Abstract

We show that optically induced orientation by photoisomerization of a push–pull azobenzene chromophore flexibly tethered to a poly(methyl methacrylate) polymer is hindered by hydrostatic pressure. Pressure reduces the free volume and suppresses the photo-orientation of the chromophores in films of this polymer. We show that the quantum yield, ΦTC, of the transcis photoisomerization depends on the applied pressure, and a volume of (111±7) Å3 is measured for the activation of one-chromophore orientation by photoisomerization.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. A. Delaire and K. Nakatani, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of photochromic molecules and materials,” Chem. Rev. 5, 1817–1845 (2000), and references therein.
  2. Z. Sekkat, A. Knoesen, W. Knoll, and R. D. Miller, “Unification of azo-polymer structures by photo-induced molecular movement,” in Sol-Gel and Polymer Photonic Devices, I. Najafi and M. P. Andrews, eds., Vol. CR68 of SPIE Critical Reviews (SPIE, Bellingham, Wash., 1997), pp. 374–398.
  3. P. Kaatz, P. Pretre, U. Meier, U. Stalder, C. Bosshard, P. Gunter, B. Zysset, M. Stahelin, M. Ahlheim, and F. Lehr, “Relaxation processes in nonlinear optical polyimide side-chain polymers,” Macromolecules 29, 1666–1678 (1996).
  4. S. J. Strutz and L. M. Hayden, “Effect of pressure and temperature on chromophore reorientation in a side-chain nonlinear optical polymer,” J. Polym. Sci., Part B Polym. Phys. 36, 2793–2803 (1998).
  5. A. Draljaca, C. D. Hubbard, R. van Eldik, T. Asano, M. V. Bsilevsky, and W. J. le Noble, “Activation and reaction volumes in solution,” Chem. Rev. 98, 2167–2289 (1998).
  6. S. R. Flom, V. Nagarajan, and P. F. Barbara, “Dynamic solvent effects on large amplitude isomerization rates. 1. 2-Vinylanthracene,” J. Phys. Chem. 90, 2085–2092 (1986).
  7. T. Asano, H. Furuta, and H. Sumi, “Two-step mechanism in single-step isomerizations. Kinetics in highly viscous liquid phase,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 116, 5545–5550 (1994).
  8. K. Hara, N. Ito, and O. Kajimoto, “High pressure studies of dynamic solvent effects on large amplitude isomerization: 2-(2-propenyl)anthrance,” J. Phys. Chem. A 101, 2240–2244 (1997).
  9. G. Kleideiter, Z. Sekkat, M. Kreiter, M. D. Lechner, and W. Knoll, “Photoisomerization of Disperse Red One in films of poly(methyl-methacrylate) at high pressure,” J. Mol. Struct. 521, 167–178 (2000).
  10. C. D. Isenbach, “Relation between photochromism and free volume theory in bulk polymers,” Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 84, 680–690 (1980).
  11. D. T.-L. Chen and H. Morawetz, “Photoisomerization and fluorescence of chromophores built into the backbone of flexible polymer chains,” Macromolecules 9, 463–468 (1976).
  12. H. Rau “Photoisomerization of azobenzenes,” in Photochemistry and Photophysics, J. F. Rabek, ed. (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1990), Vol. 2, Chap. 4, pp. 119–141.
  13. A. C. Newell and J. V. Moloney, Nonlinear Optics (Addison-Wesley, Palo Alto, Calif., 1992).
  14. M. H. Cohen and D. Turnbull, “Molecular transport in liquids and glasses,” J. Chem. Phys. 31, 1164–1169 (1959).
  15. R. E. Robertson, “Segmental mobility in the equilibrium liquid below the glass transition,” Macromolecules 18, 953–958 (1985).
  16. C. S. Paik and H. Morawetz, “Photochemical and thermal isomerization of aromatic residues in the side chains and the backbone of polymers in bulk,” Macromolecules 5, 171–177 (1972).
  17. H. Ishitobi, Z. Sekkat, and S. Kawata, “Quantifying theory of optical; orientation processes in spectrally distinguishable photoisomers: application to a spiropyran-type chromophore,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 316, 578–584 (2000).
  18. J. Victor and M. Torkelson, “On measuring the distribution of local free volume in glassy polymers by photochromic and fluorescence techniques,” Macromolecules 20, 2241–2250 (1987).
  19. R. Loucif-Saibi, K. Nakatani, J. A. Delaire, M. Dumont, and Z. Sekkat, “Photoisomerization and second harmonic generation in disperse red one-doped and-functionalized poly(methyl-methacrylate) films,” Chem. Mater. 5, 229–236 (1993).

2000

J. A. Delaire and K. Nakatani, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of photochromic molecules and materials,” Chem. Rev. 5, 1817–1845 (2000), and references therein.

G. Kleideiter, Z. Sekkat, M. Kreiter, M. D. Lechner, and W. Knoll, “Photoisomerization of Disperse Red One in films of poly(methyl-methacrylate) at high pressure,” J. Mol. Struct. 521, 167–178 (2000).

H. Ishitobi, Z. Sekkat, and S. Kawata, “Quantifying theory of optical; orientation processes in spectrally distinguishable photoisomers: application to a spiropyran-type chromophore,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 316, 578–584 (2000).

1998

S. J. Strutz and L. M. Hayden, “Effect of pressure and temperature on chromophore reorientation in a side-chain nonlinear optical polymer,” J. Polym. Sci., Part B Polym. Phys. 36, 2793–2803 (1998).

A. Draljaca, C. D. Hubbard, R. van Eldik, T. Asano, M. V. Bsilevsky, and W. J. le Noble, “Activation and reaction volumes in solution,” Chem. Rev. 98, 2167–2289 (1998).

1997

K. Hara, N. Ito, and O. Kajimoto, “High pressure studies of dynamic solvent effects on large amplitude isomerization: 2-(2-propenyl)anthrance,” J. Phys. Chem. A 101, 2240–2244 (1997).

1996

P. Kaatz, P. Pretre, U. Meier, U. Stalder, C. Bosshard, P. Gunter, B. Zysset, M. Stahelin, M. Ahlheim, and F. Lehr, “Relaxation processes in nonlinear optical polyimide side-chain polymers,” Macromolecules 29, 1666–1678 (1996).

1994

T. Asano, H. Furuta, and H. Sumi, “Two-step mechanism in single-step isomerizations. Kinetics in highly viscous liquid phase,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 116, 5545–5550 (1994).

1993

R. Loucif-Saibi, K. Nakatani, J. A. Delaire, M. Dumont, and Z. Sekkat, “Photoisomerization and second harmonic generation in disperse red one-doped and-functionalized poly(methyl-methacrylate) films,” Chem. Mater. 5, 229–236 (1993).

1987

J. Victor and M. Torkelson, “On measuring the distribution of local free volume in glassy polymers by photochromic and fluorescence techniques,” Macromolecules 20, 2241–2250 (1987).

1986

S. R. Flom, V. Nagarajan, and P. F. Barbara, “Dynamic solvent effects on large amplitude isomerization rates. 1. 2-Vinylanthracene,” J. Phys. Chem. 90, 2085–2092 (1986).

1985

R. E. Robertson, “Segmental mobility in the equilibrium liquid below the glass transition,” Macromolecules 18, 953–958 (1985).

1980

C. D. Isenbach, “Relation between photochromism and free volume theory in bulk polymers,” Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 84, 680–690 (1980).

1976

D. T.-L. Chen and H. Morawetz, “Photoisomerization and fluorescence of chromophores built into the backbone of flexible polymer chains,” Macromolecules 9, 463–468 (1976).

1972

C. S. Paik and H. Morawetz, “Photochemical and thermal isomerization of aromatic residues in the side chains and the backbone of polymers in bulk,” Macromolecules 5, 171–177 (1972).

1959

M. H. Cohen and D. Turnbull, “Molecular transport in liquids and glasses,” J. Chem. Phys. 31, 1164–1169 (1959).

Ahlheim, M.

P. Kaatz, P. Pretre, U. Meier, U. Stalder, C. Bosshard, P. Gunter, B. Zysset, M. Stahelin, M. Ahlheim, and F. Lehr, “Relaxation processes in nonlinear optical polyimide side-chain polymers,” Macromolecules 29, 1666–1678 (1996).

Asano, T.

A. Draljaca, C. D. Hubbard, R. van Eldik, T. Asano, M. V. Bsilevsky, and W. J. le Noble, “Activation and reaction volumes in solution,” Chem. Rev. 98, 2167–2289 (1998).

T. Asano, H. Furuta, and H. Sumi, “Two-step mechanism in single-step isomerizations. Kinetics in highly viscous liquid phase,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 116, 5545–5550 (1994).

Barbara, P. F.

S. R. Flom, V. Nagarajan, and P. F. Barbara, “Dynamic solvent effects on large amplitude isomerization rates. 1. 2-Vinylanthracene,” J. Phys. Chem. 90, 2085–2092 (1986).

Bosshard, C.

P. Kaatz, P. Pretre, U. Meier, U. Stalder, C. Bosshard, P. Gunter, B. Zysset, M. Stahelin, M. Ahlheim, and F. Lehr, “Relaxation processes in nonlinear optical polyimide side-chain polymers,” Macromolecules 29, 1666–1678 (1996).

Bsilevsky, M. V.

A. Draljaca, C. D. Hubbard, R. van Eldik, T. Asano, M. V. Bsilevsky, and W. J. le Noble, “Activation and reaction volumes in solution,” Chem. Rev. 98, 2167–2289 (1998).

Chen, D. T.-L.

D. T.-L. Chen and H. Morawetz, “Photoisomerization and fluorescence of chromophores built into the backbone of flexible polymer chains,” Macromolecules 9, 463–468 (1976).

Cohen, M. H.

M. H. Cohen and D. Turnbull, “Molecular transport in liquids and glasses,” J. Chem. Phys. 31, 1164–1169 (1959).

Delaire, J. A.

J. A. Delaire and K. Nakatani, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of photochromic molecules and materials,” Chem. Rev. 5, 1817–1845 (2000), and references therein.

R. Loucif-Saibi, K. Nakatani, J. A. Delaire, M. Dumont, and Z. Sekkat, “Photoisomerization and second harmonic generation in disperse red one-doped and-functionalized poly(methyl-methacrylate) films,” Chem. Mater. 5, 229–236 (1993).

Draljaca, A.

A. Draljaca, C. D. Hubbard, R. van Eldik, T. Asano, M. V. Bsilevsky, and W. J. le Noble, “Activation and reaction volumes in solution,” Chem. Rev. 98, 2167–2289 (1998).

Dumont, M.

R. Loucif-Saibi, K. Nakatani, J. A. Delaire, M. Dumont, and Z. Sekkat, “Photoisomerization and second harmonic generation in disperse red one-doped and-functionalized poly(methyl-methacrylate) films,” Chem. Mater. 5, 229–236 (1993).

Flom, S. R.

S. R. Flom, V. Nagarajan, and P. F. Barbara, “Dynamic solvent effects on large amplitude isomerization rates. 1. 2-Vinylanthracene,” J. Phys. Chem. 90, 2085–2092 (1986).

Furuta, H.

T. Asano, H. Furuta, and H. Sumi, “Two-step mechanism in single-step isomerizations. Kinetics in highly viscous liquid phase,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 116, 5545–5550 (1994).

Gunter, P.

P. Kaatz, P. Pretre, U. Meier, U. Stalder, C. Bosshard, P. Gunter, B. Zysset, M. Stahelin, M. Ahlheim, and F. Lehr, “Relaxation processes in nonlinear optical polyimide side-chain polymers,” Macromolecules 29, 1666–1678 (1996).

Hara, K.

K. Hara, N. Ito, and O. Kajimoto, “High pressure studies of dynamic solvent effects on large amplitude isomerization: 2-(2-propenyl)anthrance,” J. Phys. Chem. A 101, 2240–2244 (1997).

Hayden, L. M.

S. J. Strutz and L. M. Hayden, “Effect of pressure and temperature on chromophore reorientation in a side-chain nonlinear optical polymer,” J. Polym. Sci., Part B Polym. Phys. 36, 2793–2803 (1998).

Hubbard, C. D.

A. Draljaca, C. D. Hubbard, R. van Eldik, T. Asano, M. V. Bsilevsky, and W. J. le Noble, “Activation and reaction volumes in solution,” Chem. Rev. 98, 2167–2289 (1998).

Isenbach, C. D.

C. D. Isenbach, “Relation between photochromism and free volume theory in bulk polymers,” Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 84, 680–690 (1980).

Ishitobi, H.

H. Ishitobi, Z. Sekkat, and S. Kawata, “Quantifying theory of optical; orientation processes in spectrally distinguishable photoisomers: application to a spiropyran-type chromophore,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 316, 578–584 (2000).

Ito, N.

K. Hara, N. Ito, and O. Kajimoto, “High pressure studies of dynamic solvent effects on large amplitude isomerization: 2-(2-propenyl)anthrance,” J. Phys. Chem. A 101, 2240–2244 (1997).

Kaatz, P.

P. Kaatz, P. Pretre, U. Meier, U. Stalder, C. Bosshard, P. Gunter, B. Zysset, M. Stahelin, M. Ahlheim, and F. Lehr, “Relaxation processes in nonlinear optical polyimide side-chain polymers,” Macromolecules 29, 1666–1678 (1996).

Kajimoto, O.

K. Hara, N. Ito, and O. Kajimoto, “High pressure studies of dynamic solvent effects on large amplitude isomerization: 2-(2-propenyl)anthrance,” J. Phys. Chem. A 101, 2240–2244 (1997).

Kawata, S.

H. Ishitobi, Z. Sekkat, and S. Kawata, “Quantifying theory of optical; orientation processes in spectrally distinguishable photoisomers: application to a spiropyran-type chromophore,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 316, 578–584 (2000).

Kleideiter, G.

G. Kleideiter, Z. Sekkat, M. Kreiter, M. D. Lechner, and W. Knoll, “Photoisomerization of Disperse Red One in films of poly(methyl-methacrylate) at high pressure,” J. Mol. Struct. 521, 167–178 (2000).

Knoll, W.

G. Kleideiter, Z. Sekkat, M. Kreiter, M. D. Lechner, and W. Knoll, “Photoisomerization of Disperse Red One in films of poly(methyl-methacrylate) at high pressure,” J. Mol. Struct. 521, 167–178 (2000).

Kreiter, M.

G. Kleideiter, Z. Sekkat, M. Kreiter, M. D. Lechner, and W. Knoll, “Photoisomerization of Disperse Red One in films of poly(methyl-methacrylate) at high pressure,” J. Mol. Struct. 521, 167–178 (2000).

le Noble, W. J.

A. Draljaca, C. D. Hubbard, R. van Eldik, T. Asano, M. V. Bsilevsky, and W. J. le Noble, “Activation and reaction volumes in solution,” Chem. Rev. 98, 2167–2289 (1998).

Lechner, M. D.

G. Kleideiter, Z. Sekkat, M. Kreiter, M. D. Lechner, and W. Knoll, “Photoisomerization of Disperse Red One in films of poly(methyl-methacrylate) at high pressure,” J. Mol. Struct. 521, 167–178 (2000).

Lehr, F.

P. Kaatz, P. Pretre, U. Meier, U. Stalder, C. Bosshard, P. Gunter, B. Zysset, M. Stahelin, M. Ahlheim, and F. Lehr, “Relaxation processes in nonlinear optical polyimide side-chain polymers,” Macromolecules 29, 1666–1678 (1996).

Loucif-Saibi, R.

R. Loucif-Saibi, K. Nakatani, J. A. Delaire, M. Dumont, and Z. Sekkat, “Photoisomerization and second harmonic generation in disperse red one-doped and-functionalized poly(methyl-methacrylate) films,” Chem. Mater. 5, 229–236 (1993).

Meier, U.

P. Kaatz, P. Pretre, U. Meier, U. Stalder, C. Bosshard, P. Gunter, B. Zysset, M. Stahelin, M. Ahlheim, and F. Lehr, “Relaxation processes in nonlinear optical polyimide side-chain polymers,” Macromolecules 29, 1666–1678 (1996).

Morawetz, H.

D. T.-L. Chen and H. Morawetz, “Photoisomerization and fluorescence of chromophores built into the backbone of flexible polymer chains,” Macromolecules 9, 463–468 (1976).

C. S. Paik and H. Morawetz, “Photochemical and thermal isomerization of aromatic residues in the side chains and the backbone of polymers in bulk,” Macromolecules 5, 171–177 (1972).

Nagarajan, V.

S. R. Flom, V. Nagarajan, and P. F. Barbara, “Dynamic solvent effects on large amplitude isomerization rates. 1. 2-Vinylanthracene,” J. Phys. Chem. 90, 2085–2092 (1986).

Nakatani, K.

J. A. Delaire and K. Nakatani, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of photochromic molecules and materials,” Chem. Rev. 5, 1817–1845 (2000), and references therein.

R. Loucif-Saibi, K. Nakatani, J. A. Delaire, M. Dumont, and Z. Sekkat, “Photoisomerization and second harmonic generation in disperse red one-doped and-functionalized poly(methyl-methacrylate) films,” Chem. Mater. 5, 229–236 (1993).

Paik, C. S.

C. S. Paik and H. Morawetz, “Photochemical and thermal isomerization of aromatic residues in the side chains and the backbone of polymers in bulk,” Macromolecules 5, 171–177 (1972).

Pretre, P.

P. Kaatz, P. Pretre, U. Meier, U. Stalder, C. Bosshard, P. Gunter, B. Zysset, M. Stahelin, M. Ahlheim, and F. Lehr, “Relaxation processes in nonlinear optical polyimide side-chain polymers,” Macromolecules 29, 1666–1678 (1996).

Robertson, R. E.

R. E. Robertson, “Segmental mobility in the equilibrium liquid below the glass transition,” Macromolecules 18, 953–958 (1985).

Sekkat, Z.

G. Kleideiter, Z. Sekkat, M. Kreiter, M. D. Lechner, and W. Knoll, “Photoisomerization of Disperse Red One in films of poly(methyl-methacrylate) at high pressure,” J. Mol. Struct. 521, 167–178 (2000).

H. Ishitobi, Z. Sekkat, and S. Kawata, “Quantifying theory of optical; orientation processes in spectrally distinguishable photoisomers: application to a spiropyran-type chromophore,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 316, 578–584 (2000).

R. Loucif-Saibi, K. Nakatani, J. A. Delaire, M. Dumont, and Z. Sekkat, “Photoisomerization and second harmonic generation in disperse red one-doped and-functionalized poly(methyl-methacrylate) films,” Chem. Mater. 5, 229–236 (1993).

Stahelin, M.

P. Kaatz, P. Pretre, U. Meier, U. Stalder, C. Bosshard, P. Gunter, B. Zysset, M. Stahelin, M. Ahlheim, and F. Lehr, “Relaxation processes in nonlinear optical polyimide side-chain polymers,” Macromolecules 29, 1666–1678 (1996).

Stalder, U.

P. Kaatz, P. Pretre, U. Meier, U. Stalder, C. Bosshard, P. Gunter, B. Zysset, M. Stahelin, M. Ahlheim, and F. Lehr, “Relaxation processes in nonlinear optical polyimide side-chain polymers,” Macromolecules 29, 1666–1678 (1996).

Strutz, S. J.

S. J. Strutz and L. M. Hayden, “Effect of pressure and temperature on chromophore reorientation in a side-chain nonlinear optical polymer,” J. Polym. Sci., Part B Polym. Phys. 36, 2793–2803 (1998).

Sumi, H.

T. Asano, H. Furuta, and H. Sumi, “Two-step mechanism in single-step isomerizations. Kinetics in highly viscous liquid phase,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 116, 5545–5550 (1994).

Torkelson, M.

J. Victor and M. Torkelson, “On measuring the distribution of local free volume in glassy polymers by photochromic and fluorescence techniques,” Macromolecules 20, 2241–2250 (1987).

Turnbull, D.

M. H. Cohen and D. Turnbull, “Molecular transport in liquids and glasses,” J. Chem. Phys. 31, 1164–1169 (1959).

van Eldik, R.

A. Draljaca, C. D. Hubbard, R. van Eldik, T. Asano, M. V. Bsilevsky, and W. J. le Noble, “Activation and reaction volumes in solution,” Chem. Rev. 98, 2167–2289 (1998).

Victor, J.

J. Victor and M. Torkelson, “On measuring the distribution of local free volume in glassy polymers by photochromic and fluorescence techniques,” Macromolecules 20, 2241–2250 (1987).

Zysset, B.

P. Kaatz, P. Pretre, U. Meier, U. Stalder, C. Bosshard, P. Gunter, B. Zysset, M. Stahelin, M. Ahlheim, and F. Lehr, “Relaxation processes in nonlinear optical polyimide side-chain polymers,” Macromolecules 29, 1666–1678 (1996).

Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem.

C. D. Isenbach, “Relation between photochromism and free volume theory in bulk polymers,” Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 84, 680–690 (1980).

Chem. Mater.

R. Loucif-Saibi, K. Nakatani, J. A. Delaire, M. Dumont, and Z. Sekkat, “Photoisomerization and second harmonic generation in disperse red one-doped and-functionalized poly(methyl-methacrylate) films,” Chem. Mater. 5, 229–236 (1993).

Chem. Phys. Lett.

H. Ishitobi, Z. Sekkat, and S. Kawata, “Quantifying theory of optical; orientation processes in spectrally distinguishable photoisomers: application to a spiropyran-type chromophore,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 316, 578–584 (2000).

Chem. Rev.

J. A. Delaire and K. Nakatani, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of photochromic molecules and materials,” Chem. Rev. 5, 1817–1845 (2000), and references therein.

A. Draljaca, C. D. Hubbard, R. van Eldik, T. Asano, M. V. Bsilevsky, and W. J. le Noble, “Activation and reaction volumes in solution,” Chem. Rev. 98, 2167–2289 (1998).

J. Am. Chem. Soc.

T. Asano, H. Furuta, and H. Sumi, “Two-step mechanism in single-step isomerizations. Kinetics in highly viscous liquid phase,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 116, 5545–5550 (1994).

J. Chem. Phys.

M. H. Cohen and D. Turnbull, “Molecular transport in liquids and glasses,” J. Chem. Phys. 31, 1164–1169 (1959).

J. Mol. Struct.

G. Kleideiter, Z. Sekkat, M. Kreiter, M. D. Lechner, and W. Knoll, “Photoisomerization of Disperse Red One in films of poly(methyl-methacrylate) at high pressure,” J. Mol. Struct. 521, 167–178 (2000).

J. Phys. Chem.

S. R. Flom, V. Nagarajan, and P. F. Barbara, “Dynamic solvent effects on large amplitude isomerization rates. 1. 2-Vinylanthracene,” J. Phys. Chem. 90, 2085–2092 (1986).

J. Phys. Chem. A

K. Hara, N. Ito, and O. Kajimoto, “High pressure studies of dynamic solvent effects on large amplitude isomerization: 2-(2-propenyl)anthrance,” J. Phys. Chem. A 101, 2240–2244 (1997).

J. Polym. Sci., Part B Polym. Phys.

S. J. Strutz and L. M. Hayden, “Effect of pressure and temperature on chromophore reorientation in a side-chain nonlinear optical polymer,” J. Polym. Sci., Part B Polym. Phys. 36, 2793–2803 (1998).

Macromolecules

P. Kaatz, P. Pretre, U. Meier, U. Stalder, C. Bosshard, P. Gunter, B. Zysset, M. Stahelin, M. Ahlheim, and F. Lehr, “Relaxation processes in nonlinear optical polyimide side-chain polymers,” Macromolecules 29, 1666–1678 (1996).

R. E. Robertson, “Segmental mobility in the equilibrium liquid below the glass transition,” Macromolecules 18, 953–958 (1985).

C. S. Paik and H. Morawetz, “Photochemical and thermal isomerization of aromatic residues in the side chains and the backbone of polymers in bulk,” Macromolecules 5, 171–177 (1972).

J. Victor and M. Torkelson, “On measuring the distribution of local free volume in glassy polymers by photochromic and fluorescence techniques,” Macromolecules 20, 2241–2250 (1987).

D. T.-L. Chen and H. Morawetz, “Photoisomerization and fluorescence of chromophores built into the backbone of flexible polymer chains,” Macromolecules 9, 463–468 (1976).

Other

H. Rau “Photoisomerization of azobenzenes,” in Photochemistry and Photophysics, J. F. Rabek, ed. (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1990), Vol. 2, Chap. 4, pp. 119–141.

A. C. Newell and J. V. Moloney, Nonlinear Optics (Addison-Wesley, Palo Alto, Calif., 1992).

Z. Sekkat, A. Knoesen, W. Knoll, and R. D. Miller, “Unification of azo-polymer structures by photo-induced molecular movement,” in Sol-Gel and Polymer Photonic Devices, I. Najafi and M. P. Andrews, eds., Vol. CR68 of SPIE Critical Reviews (SPIE, Bellingham, Wash., 1997), pp. 374–398.

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