Abstract

Reflection second-harmonic generation from the polished waveguide end face was used to investigate the nonlinear properties of LiNbO3-implanted waveguides fabricated by use of 2-MeV He+ and 1.5-Mev H+ beams. Results were compared with waveguides obtained by protonic exchange in benzoic acid. In contrast to the exchanged sample where the nonlinearity is strongly reduced, the implanted samples showed that the guiding region presents rather the same response as the substrate. The area where the optical barrier is located showed a strongly enhanced second-harmonic signal that was likely to be due to structural modifications in this area. Moreover, the investigation of the annealing effect showed strong interaction of protons with the lattice compared with that of He+ ions.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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  3. F. Laurell, M. G. Roelofs, and H. Hsiung, “Loss of optical nonlinearity in proton-exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 301–303 (1992).
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  13. D. Fluck, D. H. Jundt, P. Günter, M. Fleuster, and Ch. Buchal, “Modeling of refractive index profiles of He+ ion-implanted KNbO3 waveguides based on the irradiation parameters,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 6023–6030 (1993).
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  18. G. L. Destefanis, J. P. Gaillard, E. L. Ligeon, and S. Valette, “The formation of waveguides and modulators in LiNbO3 by ion implantation,” J. Appl. Phys. 50, 7898–7905 (1979).
  19. P. Rejmankova, J. Baruchel, and P. Moretti, “Investigation of hydrogen implanted LiNbO3 crystals under DC electric field by synchrotron radiation topography,” Physica B 226, 293–303 (1996).
  20. P. Moretti, P. Thevenard, K. Wirl, and P. Hertel, “Waveguides fabricated in LiNbO3 by proton implantation,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 244, 323–328 (1992).
  21. A. Boudrioua, P. Moretti, J. C. Loulergue, and G. Aka, “Formation of planar optical waveguides in new nonlinear gadolinium calcium oxoborate, Ca4GdO(BO3)3 (GdCOB), crystals by 2-MeV He+ implantation,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1680–1682 (1998).
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  24. T. Pliska, D. Fluck, P. Günter, L. Beckers, and C. Buchal, “Mode propagation losses in He+ ion-implanted KNbO3 waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 628–639 (1998).
  25. S. A. M. Al Chalabi, B. L. Weiss, and K. P. Homewood, “Optical properties of rapid furnace annealed He+ implanted LiNbO3 waveguides,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 28, 255–258 (1987).
  26. S. Ould Salem, P. Moretti, B. Canut, K. Wirl, and P. Hertel, “Stabilité de guides optiques dans LiNbO3 réalisés par implantation de protons,” J. Opt. 24, 259–264 (1993).

1999 (1)

A. Boudrioua, J. C. Loulergue, P. Moretti, B. Jacquier, G. Aka, and D. Vivien, “Second-harmonic generation in He+-implanted gadolinium calcium oxoborate, Ca4GdO(BO3)3 (GdCOB), planar waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1298–1301 (1999).

1998 (5)

T. Pliska, D. Fluck, P. Günter, L. Beckers, and C. Buchal, “Mode propagation losses in He+ ion-implanted KNbO3 waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 628–639 (1998).

A. Boudrioua, P. Moretti, J. C. Loulergue, and G. Aka, “Formation of planar optical waveguides in new nonlinear gadolinium calcium oxoborate, Ca4GdO(BO3)3 (GdCOB), crystals by 2-MeV He+ implantation,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1680–1682 (1998).

A. Boudrioua, S. Ould Salem, P. Moretti, R. Kremer, and J. C. Loulergue, “Electro-optic coefficients in H+-ion implanted LiNbO3 planar waveguide,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 147, 393–398 (1998).

P. Bindner, A. Boudrioua, P. Moretti, and J. C. Loulergue, “Refractive index behavior of He+-implanted waveguides in LiNbO3, LTB, and KTP materials,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 142, 329–337 (1998).

J. Rames, J. Olivares, P. J. Chandler, and P. D. Townsend, “Second harmonic generation capabilities of ion-implanted LiNbO3 waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 5180–5183 (1998).

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

P. Rejmankova, J. Baruchel, and P. Moretti, “Investigation of hydrogen implanted LiNbO3 crystals under DC electric field by synchrotron radiation topography,” Physica B 226, 293–303 (1996).

1995 (1)

D. Fluck, T. Pliska, M. Küpfer, and P. Günter, “Depth profile of the nonlinear optical susceptibility of ion-implanted KNbO3 waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 748–750 (1995).

1994 (1)

H. Åhlfeldt, “Nonlinear optical properties of proton-exchanged waveguides in z-cut LiTaO3,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 3255–3260 (1994).

1993 (5)

H. Åhlfeldt, F. Laurell, and G. Arvidson, “Strongly reduced optical nonlinearity in lithium tantalate due to proton exchange,” Electron. Lett. 29, 819–820 (1993).

M. L. Bortz, L. A. Fyres, and M. M. Fejer, “Depth profiling of the d33 nonlinear coefficient in annealed proton exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2012–2014 (1993).

D. Fluck, D. H. Jundt, P. Günter, M. Fleuster, and Ch. Buchal, “Modeling of refractive index profiles of He+ ion-implanted KNbO3 waveguides based on the irradiation parameters,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 6023–6030 (1993).

L. Zhang, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, Z. T. Alwahabi, S. L. Pityana, and A. J. McCaffery, “Frequency doubling in ion-implanted KTiOPO4 planar waveguides with 25% conversion efficiency,” J. Appl. Phys. 73, 2695–2699 (1993).

S. Ould Salem, P. Moretti, B. Canut, K. Wirl, and P. Hertel, “Stabilité de guides optiques dans LiNbO3 réalisés par implantation de protons,” J. Opt. 24, 259–264 (1993).

1992 (2)

P. Moretti, P. Thevenard, K. Wirl, and P. Hertel, “Waveguides fabricated in LiNbO3 by proton implantation,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 244, 323–328 (1992).

F. Laurell, M. G. Roelofs, and H. Hsiung, “Loss of optical nonlinearity in proton-exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 301–303 (1992).

1991 (1)

X. Cao, R. Srivastava, R. V. Ramaswamy, and J. Ntour, “Recovery of second order nonlinearity in annealed proton exchanged LiNbO3,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 3, 25–27 (1991).

1989 (1)

T. Suhara, H. Tazaki, and H. Nishihara, “Measurement of reduction in SHG coefficient of LiNbO3 by proton exchanging,” Electron. Lett. 25, 1326–1328 (1989).

1987 (1)

S. A. M. Al Chalabi, B. L. Weiss, and K. P. Homewood, “Optical properties of rapid furnace annealed He+ implanted LiNbO3 waveguides,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 28, 255–258 (1987).

1986 (1)

P. J. Chandler and F. L. Lama, “A new approach to the determination of planar waveguide profiles by means of non-stationary mode index calculation,” Opt. Acta 33, 127–143 (1986).

1985 (1)

K. S. Chiang, “Construction of refractive index profiles of planar dielectric waveguides from the distribution of effective indexes,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 385–391 (1985).

1983 (1)

D. F. Clark, A. C. G. Nutt, K. K. Wong, P. J. R. Laybourn, and R. M. De La Rue, “Characterization of proton-exchanged slab optical waveguides in z-cut LiNbO3,” J. Appl. Phys. 54, 6218–6220 (1983).

1979 (1)

G. L. Destefanis, J. P. Gaillard, E. L. Ligeon, and S. Valette, “The formation of waveguides and modulators in LiNbO3 by ion implantation,” J. Appl. Phys. 50, 7898–7905 (1979).

1973 (1)

Åhlfeldt, H.

H. Åhlfeldt, “Nonlinear optical properties of proton-exchanged waveguides in z-cut LiTaO3,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 3255–3260 (1994).

H. Åhlfeldt, F. Laurell, and G. Arvidson, “Strongly reduced optical nonlinearity in lithium tantalate due to proton exchange,” Electron. Lett. 29, 819–820 (1993).

Aka, G.

A. Boudrioua, J. C. Loulergue, P. Moretti, B. Jacquier, G. Aka, and D. Vivien, “Second-harmonic generation in He+-implanted gadolinium calcium oxoborate, Ca4GdO(BO3)3 (GdCOB), planar waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1298–1301 (1999).

A. Boudrioua, P. Moretti, J. C. Loulergue, and G. Aka, “Formation of planar optical waveguides in new nonlinear gadolinium calcium oxoborate, Ca4GdO(BO3)3 (GdCOB), crystals by 2-MeV He+ implantation,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1680–1682 (1998).

Al Chalabi, S. A. M.

S. A. M. Al Chalabi, B. L. Weiss, and K. P. Homewood, “Optical properties of rapid furnace annealed He+ implanted LiNbO3 waveguides,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 28, 255–258 (1987).

Alwahabi, Z. T.

L. Zhang, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, Z. T. Alwahabi, S. L. Pityana, and A. J. McCaffery, “Frequency doubling in ion-implanted KTiOPO4 planar waveguides with 25% conversion efficiency,” J. Appl. Phys. 73, 2695–2699 (1993).

Arvidson, G.

H. Åhlfeldt, F. Laurell, and G. Arvidson, “Strongly reduced optical nonlinearity in lithium tantalate due to proton exchange,” Electron. Lett. 29, 819–820 (1993).

Aschieri, P.

Baldi, P.

Baruchel, J.

P. Rejmankova, J. Baruchel, and P. Moretti, “Investigation of hydrogen implanted LiNbO3 crystals under DC electric field by synchrotron radiation topography,” Physica B 226, 293–303 (1996).

Beckers, L.

Bindner, P.

P. Bindner, A. Boudrioua, P. Moretti, and J. C. Loulergue, “Refractive index behavior of He+-implanted waveguides in LiNbO3, LTB, and KTP materials,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 142, 329–337 (1998).

Bortz, M. L.

M. L. Bortz, L. A. Fyres, and M. M. Fejer, “Depth profiling of the d33 nonlinear coefficient in annealed proton exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2012–2014 (1993).

Boudrioua, A.

A. Boudrioua, J. C. Loulergue, P. Moretti, B. Jacquier, G. Aka, and D. Vivien, “Second-harmonic generation in He+-implanted gadolinium calcium oxoborate, Ca4GdO(BO3)3 (GdCOB), planar waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1298–1301 (1999).

P. Bindner, A. Boudrioua, P. Moretti, and J. C. Loulergue, “Refractive index behavior of He+-implanted waveguides in LiNbO3, LTB, and KTP materials,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 142, 329–337 (1998).

A. Boudrioua, S. Ould Salem, P. Moretti, R. Kremer, and J. C. Loulergue, “Electro-optic coefficients in H+-ion implanted LiNbO3 planar waveguide,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 147, 393–398 (1998).

A. Boudrioua, P. Moretti, J. C. Loulergue, and G. Aka, “Formation of planar optical waveguides in new nonlinear gadolinium calcium oxoborate, Ca4GdO(BO3)3 (GdCOB), crystals by 2-MeV He+ implantation,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1680–1682 (1998).

Buchal, C.

Buchal, Ch.

D. Fluck, D. H. Jundt, P. Günter, M. Fleuster, and Ch. Buchal, “Modeling of refractive index profiles of He+ ion-implanted KNbO3 waveguides based on the irradiation parameters,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 6023–6030 (1993).

Canut, B.

S. Ould Salem, P. Moretti, B. Canut, K. Wirl, and P. Hertel, “Stabilité de guides optiques dans LiNbO3 réalisés par implantation de protons,” J. Opt. 24, 259–264 (1993).

Cao, X.

X. Cao, R. Srivastava, R. V. Ramaswamy, and J. Ntour, “Recovery of second order nonlinearity in annealed proton exchanged LiNbO3,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 3, 25–27 (1991).

Chandler, P. J.

J. Rames, J. Olivares, P. J. Chandler, and P. D. Townsend, “Second harmonic generation capabilities of ion-implanted LiNbO3 waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 5180–5183 (1998).

L. Zhang, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, Z. T. Alwahabi, S. L. Pityana, and A. J. McCaffery, “Frequency doubling in ion-implanted KTiOPO4 planar waveguides with 25% conversion efficiency,” J. Appl. Phys. 73, 2695–2699 (1993).

P. J. Chandler and F. L. Lama, “A new approach to the determination of planar waveguide profiles by means of non-stationary mode index calculation,” Opt. Acta 33, 127–143 (1986).

Chiang, K. S.

K. S. Chiang, “Construction of refractive index profiles of planar dielectric waveguides from the distribution of effective indexes,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 385–391 (1985).

Clark, D. F.

D. F. Clark, A. C. G. Nutt, K. K. Wong, P. J. R. Laybourn, and R. M. De La Rue, “Characterization of proton-exchanged slab optical waveguides in z-cut LiNbO3,” J. Appl. Phys. 54, 6218–6220 (1983).

De La Rue, R. M.

D. F. Clark, A. C. G. Nutt, K. K. Wong, P. J. R. Laybourn, and R. M. De La Rue, “Characterization of proton-exchanged slab optical waveguides in z-cut LiNbO3,” J. Appl. Phys. 54, 6218–6220 (1983).

De Micheli, M. P.

Destefanis, G. L.

G. L. Destefanis, J. P. Gaillard, E. L. Ligeon, and S. Valette, “The formation of waveguides and modulators in LiNbO3 by ion implantation,” J. Appl. Phys. 50, 7898–7905 (1979).

El Hadi, K.

Fejer, M. M.

M. L. Bortz, L. A. Fyres, and M. M. Fejer, “Depth profiling of the d33 nonlinear coefficient in annealed proton exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2012–2014 (1993).

Fleuster, M.

D. Fluck, D. H. Jundt, P. Günter, M. Fleuster, and Ch. Buchal, “Modeling of refractive index profiles of He+ ion-implanted KNbO3 waveguides based on the irradiation parameters,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 6023–6030 (1993).

Fluck, D.

T. Pliska, D. Fluck, P. Günter, L. Beckers, and C. Buchal, “Mode propagation losses in He+ ion-implanted KNbO3 waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 628–639 (1998).

D. Fluck, T. Pliska, M. Küpfer, and P. Günter, “Depth profile of the nonlinear optical susceptibility of ion-implanted KNbO3 waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 748–750 (1995).

D. Fluck, D. H. Jundt, P. Günter, M. Fleuster, and Ch. Buchal, “Modeling of refractive index profiles of He+ ion-implanted KNbO3 waveguides based on the irradiation parameters,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 6023–6030 (1993).

Fyres, L. A.

M. L. Bortz, L. A. Fyres, and M. M. Fejer, “Depth profiling of the d33 nonlinear coefficient in annealed proton exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2012–2014 (1993).

Gaillard, J. P.

G. L. Destefanis, J. P. Gaillard, E. L. Ligeon, and S. Valette, “The formation of waveguides and modulators in LiNbO3 by ion implantation,” J. Appl. Phys. 50, 7898–7905 (1979).

Günter, P.

T. Pliska, D. Fluck, P. Günter, L. Beckers, and C. Buchal, “Mode propagation losses in He+ ion-implanted KNbO3 waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 628–639 (1998).

D. Fluck, T. Pliska, M. Küpfer, and P. Günter, “Depth profile of the nonlinear optical susceptibility of ion-implanted KNbO3 waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 748–750 (1995).

D. Fluck, D. H. Jundt, P. Günter, M. Fleuster, and Ch. Buchal, “Modeling of refractive index profiles of He+ ion-implanted KNbO3 waveguides based on the irradiation parameters,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 6023–6030 (1993).

Hertel, P.

S. Ould Salem, P. Moretti, B. Canut, K. Wirl, and P. Hertel, “Stabilité de guides optiques dans LiNbO3 réalisés par implantation de protons,” J. Opt. 24, 259–264 (1993).

P. Moretti, P. Thevenard, K. Wirl, and P. Hertel, “Waveguides fabricated in LiNbO3 by proton implantation,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 244, 323–328 (1992).

Homewood, K. P.

S. A. M. Al Chalabi, B. L. Weiss, and K. P. Homewood, “Optical properties of rapid furnace annealed He+ implanted LiNbO3 waveguides,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 28, 255–258 (1987).

Hsiung, H.

F. Laurell, M. G. Roelofs, and H. Hsiung, “Loss of optical nonlinearity in proton-exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 301–303 (1992).

Jacquier, B.

A. Boudrioua, J. C. Loulergue, P. Moretti, B. Jacquier, G. Aka, and D. Vivien, “Second-harmonic generation in He+-implanted gadolinium calcium oxoborate, Ca4GdO(BO3)3 (GdCOB), planar waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1298–1301 (1999).

Jundt, D. H.

D. Fluck, D. H. Jundt, P. Günter, M. Fleuster, and Ch. Buchal, “Modeling of refractive index profiles of He+ ion-implanted KNbO3 waveguides based on the irradiation parameters,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 6023–6030 (1993).

Kremer, R.

A. Boudrioua, S. Ould Salem, P. Moretti, R. Kremer, and J. C. Loulergue, “Electro-optic coefficients in H+-ion implanted LiNbO3 planar waveguide,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 147, 393–398 (1998).

Küpfer, M.

D. Fluck, T. Pliska, M. Küpfer, and P. Günter, “Depth profile of the nonlinear optical susceptibility of ion-implanted KNbO3 waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 748–750 (1995).

Lama, F. L.

P. J. Chandler and F. L. Lama, “A new approach to the determination of planar waveguide profiles by means of non-stationary mode index calculation,” Opt. Acta 33, 127–143 (1986).

Laurell, F.

K. El Hadi, M. Sundheimer, P. Aschieri, P. Baldi, M. P. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, and F. Laurell, “Quasi-phase-matched parametric interactions in proton-exchanged lithium niobate waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 3197–3202 (1997).

H. Åhlfeldt, F. Laurell, and G. Arvidson, “Strongly reduced optical nonlinearity in lithium tantalate due to proton exchange,” Electron. Lett. 29, 819–820 (1993).

F. Laurell, M. G. Roelofs, and H. Hsiung, “Loss of optical nonlinearity in proton-exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 301–303 (1992).

Laybourn, P. J. R.

D. F. Clark, A. C. G. Nutt, K. K. Wong, P. J. R. Laybourn, and R. M. De La Rue, “Characterization of proton-exchanged slab optical waveguides in z-cut LiNbO3,” J. Appl. Phys. 54, 6218–6220 (1983).

Ligeon, E. L.

G. L. Destefanis, J. P. Gaillard, E. L. Ligeon, and S. Valette, “The formation of waveguides and modulators in LiNbO3 by ion implantation,” J. Appl. Phys. 50, 7898–7905 (1979).

Loulergue, J. C.

A. Boudrioua, J. C. Loulergue, P. Moretti, B. Jacquier, G. Aka, and D. Vivien, “Second-harmonic generation in He+-implanted gadolinium calcium oxoborate, Ca4GdO(BO3)3 (GdCOB), planar waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1298–1301 (1999).

P. Bindner, A. Boudrioua, P. Moretti, and J. C. Loulergue, “Refractive index behavior of He+-implanted waveguides in LiNbO3, LTB, and KTP materials,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 142, 329–337 (1998).

A. Boudrioua, S. Ould Salem, P. Moretti, R. Kremer, and J. C. Loulergue, “Electro-optic coefficients in H+-ion implanted LiNbO3 planar waveguide,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 147, 393–398 (1998).

A. Boudrioua, P. Moretti, J. C. Loulergue, and G. Aka, “Formation of planar optical waveguides in new nonlinear gadolinium calcium oxoborate, Ca4GdO(BO3)3 (GdCOB), crystals by 2-MeV He+ implantation,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1680–1682 (1998).

McCaffery, A. J.

L. Zhang, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, Z. T. Alwahabi, S. L. Pityana, and A. J. McCaffery, “Frequency doubling in ion-implanted KTiOPO4 planar waveguides with 25% conversion efficiency,” J. Appl. Phys. 73, 2695–2699 (1993).

Moretti, P.

A. Boudrioua, J. C. Loulergue, P. Moretti, B. Jacquier, G. Aka, and D. Vivien, “Second-harmonic generation in He+-implanted gadolinium calcium oxoborate, Ca4GdO(BO3)3 (GdCOB), planar waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1298–1301 (1999).

P. Bindner, A. Boudrioua, P. Moretti, and J. C. Loulergue, “Refractive index behavior of He+-implanted waveguides in LiNbO3, LTB, and KTP materials,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 142, 329–337 (1998).

A. Boudrioua, S. Ould Salem, P. Moretti, R. Kremer, and J. C. Loulergue, “Electro-optic coefficients in H+-ion implanted LiNbO3 planar waveguide,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 147, 393–398 (1998).

A. Boudrioua, P. Moretti, J. C. Loulergue, and G. Aka, “Formation of planar optical waveguides in new nonlinear gadolinium calcium oxoborate, Ca4GdO(BO3)3 (GdCOB), crystals by 2-MeV He+ implantation,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1680–1682 (1998).

P. Rejmankova, J. Baruchel, and P. Moretti, “Investigation of hydrogen implanted LiNbO3 crystals under DC electric field by synchrotron radiation topography,” Physica B 226, 293–303 (1996).

S. Ould Salem, P. Moretti, B. Canut, K. Wirl, and P. Hertel, “Stabilité de guides optiques dans LiNbO3 réalisés par implantation de protons,” J. Opt. 24, 259–264 (1993).

P. Moretti, P. Thevenard, K. Wirl, and P. Hertel, “Waveguides fabricated in LiNbO3 by proton implantation,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 244, 323–328 (1992).

Nishihara, H.

T. Suhara, H. Tazaki, and H. Nishihara, “Measurement of reduction in SHG coefficient of LiNbO3 by proton exchanging,” Electron. Lett. 25, 1326–1328 (1989).

Ntour, J.

X. Cao, R. Srivastava, R. V. Ramaswamy, and J. Ntour, “Recovery of second order nonlinearity in annealed proton exchanged LiNbO3,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 3, 25–27 (1991).

Nutt, A. C. G.

D. F. Clark, A. C. G. Nutt, K. K. Wong, P. J. R. Laybourn, and R. M. De La Rue, “Characterization of proton-exchanged slab optical waveguides in z-cut LiNbO3,” J. Appl. Phys. 54, 6218–6220 (1983).

Olivares, J.

J. Rames, J. Olivares, P. J. Chandler, and P. D. Townsend, “Second harmonic generation capabilities of ion-implanted LiNbO3 waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 5180–5183 (1998).

Ostrowsky, D. B.

Pityana, S. L.

L. Zhang, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, Z. T. Alwahabi, S. L. Pityana, and A. J. McCaffery, “Frequency doubling in ion-implanted KTiOPO4 planar waveguides with 25% conversion efficiency,” J. Appl. Phys. 73, 2695–2699 (1993).

Pliska, T.

T. Pliska, D. Fluck, P. Günter, L. Beckers, and C. Buchal, “Mode propagation losses in He+ ion-implanted KNbO3 waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 628–639 (1998).

D. Fluck, T. Pliska, M. Küpfer, and P. Günter, “Depth profile of the nonlinear optical susceptibility of ion-implanted KNbO3 waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 748–750 (1995).

Ramaswamy, R. V.

X. Cao, R. Srivastava, R. V. Ramaswamy, and J. Ntour, “Recovery of second order nonlinearity in annealed proton exchanged LiNbO3,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 3, 25–27 (1991).

Rames, J.

J. Rames, J. Olivares, P. J. Chandler, and P. D. Townsend, “Second harmonic generation capabilities of ion-implanted LiNbO3 waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 5180–5183 (1998).

Rejmankova, P.

P. Rejmankova, J. Baruchel, and P. Moretti, “Investigation of hydrogen implanted LiNbO3 crystals under DC electric field by synchrotron radiation topography,” Physica B 226, 293–303 (1996).

Roelofs, M. G.

F. Laurell, M. G. Roelofs, and H. Hsiung, “Loss of optical nonlinearity in proton-exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 301–303 (1992).

Salem, S. Ould

A. Boudrioua, S. Ould Salem, P. Moretti, R. Kremer, and J. C. Loulergue, “Electro-optic coefficients in H+-ion implanted LiNbO3 planar waveguide,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 147, 393–398 (1998).

S. Ould Salem, P. Moretti, B. Canut, K. Wirl, and P. Hertel, “Stabilité de guides optiques dans LiNbO3 réalisés par implantation de protons,” J. Opt. 24, 259–264 (1993).

Srivastava, R.

X. Cao, R. Srivastava, R. V. Ramaswamy, and J. Ntour, “Recovery of second order nonlinearity in annealed proton exchanged LiNbO3,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 3, 25–27 (1991).

Suhara, T.

T. Suhara, H. Tazaki, and H. Nishihara, “Measurement of reduction in SHG coefficient of LiNbO3 by proton exchanging,” Electron. Lett. 25, 1326–1328 (1989).

Sundheimer, M.

Tazaki, H.

T. Suhara, H. Tazaki, and H. Nishihara, “Measurement of reduction in SHG coefficient of LiNbO3 by proton exchanging,” Electron. Lett. 25, 1326–1328 (1989).

Thevenard, P.

P. Moretti, P. Thevenard, K. Wirl, and P. Hertel, “Waveguides fabricated in LiNbO3 by proton implantation,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 244, 323–328 (1992).

Torge, R.

Townsend, P. D.

J. Rames, J. Olivares, P. J. Chandler, and P. D. Townsend, “Second harmonic generation capabilities of ion-implanted LiNbO3 waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 5180–5183 (1998).

L. Zhang, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, Z. T. Alwahabi, S. L. Pityana, and A. J. McCaffery, “Frequency doubling in ion-implanted KTiOPO4 planar waveguides with 25% conversion efficiency,” J. Appl. Phys. 73, 2695–2699 (1993).

Ulrich, R.

Valette, S.

G. L. Destefanis, J. P. Gaillard, E. L. Ligeon, and S. Valette, “The formation of waveguides and modulators in LiNbO3 by ion implantation,” J. Appl. Phys. 50, 7898–7905 (1979).

Vivien, D.

A. Boudrioua, J. C. Loulergue, P. Moretti, B. Jacquier, G. Aka, and D. Vivien, “Second-harmonic generation in He+-implanted gadolinium calcium oxoborate, Ca4GdO(BO3)3 (GdCOB), planar waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1298–1301 (1999).

Weiss, B. L.

S. A. M. Al Chalabi, B. L. Weiss, and K. P. Homewood, “Optical properties of rapid furnace annealed He+ implanted LiNbO3 waveguides,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 28, 255–258 (1987).

Wirl, K.

S. Ould Salem, P. Moretti, B. Canut, K. Wirl, and P. Hertel, “Stabilité de guides optiques dans LiNbO3 réalisés par implantation de protons,” J. Opt. 24, 259–264 (1993).

P. Moretti, P. Thevenard, K. Wirl, and P. Hertel, “Waveguides fabricated in LiNbO3 by proton implantation,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 244, 323–328 (1992).

Wong, K. K.

D. F. Clark, A. C. G. Nutt, K. K. Wong, P. J. R. Laybourn, and R. M. De La Rue, “Characterization of proton-exchanged slab optical waveguides in z-cut LiNbO3,” J. Appl. Phys. 54, 6218–6220 (1983).

Zhang, L.

L. Zhang, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, Z. T. Alwahabi, S. L. Pityana, and A. J. McCaffery, “Frequency doubling in ion-implanted KTiOPO4 planar waveguides with 25% conversion efficiency,” J. Appl. Phys. 73, 2695–2699 (1993).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

F. Laurell, M. G. Roelofs, and H. Hsiung, “Loss of optical nonlinearity in proton-exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 301–303 (1992).

D. Fluck, T. Pliska, M. Küpfer, and P. Günter, “Depth profile of the nonlinear optical susceptibility of ion-implanted KNbO3 waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 748–750 (1995).

M. L. Bortz, L. A. Fyres, and M. M. Fejer, “Depth profiling of the d33 nonlinear coefficient in annealed proton exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2012–2014 (1993).

Electron. Lett. (2)

H. Åhlfeldt, F. Laurell, and G. Arvidson, “Strongly reduced optical nonlinearity in lithium tantalate due to proton exchange,” Electron. Lett. 29, 819–820 (1993).

T. Suhara, H. Tazaki, and H. Nishihara, “Measurement of reduction in SHG coefficient of LiNbO3 by proton exchanging,” Electron. Lett. 25, 1326–1328 (1989).

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

X. Cao, R. Srivastava, R. V. Ramaswamy, and J. Ntour, “Recovery of second order nonlinearity in annealed proton exchanged LiNbO3,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 3, 25–27 (1991).

J. Appl. Phys. (6)

J. Rames, J. Olivares, P. J. Chandler, and P. D. Townsend, “Second harmonic generation capabilities of ion-implanted LiNbO3 waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 5180–5183 (1998).

D. F. Clark, A. C. G. Nutt, K. K. Wong, P. J. R. Laybourn, and R. M. De La Rue, “Characterization of proton-exchanged slab optical waveguides in z-cut LiNbO3,” J. Appl. Phys. 54, 6218–6220 (1983).

H. Åhlfeldt, “Nonlinear optical properties of proton-exchanged waveguides in z-cut LiTaO3,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 3255–3260 (1994).

D. Fluck, D. H. Jundt, P. Günter, M. Fleuster, and Ch. Buchal, “Modeling of refractive index profiles of He+ ion-implanted KNbO3 waveguides based on the irradiation parameters,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 6023–6030 (1993).

G. L. Destefanis, J. P. Gaillard, E. L. Ligeon, and S. Valette, “The formation of waveguides and modulators in LiNbO3 by ion implantation,” J. Appl. Phys. 50, 7898–7905 (1979).

L. Zhang, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, Z. T. Alwahabi, S. L. Pityana, and A. J. McCaffery, “Frequency doubling in ion-implanted KTiOPO4 planar waveguides with 25% conversion efficiency,” J. Appl. Phys. 73, 2695–2699 (1993).

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

K. S. Chiang, “Construction of refractive index profiles of planar dielectric waveguides from the distribution of effective indexes,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 385–391 (1985).

J. Opt. (1)

S. Ould Salem, P. Moretti, B. Canut, K. Wirl, and P. Hertel, “Stabilité de guides optiques dans LiNbO3 réalisés par implantation de protons,” J. Opt. 24, 259–264 (1993).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. (1)

P. Moretti, P. Thevenard, K. Wirl, and P. Hertel, “Waveguides fabricated in LiNbO3 by proton implantation,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 244, 323–328 (1992).

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B (3)

A. Boudrioua, S. Ould Salem, P. Moretti, R. Kremer, and J. C. Loulergue, “Electro-optic coefficients in H+-ion implanted LiNbO3 planar waveguide,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 147, 393–398 (1998).

P. Bindner, A. Boudrioua, P. Moretti, and J. C. Loulergue, “Refractive index behavior of He+-implanted waveguides in LiNbO3, LTB, and KTP materials,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 142, 329–337 (1998).

S. A. M. Al Chalabi, B. L. Weiss, and K. P. Homewood, “Optical properties of rapid furnace annealed He+ implanted LiNbO3 waveguides,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 28, 255–258 (1987).

Opt. Acta (1)

P. J. Chandler and F. L. Lama, “A new approach to the determination of planar waveguide profiles by means of non-stationary mode index calculation,” Opt. Acta 33, 127–143 (1986).

Opt. Lett. (2)

A. Boudrioua, J. C. Loulergue, P. Moretti, B. Jacquier, G. Aka, and D. Vivien, “Second-harmonic generation in He+-implanted gadolinium calcium oxoborate, Ca4GdO(BO3)3 (GdCOB), planar waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1298–1301 (1999).

A. Boudrioua, P. Moretti, J. C. Loulergue, and G. Aka, “Formation of planar optical waveguides in new nonlinear gadolinium calcium oxoborate, Ca4GdO(BO3)3 (GdCOB), crystals by 2-MeV He+ implantation,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1680–1682 (1998).

Physica B (1)

P. Rejmankova, J. Baruchel, and P. Moretti, “Investigation of hydrogen implanted LiNbO3 crystals under DC electric field by synchrotron radiation topography,” Physica B 226, 293–303 (1996).

Other (1)

P. D. Townsend, P. J. Chandler, and L. Zhang, Optical Effects of Ion Implantation (Cambridge University, Cambridge, England, 1994).

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