Abstract

The nonlinear optical refractive indices and the nonlinear optical absorption coefficients of newly synthesized α,β-unsaturated ketone derivatives (USKDs) were investigated by use of the intensity-dependent transmittance method and the Z-scan technique with a pulsed Nd:YAG laser at 532-nm and 1064-nm wavelengths. Opposite changes of signs of the nonlinear refractive indices are observed at the two wavelengths and can be mainly attributed to the thermal effect and the two-photon absorption mechanism. The origins of the nonlinearity of USKDs are discussed, and by establishing a kinetic model for the USKDs, several other nonlinear optical parameters are obtained, such as the cross section of two-photon absorption, the absorption cross section of the excited state, and the real part of second-order hyperpolarizability of the ground state. The results indicate that USKDs are potential optical limiting materials.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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1999 (7)

W. Wang, Y. Shi, D. J. Olson, W. Lin, and J. H. Bechlel, “Push-pull poled polymer Mach–Zehnder modulators with a single microstrip line electrode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 51–53 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Y Jen, Y. Liu, L. Zheng, S. Liu, K. J. Drost, Y. Zhang, and L. R. Dalton, “Synthesis and characterization of highly efficient, chemically and thermally stable chromophores with chromone-containing electron acceptors for NLO applications,” Adv. Mater. 11, 452–455 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Maertens, C. Detrembleur, P. Dubois, R. Jκrome, C. Boutton, A. Persoons, T. Kogej, and J. L. Brκdas, “Structure–second-order polarizability relationship in chromophores incorporating a spacer: a joint experimental and theoretical study,” Chem. Eur. J. 5, 369–380 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Torres, G. de la Torre, and J. Garcia-Ruiz, “Synthesis of new push-pull unsymmetrically substituted unsaturated metallophthalocyanines: targets for nonlinear optics,” Eur. J. Org. Chem. 1999, 2323–2326 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Oberle, L. Bramerie, G. Jonusauskas, and C. Rulliere, “Optical-limiting properties of push-pull diphenyl-butadiene,” Opt. Commun. 169, 325–332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

X. Deng, X. Zhang, Y. Wang, Y. Song, S. Liu, and C. Li, “Intensity threshold in the conversion from reverse saturable absorption to saturable absorption and its application in optical limiting,” Opt. Commun. 168, 207–221 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Tsai, S. P. Chen, and T. C. Wen, “Nonlinear absorption and refraction in porphyrazine derivatives,” Chem. Phys. 240, 191–196 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (7)

M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J.-L. Brκdas, J. E. Ehrlich, J.-Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D. McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, G. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X.-L. Wu, and C. Xu, “Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections,” Science 281, 1653–1656 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. A. Reinhardt, L. L. Brott, S. J. Clarson, A. G. Dillard, J. C. Bhatt, R. Kannan, L. Yuan, G. S. He, and P. N. Prasad, “Highly active two-photon dyes: design, synthesis, and characterization toward application,” Chem. Mater. 10, 1863–1874 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Kogej, D. Beljonne, F. Meyers, J. W. Perry, S. R. Marder, and J. L. Brκdas, “Mechanisms for enhancement of two-photon absorption in donor-acceptor conjugated chromophores,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 298, 1–6 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Gang, J. Wang, J. McElvain, and A. J. Heeger, “Large-area, full-color image sensors made with semiconducting polymers,” Adv. Mater. 11, 1431–1434 (1998).

O. V. Przhonska, J. H. Lim, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, M. V. Bondar, and Y. L. Slominsky, “Nonlinear light absorption of polymethine dyes in liquid and solid media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 802–809 (1998).
[CrossRef]

X. Shang, Y. Liu, G. Tang, G. Zhang, and W. Chen, “Optical nonlinearities of hypocrellin a with the excitation of nanosecond pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1502–1511 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Samoc, A. Samoc, B. Luther-Davies, Z. Bao, L. Yu, B. Hsieh, and U. Scherf, “Femtosecond Z-scan and degenerate four-wave mixing measurements of real and imaginary parts of the third-order nonlinearity of soluble conjugated polymers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 817–824 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (4)

1996 (1)

S. Hughes and B. Wherrett, “Multilevel rate-equation analysis to explain the recent observations of limitation to optical limiting dyes,” Phys. Rev. A 54, 3546–3552 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

1994 (1)

J.-L. Brκdas, C. Adant, P. Tackx, A. Persoons, and B. M. Pierce, “Third-order nonlinear optical response in organic materials: theoretical and experimental aspects,” Chem. Rev. 94, 243–278 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

L. W. Tutt and T. F. Boggess, “A review of optical limiting mechanisms and devices using organics, fullerenes, semiconductors, and other materials,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 17, 299–338 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Adant, C.

J.-L. Brκdas, C. Adant, P. Tackx, A. Persoons, and B. M. Pierce, “Third-order nonlinear optical response in organic materials: theoretical and experimental aspects,” Chem. Rev. 94, 243–278 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Albota, M.

M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J.-L. Brκdas, J. E. Ehrlich, J.-Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D. McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, G. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X.-L. Wu, and C. Xu, “Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections,” Science 281, 1653–1656 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bao, Z.

Bechlel, J. H.

W. Wang, Y. Shi, D. J. Olson, W. Lin, and J. H. Bechlel, “Push-pull poled polymer Mach–Zehnder modulators with a single microstrip line electrode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 51–53 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Beljonne, D.

T. Kogej, D. Beljonne, F. Meyers, J. W. Perry, S. R. Marder, and J. L. Brκdas, “Mechanisms for enhancement of two-photon absorption in donor-acceptor conjugated chromophores,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 298, 1–6 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J.-L. Brκdas, J. E. Ehrlich, J.-Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D. McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, G. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X.-L. Wu, and C. Xu, “Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections,” Science 281, 1653–1656 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bhatt, J. C.

B. A. Reinhardt, L. L. Brott, S. J. Clarson, A. G. Dillard, J. C. Bhatt, R. Kannan, L. Yuan, G. S. He, and P. N. Prasad, “Highly active two-photon dyes: design, synthesis, and characterization toward application,” Chem. Mater. 10, 1863–1874 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, G. C. Xu, P. N. Prasad, B. A. Reinhardt, J. C. Bhatt, and A. G. Dillard, “Two-photon absorption and optical-limiting properties of novel organic compounds,” Opt. Lett. 20, 435–437 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boggess, T. F.

L. W. Tutt and T. F. Boggess, “A review of optical limiting mechanisms and devices using organics, fullerenes, semiconductors, and other materials,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 17, 299–338 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bondar, M. V.

Boutton, C.

C. Maertens, C. Detrembleur, P. Dubois, R. Jκrome, C. Boutton, A. Persoons, T. Kogej, and J. L. Brκdas, “Structure–second-order polarizability relationship in chromophores incorporating a spacer: a joint experimental and theoretical study,” Chem. Eur. J. 5, 369–380 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Br?das, J. L.

C. Maertens, C. Detrembleur, P. Dubois, R. Jκrome, C. Boutton, A. Persoons, T. Kogej, and J. L. Brκdas, “Structure–second-order polarizability relationship in chromophores incorporating a spacer: a joint experimental and theoretical study,” Chem. Eur. J. 5, 369–380 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Kogej, D. Beljonne, F. Meyers, J. W. Perry, S. R. Marder, and J. L. Brκdas, “Mechanisms for enhancement of two-photon absorption in donor-acceptor conjugated chromophores,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 298, 1–6 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Br?das, J.-L.

M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J.-L. Brκdas, J. E. Ehrlich, J.-Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D. McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, G. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X.-L. Wu, and C. Xu, “Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections,” Science 281, 1653–1656 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-L. Brκdas, C. Adant, P. Tackx, A. Persoons, and B. M. Pierce, “Third-order nonlinear optical response in organic materials: theoretical and experimental aspects,” Chem. Rev. 94, 243–278 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bramerie, L.

J. Oberle, L. Bramerie, G. Jonusauskas, and C. Rulliere, “Optical-limiting properties of push-pull diphenyl-butadiene,” Opt. Commun. 169, 325–332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Brochard, P.

Brott, L. L.

B. A. Reinhardt, L. L. Brott, S. J. Clarson, A. G. Dillard, J. C. Bhatt, R. Kannan, L. Yuan, G. S. He, and P. N. Prasad, “Highly active two-photon dyes: design, synthesis, and characterization toward application,” Chem. Mater. 10, 1863–1874 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cabanel, R.

Cao, Z. Q.

Chen, S. P.

C. Y. Tsai, S. P. Chen, and T. C. Wen, “Nonlinear absorption and refraction in porphyrazine derivatives,” Chem. Phys. 240, 191–196 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W.

Chen, Y. L.

Chen, Y. X.

Clarson, S. J.

B. A. Reinhardt, L. L. Brott, S. J. Clarson, A. G. Dillard, J. C. Bhatt, R. Kannan, L. Yuan, G. S. He, and P. N. Prasad, “Highly active two-photon dyes: design, synthesis, and characterization toward application,” Chem. Mater. 10, 1863–1874 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dalton, L. R.

A. K. Y Jen, Y. Liu, L. Zheng, S. Liu, K. J. Drost, Y. Zhang, and L. R. Dalton, “Synthesis and characterization of highly efficient, chemically and thermally stable chromophores with chromone-containing electron acceptors for NLO applications,” Adv. Mater. 11, 452–455 (1999).
[CrossRef]

de Araújo, C. B.

de la Torre, G.

T. Torres, G. de la Torre, and J. Garcia-Ruiz, “Synthesis of new push-pull unsymmetrically substituted unsaturated metallophthalocyanines: targets for nonlinear optics,” Eur. J. Org. Chem. 1999, 2323–2326 (1999).
[CrossRef]

de Melo, C. P.

Demenicis, L.

Deng, X.

X. Deng, X. Zhang, Y. Wang, Y. Song, S. Liu, and C. Li, “Intensity threshold in the conversion from reverse saturable absorption to saturable absorption and its application in optical limiting,” Opt. Commun. 168, 207–221 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Detrembleur, C.

C. Maertens, C. Detrembleur, P. Dubois, R. Jκrome, C. Boutton, A. Persoons, T. Kogej, and J. L. Brκdas, “Structure–second-order polarizability relationship in chromophores incorporating a spacer: a joint experimental and theoretical study,” Chem. Eur. J. 5, 369–380 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dillard, A. G.

B. A. Reinhardt, L. L. Brott, S. J. Clarson, A. G. Dillard, J. C. Bhatt, R. Kannan, L. Yuan, G. S. He, and P. N. Prasad, “Highly active two-photon dyes: design, synthesis, and characterization toward application,” Chem. Mater. 10, 1863–1874 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, G. C. Xu, P. N. Prasad, B. A. Reinhardt, J. C. Bhatt, and A. G. Dillard, “Two-photon absorption and optical-limiting properties of novel organic compounds,” Opt. Lett. 20, 435–437 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

dos Santos, C. G.

Drost, K. J.

A. K. Y Jen, Y. Liu, L. Zheng, S. Liu, K. J. Drost, Y. Zhang, and L. R. Dalton, “Synthesis and characterization of highly efficient, chemically and thermally stable chromophores with chromone-containing electron acceptors for NLO applications,” Adv. Mater. 11, 452–455 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dubois, P.

C. Maertens, C. Detrembleur, P. Dubois, R. Jκrome, C. Boutton, A. Persoons, T. Kogej, and J. L. Brκdas, “Structure–second-order polarizability relationship in chromophores incorporating a spacer: a joint experimental and theoretical study,” Chem. Eur. J. 5, 369–380 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ehrlich, J. E.

M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J.-L. Brκdas, J. E. Ehrlich, J.-Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D. McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, G. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X.-L. Wu, and C. Xu, “Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections,” Science 281, 1653–1656 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Ehrlich, X. L. Wu, I.-Y. S. Lee, Z.-Y. Hu, H. Rockel, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Two-photon absorption and broadband optical limiting with bis-donor stilbenes,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1843–1845 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fu, J.-Y.

M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J.-L. Brκdas, J. E. Ehrlich, J.-Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D. McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, G. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X.-L. Wu, and C. Xu, “Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections,” Science 281, 1653–1656 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gang, Y.

Y. Gang, J. Wang, J. McElvain, and A. J. Heeger, “Large-area, full-color image sensors made with semiconducting polymers,” Adv. Mater. 11, 1431–1434 (1998).

Garcia-Ruiz, J.

T. Torres, G. de la Torre, and J. Garcia-Ruiz, “Synthesis of new push-pull unsymmetrically substituted unsaturated metallophthalocyanines: targets for nonlinear optics,” Eur. J. Org. Chem. 1999, 2323–2326 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gomes, A. S. L.

Grolier-Mazza, V.

Hagan, D. J.

O. V. Przhonska, J. H. Lim, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, M. V. Bondar, and Y. L. Slominsky, “Nonlinear light absorption of polymethine dyes in liquid and solid media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 802–809 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

He, G. S.

B. A. Reinhardt, L. L. Brott, S. J. Clarson, A. G. Dillard, J. C. Bhatt, R. Kannan, L. Yuan, G. S. He, and P. N. Prasad, “Highly active two-photon dyes: design, synthesis, and characterization toward application,” Chem. Mater. 10, 1863–1874 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, G. C. Xu, P. N. Prasad, B. A. Reinhardt, J. C. Bhatt, and A. G. Dillard, “Two-photon absorption and optical-limiting properties of novel organic compounds,” Opt. Lett. 20, 435–437 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heeger, A. J.

Y. Gang, J. Wang, J. McElvain, and A. J. Heeger, “Large-area, full-color image sensors made with semiconducting polymers,” Adv. Mater. 11, 1431–1434 (1998).

Heikal, A. A.

M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J.-L. Brκdas, J. E. Ehrlich, J.-Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D. McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, G. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X.-L. Wu, and C. Xu, “Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections,” Science 281, 1653–1656 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hess, S. E.

M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J.-L. Brκdas, J. E. Ehrlich, J.-Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D. McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, G. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X.-L. Wu, and C. Xu, “Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections,” Science 281, 1653–1656 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsieh, B.

Hu, Z.-Y.

Hughes, S.

S. Hughes and B. Wherrett, “Multilevel rate-equation analysis to explain the recent observations of limitation to optical limiting dyes,” Phys. Rev. A 54, 3546–3552 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J?rome, R.

C. Maertens, C. Detrembleur, P. Dubois, R. Jκrome, C. Boutton, A. Persoons, T. Kogej, and J. L. Brκdas, “Structure–second-order polarizability relationship in chromophores incorporating a spacer: a joint experimental and theoretical study,” Chem. Eur. J. 5, 369–380 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jen, A. K. Y

A. K. Y Jen, Y. Liu, L. Zheng, S. Liu, K. J. Drost, Y. Zhang, and L. R. Dalton, “Synthesis and characterization of highly efficient, chemically and thermally stable chromophores with chromone-containing electron acceptors for NLO applications,” Adv. Mater. 11, 452–455 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jonusauskas, G.

J. Oberle, L. Bramerie, G. Jonusauskas, and C. Rulliere, “Optical-limiting properties of push-pull diphenyl-butadiene,” Opt. Commun. 169, 325–332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kannan, R.

B. A. Reinhardt, L. L. Brott, S. J. Clarson, A. G. Dillard, J. C. Bhatt, R. Kannan, L. Yuan, G. S. He, and P. N. Prasad, “Highly active two-photon dyes: design, synthesis, and characterization toward application,” Chem. Mater. 10, 1863–1874 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kogej, T.

C. Maertens, C. Detrembleur, P. Dubois, R. Jκrome, C. Boutton, A. Persoons, T. Kogej, and J. L. Brκdas, “Structure–second-order polarizability relationship in chromophores incorporating a spacer: a joint experimental and theoretical study,” Chem. Eur. J. 5, 369–380 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J.-L. Brκdas, J. E. Ehrlich, J.-Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D. McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, G. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X.-L. Wu, and C. Xu, “Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections,” Science 281, 1653–1656 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kogej, D. Beljonne, F. Meyers, J. W. Perry, S. R. Marder, and J. L. Brκdas, “Mechanisms for enhancement of two-photon absorption in donor-acceptor conjugated chromophores,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 298, 1–6 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lee, I.-Y. S.

Levin, M. D.

M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J.-L. Brκdas, J. E. Ehrlich, J.-Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D. McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, G. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X.-L. Wu, and C. Xu, “Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections,” Science 281, 1653–1656 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, C.

X. Deng, X. Zhang, Y. Wang, Y. Song, S. Liu, and C. Li, “Intensity threshold in the conversion from reverse saturable absorption to saturable absorption and its application in optical limiting,” Opt. Commun. 168, 207–221 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lim, J. H.

Lin, W.

W. Wang, Y. Shi, D. J. Olson, W. Lin, and J. H. Bechlel, “Push-pull poled polymer Mach–Zehnder modulators with a single microstrip line electrode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 51–53 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S.

X. Deng, X. Zhang, Y. Wang, Y. Song, S. Liu, and C. Li, “Intensity threshold in the conversion from reverse saturable absorption to saturable absorption and its application in optical limiting,” Opt. Commun. 168, 207–221 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Y Jen, Y. Liu, L. Zheng, S. Liu, K. J. Drost, Y. Zhang, and L. R. Dalton, “Synthesis and characterization of highly efficient, chemically and thermally stable chromophores with chromone-containing electron acceptors for NLO applications,” Adv. Mater. 11, 452–455 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

A. K. Y Jen, Y. Liu, L. Zheng, S. Liu, K. J. Drost, Y. Zhang, and L. R. Dalton, “Synthesis and characterization of highly efficient, chemically and thermally stable chromophores with chromone-containing electron acceptors for NLO applications,” Adv. Mater. 11, 452–455 (1999).
[CrossRef]

X. Shang, Y. Liu, G. Tang, G. Zhang, and W. Chen, “Optical nonlinearities of hypocrellin a with the excitation of nanosecond pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1502–1511 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Luther-Davies, B.

Maertens, C.

C. Maertens, C. Detrembleur, P. Dubois, R. Jκrome, C. Boutton, A. Persoons, T. Kogej, and J. L. Brκdas, “Structure–second-order polarizability relationship in chromophores incorporating a spacer: a joint experimental and theoretical study,” Chem. Eur. J. 5, 369–380 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Marder, S. R.

M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J.-L. Brκdas, J. E. Ehrlich, J.-Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D. McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, G. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X.-L. Wu, and C. Xu, “Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections,” Science 281, 1653–1656 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kogej, D. Beljonne, F. Meyers, J. W. Perry, S. R. Marder, and J. L. Brκdas, “Mechanisms for enhancement of two-photon absorption in donor-acceptor conjugated chromophores,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 298, 1–6 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Ehrlich, X. L. Wu, I.-Y. S. Lee, Z.-Y. Hu, H. Rockel, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Two-photon absorption and broadband optical limiting with bis-donor stilbenes,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1843–1845 (1997).
[CrossRef]

McCord-Maughon, D.

M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J.-L. Brκdas, J. E. Ehrlich, J.-Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D. McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, G. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X.-L. Wu, and C. Xu, “Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections,” Science 281, 1653–1656 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McElvain, J.

Y. Gang, J. Wang, J. McElvain, and A. J. Heeger, “Large-area, full-color image sensors made with semiconducting polymers,” Adv. Mater. 11, 1431–1434 (1998).

Meyers, F.

T. Kogej, D. Beljonne, F. Meyers, J. W. Perry, S. R. Marder, and J. L. Brκdas, “Mechanisms for enhancement of two-photon absorption in donor-acceptor conjugated chromophores,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 298, 1–6 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Oberle, J.

J. Oberle, L. Bramerie, G. Jonusauskas, and C. Rulliere, “Optical-limiting properties of push-pull diphenyl-butadiene,” Opt. Commun. 169, 325–332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Olson, D. J.

W. Wang, Y. Shi, D. J. Olson, W. Lin, and J. H. Bechlel, “Push-pull poled polymer Mach–Zehnder modulators with a single microstrip line electrode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 51–53 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Perry, J. W.

T. Kogej, D. Beljonne, F. Meyers, J. W. Perry, S. R. Marder, and J. L. Brκdas, “Mechanisms for enhancement of two-photon absorption in donor-acceptor conjugated chromophores,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 298, 1–6 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J.-L. Brκdas, J. E. Ehrlich, J.-Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D. McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, G. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X.-L. Wu, and C. Xu, “Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections,” Science 281, 1653–1656 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Ehrlich, X. L. Wu, I.-Y. S. Lee, Z.-Y. Hu, H. Rockel, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Two-photon absorption and broadband optical limiting with bis-donor stilbenes,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1843–1845 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Persoons, A.

C. Maertens, C. Detrembleur, P. Dubois, R. Jκrome, C. Boutton, A. Persoons, T. Kogej, and J. L. Brκdas, “Structure–second-order polarizability relationship in chromophores incorporating a spacer: a joint experimental and theoretical study,” Chem. Eur. J. 5, 369–380 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J.-L. Brκdas, C. Adant, P. Tackx, A. Persoons, and B. M. Pierce, “Third-order nonlinear optical response in organic materials: theoretical and experimental aspects,” Chem. Rev. 94, 243–278 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Petrov, D. V.

Pierce, B. M.

J.-L. Brκdas, C. Adant, P. Tackx, A. Persoons, and B. M. Pierce, “Third-order nonlinear optical response in organic materials: theoretical and experimental aspects,” Chem. Rev. 94, 243–278 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Prasad, P. N.

B. A. Reinhardt, L. L. Brott, S. J. Clarson, A. G. Dillard, J. C. Bhatt, R. Kannan, L. Yuan, G. S. He, and P. N. Prasad, “Highly active two-photon dyes: design, synthesis, and characterization toward application,” Chem. Mater. 10, 1863–1874 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, G. C. Xu, P. N. Prasad, B. A. Reinhardt, J. C. Bhatt, and A. G. Dillard, “Two-photon absorption and optical-limiting properties of novel organic compounds,” Opt. Lett. 20, 435–437 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Przhonska, O. V.

Reinhardt, B. A.

B. A. Reinhardt, L. L. Brott, S. J. Clarson, A. G. Dillard, J. C. Bhatt, R. Kannan, L. Yuan, G. S. He, and P. N. Prasad, “Highly active two-photon dyes: design, synthesis, and characterization toward application,” Chem. Mater. 10, 1863–1874 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, G. C. Xu, P. N. Prasad, B. A. Reinhardt, J. C. Bhatt, and A. G. Dillard, “Two-photon absorption and optical-limiting properties of novel organic compounds,” Opt. Lett. 20, 435–437 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rockel, H.

M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J.-L. Brκdas, J. E. Ehrlich, J.-Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D. McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, G. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X.-L. Wu, and C. Xu, “Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections,” Science 281, 1653–1656 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Ehrlich, X. L. Wu, I.-Y. S. Lee, Z.-Y. Hu, H. Rockel, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Two-photon absorption and broadband optical limiting with bis-donor stilbenes,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1843–1845 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rulliere, C.

J. Oberle, L. Bramerie, G. Jonusauskas, and C. Rulliere, “Optical-limiting properties of push-pull diphenyl-butadiene,” Opt. Commun. 169, 325–332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rumi, M.

M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J.-L. Brκdas, J. E. Ehrlich, J.-Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D. McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, G. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X.-L. Wu, and C. Xu, “Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections,” Science 281, 1653–1656 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Said, A. A.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Samoc, A.

Samoc, M.

Scherf, U.

Shang, X.

Sheik-Bahae, M.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Shi, Y.

W. Wang, Y. Shi, D. J. Olson, W. Lin, and J. H. Bechlel, “Push-pull poled polymer Mach–Zehnder modulators with a single microstrip line electrode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 51–53 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Slominsky, Y. L.

Song, Y.

X. Deng, X. Zhang, Y. Wang, Y. Song, S. Liu, and C. Li, “Intensity threshold in the conversion from reverse saturable absorption to saturable absorption and its application in optical limiting,” Opt. Commun. 168, 207–221 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Souto-Maior, R.

Subramaniam, G.

M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J.-L. Brκdas, J. E. Ehrlich, J.-Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D. McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, G. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X.-L. Wu, and C. Xu, “Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections,” Science 281, 1653–1656 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tackx, P.

J.-L. Brκdas, C. Adant, P. Tackx, A. Persoons, and B. M. Pierce, “Third-order nonlinear optical response in organic materials: theoretical and experimental aspects,” Chem. Rev. 94, 243–278 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tang, G.

Torres, T.

T. Torres, G. de la Torre, and J. Garcia-Ruiz, “Synthesis of new push-pull unsymmetrically substituted unsaturated metallophthalocyanines: targets for nonlinear optics,” Eur. J. Org. Chem. 1999, 2323–2326 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, C. Y.

C. Y. Tsai, S. P. Chen, and T. C. Wen, “Nonlinear absorption and refraction in porphyrazine derivatives,” Chem. Phys. 240, 191–196 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tutt, L. W.

L. W. Tutt and T. F. Boggess, “A review of optical limiting mechanisms and devices using organics, fullerenes, semiconductors, and other materials,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 17, 299–338 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Van Stryland, E. W.

O. V. Przhonska, J. H. Lim, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, M. V. Bondar, and Y. L. Slominsky, “Nonlinear light absorption of polymethine dyes in liquid and solid media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 802–809 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

Y. Gang, J. Wang, J. McElvain, and A. J. Heeger, “Large-area, full-color image sensors made with semiconducting polymers,” Adv. Mater. 11, 1431–1434 (1998).

Wang, W.

W. Wang, Y. Shi, D. J. Olson, W. Lin, and J. H. Bechlel, “Push-pull poled polymer Mach–Zehnder modulators with a single microstrip line electrode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 51–53 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

X. Deng, X. Zhang, Y. Wang, Y. Song, S. Liu, and C. Li, “Intensity threshold in the conversion from reverse saturable absorption to saturable absorption and its application in optical limiting,” Opt. Commun. 168, 207–221 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Webb, W. W.

M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J.-L. Brκdas, J. E. Ehrlich, J.-Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D. McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, G. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X.-L. Wu, and C. Xu, “Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections,” Science 281, 1653–1656 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wei, T. H.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wen, T. C.

C. Y. Tsai, S. P. Chen, and T. C. Wen, “Nonlinear absorption and refraction in porphyrazine derivatives,” Chem. Phys. 240, 191–196 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wherrett, B.

S. Hughes and B. Wherrett, “Multilevel rate-equation analysis to explain the recent observations of limitation to optical limiting dyes,” Phys. Rev. A 54, 3546–3552 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, X. L.

Wu, X.-L.

M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J.-L. Brκdas, J. E. Ehrlich, J.-Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D. McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, G. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X.-L. Wu, and C. Xu, “Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections,” Science 281, 1653–1656 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, C.

M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J.-L. Brκdas, J. E. Ehrlich, J.-Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D. McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, G. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X.-L. Wu, and C. Xu, “Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections,” Science 281, 1653–1656 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, G. C.

Yu, L.

Yuan, L.

B. A. Reinhardt, L. L. Brott, S. J. Clarson, A. G. Dillard, J. C. Bhatt, R. Kannan, L. Yuan, G. S. He, and P. N. Prasad, “Highly active two-photon dyes: design, synthesis, and characterization toward application,” Chem. Mater. 10, 1863–1874 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, G.

Zhang, X.

X. Deng, X. Zhang, Y. Wang, Y. Song, S. Liu, and C. Li, “Intensity threshold in the conversion from reverse saturable absorption to saturable absorption and its application in optical limiting,” Opt. Commun. 168, 207–221 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

A. K. Y Jen, Y. Liu, L. Zheng, S. Liu, K. J. Drost, Y. Zhang, and L. R. Dalton, “Synthesis and characterization of highly efficient, chemically and thermally stable chromophores with chromone-containing electron acceptors for NLO applications,” Adv. Mater. 11, 452–455 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, L.

A. K. Y Jen, Y. Liu, L. Zheng, S. Liu, K. J. Drost, Y. Zhang, and L. R. Dalton, “Synthesis and characterization of highly efficient, chemically and thermally stable chromophores with chromone-containing electron acceptors for NLO applications,” Adv. Mater. 11, 452–455 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, J.

Adv. Mater. (2)

Y. Gang, J. Wang, J. McElvain, and A. J. Heeger, “Large-area, full-color image sensors made with semiconducting polymers,” Adv. Mater. 11, 1431–1434 (1998).

A. K. Y Jen, Y. Liu, L. Zheng, S. Liu, K. J. Drost, Y. Zhang, and L. R. Dalton, “Synthesis and characterization of highly efficient, chemically and thermally stable chromophores with chromone-containing electron acceptors for NLO applications,” Adv. Mater. 11, 452–455 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Eur. J. (1)

C. Maertens, C. Detrembleur, P. Dubois, R. Jκrome, C. Boutton, A. Persoons, T. Kogej, and J. L. Brκdas, “Structure–second-order polarizability relationship in chromophores incorporating a spacer: a joint experimental and theoretical study,” Chem. Eur. J. 5, 369–380 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater. (1)

B. A. Reinhardt, L. L. Brott, S. J. Clarson, A. G. Dillard, J. C. Bhatt, R. Kannan, L. Yuan, G. S. He, and P. N. Prasad, “Highly active two-photon dyes: design, synthesis, and characterization toward application,” Chem. Mater. 10, 1863–1874 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. (1)

C. Y. Tsai, S. P. Chen, and T. C. Wen, “Nonlinear absorption and refraction in porphyrazine derivatives,” Chem. Phys. 240, 191–196 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

T. Kogej, D. Beljonne, F. Meyers, J. W. Perry, S. R. Marder, and J. L. Brκdas, “Mechanisms for enhancement of two-photon absorption in donor-acceptor conjugated chromophores,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 298, 1–6 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev. (1)

J.-L. Brκdas, C. Adant, P. Tackx, A. Persoons, and B. M. Pierce, “Third-order nonlinear optical response in organic materials: theoretical and experimental aspects,” Chem. Rev. 94, 243–278 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Eur. J. Org. Chem. (1)

T. Torres, G. de la Torre, and J. Garcia-Ruiz, “Synthesis of new push-pull unsymmetrically substituted unsaturated metallophthalocyanines: targets for nonlinear optics,” Eur. J. Org. Chem. 1999, 2323–2326 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

W. Wang, Y. Shi, D. J. Olson, W. Lin, and J. H. Bechlel, “Push-pull poled polymer Mach–Zehnder modulators with a single microstrip line electrode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 51–53 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (5)

Opt. Commun. (2)

X. Deng, X. Zhang, Y. Wang, Y. Song, S. Liu, and C. Li, “Intensity threshold in the conversion from reverse saturable absorption to saturable absorption and its application in optical limiting,” Opt. Commun. 168, 207–221 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Oberle, L. Bramerie, G. Jonusauskas, and C. Rulliere, “Optical-limiting properties of push-pull diphenyl-butadiene,” Opt. Commun. 169, 325–332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

S. Hughes and B. Wherrett, “Multilevel rate-equation analysis to explain the recent observations of limitation to optical limiting dyes,” Phys. Rev. A 54, 3546–3552 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prog. Quantum Electron. (1)

L. W. Tutt and T. F. Boggess, “A review of optical limiting mechanisms and devices using organics, fullerenes, semiconductors, and other materials,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 17, 299–338 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J.-L. Brκdas, J. E. Ehrlich, J.-Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D. McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, G. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X.-L. Wu, and C. Xu, “Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections,” Science 281, 1653–1656 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (5)

M. Kuzyk, “All-optical materials and devices,” in Organic Thin Films for Waveguiding Nonlinear Optics, F. Kajzar and J. D. Swalen, eds. (Gordon & Breach, Amsterdam, 1996), pp. 759–820.

H. Nishihara, M. Haruna, and T. Suhara, Optical Integrated Circuits (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1989).

P. N. Prasad and D. J. Williams, Introduction to Nonlinear Optical Effects in Molecules and Polymers (Wiley, New York, 1991).

H. S. Nalwa and S. Miyatu, Nonlinear Optics of Organic Molecules and Polymers (CRC Press, Boca Reton, Fla., 1997).

B. S. Furniss, A. J. Hannaford, P. W. G. Smith, and A. R. Tatchell, Vogel’s Textbook of Practical Organic Chemistry, 5th ed. (Wiley, New York, 1989), pp. 1257–1260.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Molecule structures of α,β-unsaturated ketone derivatives: (a) USKD-1; (b) USKD-2.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Absorption spectra of USKD.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Fluorescence spectra of USKD.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental setup for the intensity-dependent transmitted measurement and the Z-scan technique.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Output versus input fluences at 532 nm for (a) USKD-1 and (b) USKD-2 in a 10-mm quartz cell. Straight lines are linear fits of the fluence transmittance. Solid curves are theoretical fitting curves for the nonlinear absorption.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Energy-level diagram for USKD.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Open-aperture Z-scan data: Normalized transmittance of (a) USKD-1 and (b) USKD-2. Scatter points are experimental data, and solid curves are theoretical fitting results.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Normalized transmittance of closed-aperture Z-scan data at 1064 nm for (a) USKD-1 and (b) USKD-2 with I0=2.25×1012 W/m2. Squares represent experimental data, and solid curves are theoretical fitting curves, resulting in an aperture of linear transmittance S=0.035.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Normalized transmittance of closed-aperture Z-scan measurement at 532 nm for (a) USKD-1 and (b) USKD-2 with I0=2.81×1012 W/m2. The squares represent experimental data, and the solid curves are theoretical fitting curves, resulting in an aperture of linear transmittance S=0.068.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Closed-aperture Z-scan data (in Fig. 9) divided by corresponding open-aperture Z-scan data (in Fig. 7) at 532 nm for (a) USKD-1 and (b) USKD-2. Solid curves are theoretical fitting curves.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Effective Absorption Coefficients of USKD Solutions

Tables Icon

Table 2 TPA Coefficient β, Cross Section σ2P, and Im χ(3) of USKD Solutions

Tables Icon

Table 3 Nonlinear Index γ, n2 and Re χ(3) of USKD Solutions

Tables Icon

Table 4 Physical Parameters of Toluene Used in the Numerical Calculations

Equations (16)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

dN0dt=-σ0hνN0I-σ2PhνN0I2+N1τ10,
dN1dt=σ0hνN0I+σ2PhνN0I2-N1τ10,
dIdz=-(σ0N0+σSN1)I-σ2PN0I2,
N0(z, r, t=-)=N,
N1(z, r, t=-)=0,
N=N0+N1,
I(z=0, r, t)=I0 exp-tτp2exp-2rω02,
α(I)=α0+βI,
T(z)=1πq(z) -+ ln[1+q(z)exp(-τ2)]dτ,
q(z)=βI0Leff1+(z/z0)2,
n(I)=n0+γI,
T(z)=1+4ΔΦ0(t)x(1+x2)(9+x2)+ΔΦ0(t)2(9+x2)+ ,
ΔΦ0(t)=kΔn0(t)Leff,
τpτrise<τrelax
Δn0 effΔn0qssexp-m2.7,
Δn0qss=-12 αeffF0ρ0Cp dndT,

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