. Kim, and P. Kumar, “Generation of sub-Poissonian pulses of light,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 3429–3432 (1995).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Daly, A. S. Bell, E. Riis, and A. I. Ferguson, “Generation of picosecond squeezed pulses using an all-solid-state cw mode-locked source,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 3127–3130 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yamamoto, S. Machida, and O. Nilsson, “Amplitude squeezing in a pump-noise-suppressed laser oscillator,” Phys. Rev. A 34, 4025–4042 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Kim and P. Kumar, “Tunable sub-Poissonian light generation from a parametric amplifier using an intensity feedforward scheme,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 5237–5242 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. Li and P. Kumar, “Quantum-noise reduction in traveling-wave second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2157–2166 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. G. Köprülü and O. Aytür, “Analysis of Gaussian-beam degenerate optical parametric amplifiers for the generation of quadrature-squeezed states,” Phys. Rev. A 60, 4122–4134 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. D (1)

C. M. Caves, “Particles and fields,” Phys. Rev. D 26, 1817–1839 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (9)

R. Paschotta, M. Collett, P. Kürz, K. Fiedler, H. A. Bachor, and J. Mlynek, “Bright squeezed light from a singly resonant frequency doubler,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3807–3810 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Mertz, A. Heidmann, C. Fabre, E. Giacobino, and S. Reynaud, “Observation of high-intensity sub-Poissonian light using an optical parametric oscillator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2897–2900 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Short and L. Mandel, “Observation of sub-Poissonian photon statistics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 384–387 (1983).
[CrossRef]

S. Machida and Y. Yamamoto, “Ultrabroadband amplitude squeezing in a semiconductor laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 792–794 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wang, M. J. Freeman, and D. G. Steel, “Squeezed light from injection-locked quantum well lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3951–3954 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. H. Richardson, S. Machida, and Y. Yamamoto, “Squeezed photon-number noise and sub-Poissonian electrical partition noise in a semiconductor laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2867–2870 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Machida, Y. Yamamoto, and Y. Itaya, “Observation of amplitude squeezing in a constant-current-driven semiconductor laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1000–1003 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kitching and A. Yariv, “Room temperature generation of amplitude squeezed light from a semiconductor laser with weak optical feedback,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3372–3375 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. H. Richardson and R. M. Shelby, “Nonclassical light from a semiconductor laser operating at 4 K,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 400–403 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quantum Semiclassic. Opt. (1)

R. D. Li, S. K. Choi, and P. Kumar, “Gaussian-wave theory of sub-Poissonian light generation by means of travelling-wave parametric deamplification,” Quantum Semiclassic. Opt. 7, 705–713 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

L. Mandel and E. Wolf, Optical Coherence and Quantum Optics (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1995), Chap. 12.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Contour plot of the Fano factor as a function of θ and γ for l/z0=1.5. The minimum Fano factor of -4.61 dB is marked ×.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Maximum squeezing Smax=1/min{F(θ, γ)}, (b) required nonlinear drive D, (c) optimal phase difference θm, and (d) normalized 10% (0.41-dB) phase width δ, all as functions of l/z0.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Maximum squeezing Smax=1/min{F(θ, γ)}, (b) required nonlinear drive D, (c) optimal phase difference θm, and (d) normalized 10% (0.41-dB) phase width δ, all as functions of l/z0 for normalized pinhole radius Rph=2 (thicker curves) and Rph=1 (thinner curves).

Equations (39)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Es(z, t)=½ As(z)exp[i(ωt-ksz)]+c.c.,
dAs(z)dz=-iκApAs*(z)
As(l/2)=μAs(-l/2)-iexp(iϕp)νAs*(-l/2),
μ=cosh(κl|Ap|),
ν=sinh(κl|Ap|).
g(θ)=|As(l/2)|2|As(-l/2)|2=|μ-i exp(iθ)ν|2,
bˆ=μaˆ-i exp(iϕp)νaˆ,
F=Δnˆ2nˆ,
nˆ=|μ-i exp(iθ)ν|2|α|2+|ν|2,
Δnˆ2={|μ-i exp(iθ)ν|4+4 Im2[-i exp(iθ)μν]}|α|2+2|μ|2|ν|2,
F(θ)=|μ-i exp(iθ)ν|2+4 Im2[-i exp(iθ)μν]|μ-i exp(iθ)ν|2
=g(θ)+4 Im2[-i exp(iθ)μν]g(θ).
S=1/min{F(θ)}=1/min{g(θ)}=exp(2κl|Ap|).
Es(r, t)=½ As(ρ, z)exp[i(ωt-ksz)]+c.c.
As(ρ, z)z-12iks2As(ρ, z)=-iκAp(ρ, z)As*(ρ, z),
Ap(ρ, z)=Ap01-2iz/z0exp-ρ2/W021-2iz/z0,
As(ρ, z)=As0(ρ, z)1-2iz/z0exp-ρ2/2W021-2iz/z0,
As(r, ξ)ξ+i2As(r, ξ)
=-iγ exp(iϕp)up(r, ξ)As*(r, ξ),
up(r, ξ)=11-2iξexp-r21-2iξ.
As0(r, ξ0)=μ(r)As0(-ξ0)+i exp(iϕp)ν(r)As0*(-ξ0).
bˆ(r)=μ(r)aˆ-i exp(iϕp)ν(r)aˆ,
G0(r, ξ)=11-2iξexp-r2/21-2iξ,
F={|μ(r)-i exp(iθ)ν(r)|4+4 Im2[-i exp(iθ)μ*(r)ν(r)]}|G0(r, ξ0)|2rdr|μ(r)-i exp(iθ)ν(r)|2|G0(r, ξ0)|2rdr.
μ(r)=cosh[Φ exp(-r2)],
ν(r)=sinh[Φ exp(-r2)],
S=1/min{F(θ)}=2[1-exp(-2Φ)]1-exp(-4Φ).
As(r, ξ)=n=0 An(ξ)Gn(r, ξ),
Gn(r, ξ)=Lnr21+4ξ211-i2ξ×exp-r2/21-i2ξexp(i2n tan-1 2ξ),
A(ξ0)=MA(-ξ0)-i exp(iϕp)NA*(-ξ0),
As(r, ξ0)=G0(r, ξ0)n=0 Lnr21+4ξ02×exp(i2n tan-1 2ξ0)Mn0A0(-ξ0)+G0(r, ξ0)n=0 Lnr21+4ξ02×exp(i2n tan-1 2ξ0)Nn0A0*(-ξ0).
μ(r)=n=0 Lnr21+4ξ02exp(i2n tan-1 2ξ0)Mn0,
ν(r)=n=0 Lnr21+4ξ02exp(i2n tan-1 2ξ0)Nn0.
γ=κz0|Ap0|=2denc22ω3z0Ppπ01/2,
D=8ωπc20(κ2lPp)=lz0γ2,
μ(R)=n=0 Ln(R2)exp(i2n tan-1 2ξ0)Mn0,
ν(R)=n=0 Ln(R2)exp(i2n tan-1 2ξ0)Nn0,
F={|μ(R)-i exp(iθ)ν(R)|4+4 Im2[-i exp(iθ)μ*(R)ν(R)]}exp(-R2)RdR|μ(R)-i exp(iθ)ν(R)|2 exp(-R2)RdR.
F=exp[-4Φ exp(-Rph2)]-exp(-4Φ)2{exp[-2Φ exp(-Rph2)]-exp(-2Φ)}.

Metrics