Abstract

We report on the application of a photoconductive frozen wave generator (FWG) for the generation of 0.36-THz radiation. Through the excitation of a bipolar photoconductive array, a two-cycle THz electrical transient is created. The THz electrical transient occurs on a time scale much shorter than the carrier lifetime in the semiconductor. Furthermore, variations in the uniformity of the optical excitation intensity across the photoconductive array introduce a controlled THz temporal chirp, thus providing for fine bandwidth tunability of the device. Modeling of the FWG is successful in describing both the time variation and the amplitude spectrum of the photogenerated THz radiation.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  2. L. Thrane, R. H. Jacobsen, P. Uhd Jepsen, and S. R. Keiding, “THz reflection spectroscopy of liquid water,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 240, 330–333 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  3. B. B. Hu, E. A. De Souza, W. H. Knox, J. E. Cunningham, M. C. Nuss, A. V. Kuznetsov, and S. L. Chuang, “Identifying the distinct phases of carrier transport in semiconductors with 10 fs resolution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1689–1692 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. N. Katzenellenbogen and D. Grischkowsky, “Electrical characterization to 4 THz of n- and p-type GaAs using THz time-domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 840–842 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. Grischkowsky, S. R. Keiding, M. van Exter, and Ch. Fatinger, “Far-infrared time-domain spectroscopy with terahertz beams of dielectrics and semiconductors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2006–2015 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. van Exter and D. Grischkowsky, “Optical and electronic properties of doped silicon from 0.1 to 2 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1694–1696 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. A. Cheville and D. Grischkowsky, “Time domain terahertz impulse ranging studies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1960–1962 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. W. McGowan and D. Grischkowsky, “Direct observation of Gouy phase shift in THz impulse ranging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 670–672 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. M. Mittleman, R. H. Jacobsen, and M. C. Nuss, “T-ray imaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 679–692 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  10. B. B. Hu and M. C. Nuss, “Imaging with terahertz waves,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1716–1718 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. K. A. McIntosh, E. R. Brown, K. B. Nichols, O. B. McMahon, W. F. DiNatale, and T. M. Lyszczara, “Terahertz measurements of resonant planar antennas coupled to low-temperature-grown GaAs photomixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3632–3634 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. Matsuura, M. Tani, and K. Sakai, “Generation of coherent radiation by photomixing in dipole photoconductive antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 559–561 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. Nahata and T. F. Heinz, “Generation of subpicosecond electrical pulses by optical rectification,” Opt. Lett. 23, 867–869 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  14. P. Uhd Jepsen, R. H. Jacobsen, and S. R. Keiding, “Generation and detection of terahertz pulses from biased semiconductor antennas,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 2424–2436 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. K. Lai, J. Hwang, T. B. Norris, and J. F. Whitaker, “A photoconductive, miniature terahertz source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 3100–3102 (1998).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  19. C. Wang, M. Currie, R. Sobolewski, and T. Y. Hsiang, “Subpicosecond electrical pulse generation by edge illumination of silicon and phosphide photoconductive switches,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 79–81 (1995).
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  22. H. M. Cronson, “Picosecond pulse sequential waveform generation,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 23, 1048–1049 (1975).
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  23. C. H. Lee, “Picosecond optics and microwave technology,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 38, 596–607 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  24. J. B. Thaxter and R. E. Bell, “Experimental 6-GHz frozen wave generator with fiber-optic feed,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 43, 1798–1803 (1995).
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  26. Y. Pastol, G. Arjavalingam, J. M. Halbout, and G. V. Kopcsay, “Characterization of an optoelectronically pulsed broadband microwave antenna,” Electron. Lett. 24, 1318–1319 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  27. P. R. Smith, D. H. Auston, and M. C. Nuss, “Subpicosecondphotoconducting dipole antenna,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 255–260 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  28. J. A. Valdmanis, G. Mourou, and C. W. Gabel, “Picosecond electro-optic sampling system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 211–212 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  29. J. M. Chwalek and D. R. Dykaar, “A mixer based electro-optic sampling system for submillivolt signal detection,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61, 1273–1275 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  30. J. F. Holzman, F. E. Vermeulen, and A. Y. Elezzabi, “Ultrafast photoconductive self-switching of subpicosecond electrical pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 130–136 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  31. D. H. Auston, “Impulse response of photoconductors in transmission lines,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 19, 639–648 (1983).
    [CrossRef]

2000

R. W. McGowan and D. Grischkowsky, “Direct observation of Gouy phase shift in THz impulse ranging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 670–672 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Holzman, F. E. Vermeulen, and A. Y. Elezzabi, “Ultrafast photoconductive self-switching of subpicosecond electrical pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 130–136 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

C. W. Siders, J. L. W. Siders, A. J. Taylor, S. G. Park, M. R. Melloch, and A. M. Weiner, “Generation and characterization of terahertz pulse trains from biased, large-aperture photoconductors,” Opt. Lett. 24, 241–243 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. W. McGowan and D. Grischkowsky, “Experimental time-domain study of THz signals from impulse excitation of a horizontal surface dipole,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1764–1766 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

A. Nahata and T. F. Heinz, “Generation of subpicosecond electrical pulses by optical rectification,” Opt. Lett. 23, 867–869 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Lai, J. Hwang, T. B. Norris, and J. F. Whitaker, “A photoconductive, miniature terahertz source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 3100–3102 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

S. Matsuura, M. Tani, and K. Sakai, “Generation of coherent radiation by photomixing in dipole photoconductive antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 559–561 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

P. Uhd Jepsen, R. H. Jacobsen, and S. R. Keiding, “Generation and detection of terahertz pulses from biased semiconductor antennas,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 2424–2436 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Mittleman, R. H. Jacobsen, and M. C. Nuss, “T-ray imaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 679–692 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. A. McIntosh, E. R. Brown, K. B. Nichols, O. B. McMahon, W. F. DiNatale, and T. M. Lyszczara, “Terahertz measurements of resonant planar antennas coupled to low-temperature-grown GaAs photomixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3632–3634 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

R. A. Cheville and D. Grischkowsky, “Time domain terahertz impulse ranging studies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1960–1962 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. B. Hu and M. C. Nuss, “Imaging with terahertz waves,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1716–1718 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Thrane, R. H. Jacobsen, P. Uhd Jepsen, and S. R. Keiding, “THz reflection spectroscopy of liquid water,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 240, 330–333 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. B. Hu, E. A. De Souza, W. H. Knox, J. E. Cunningham, M. C. Nuss, A. V. Kuznetsov, and S. L. Chuang, “Identifying the distinct phases of carrier transport in semiconductors with 10 fs resolution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1689–1692 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. G. Sun, G. A. Wagoner, and X.-C. Zhang, “Measurement of free-space terahertz pulses via long-lifetime photoconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1656–1658 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. Wang, M. Currie, R. Sobolewski, and T. Y. Hsiang, “Subpicosecond electrical pulse generation by edge illumination of silicon and phosphide photoconductive switches,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 79–81 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Thaxter and R. E. Bell, “Experimental 6-GHz frozen wave generator with fiber-optic feed,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 43, 1798–1803 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992

X.-C. Zhang and D. H. Auston, “Optically induced THz electromagnetic radiation from planar photoconducting structures,” J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 6, 85–106 (1992).
[CrossRef]

N. Katzenellenbogen and D. Grischkowsky, “Electrical characterization to 4 THz of n- and p-type GaAs using THz time-domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 840–842 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990

D. Grischkowsky, S. R. Keiding, M. van Exter, and Ch. Fatinger, “Far-infrared time-domain spectroscopy with terahertz beams of dielectrics and semiconductors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2006–2015 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. van Exter and D. Grischkowsky, “Optical and electronic properties of doped silicon from 0.1 to 2 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1694–1696 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Lee, “Picosecond optics and microwave technology,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 38, 596–607 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Chwalek and D. R. Dykaar, “A mixer based electro-optic sampling system for submillivolt signal detection,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61, 1273–1275 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988

Y. Pastol, G. Arjavalingam, J. M. Halbout, and G. V. Kopcsay, “Characterization of an optoelectronically pulsed broadband microwave antenna,” Electron. Lett. 24, 1318–1319 (1988).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Smith, D. H. Auston, and M. C. Nuss, “Subpicosecondphotoconducting dipole antenna,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 255–260 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1983

D. H. Auston, “Impulse response of photoconductors in transmission lines,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 19, 639–648 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982

J. A. Valdmanis, G. Mourou, and C. W. Gabel, “Picosecond electro-optic sampling system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 211–212 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1978

J. M. Proud, Jr., and S. L. Norman, “High-frequency generation using optoelectronic switching in silicon,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 26, 137–140 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1975

H. M. Cronson, “Picosecond pulse sequential waveform generation,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 23, 1048–1049 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1964

E. S. Weibel, “High power rf pulse generator,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 35, 173–175 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Arjavalingam, G.

Y. Pastol, G. Arjavalingam, J. M. Halbout, and G. V. Kopcsay, “Characterization of an optoelectronically pulsed broadband microwave antenna,” Electron. Lett. 24, 1318–1319 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Auston, D. H.

X.-C. Zhang and D. H. Auston, “Optically induced THz electromagnetic radiation from planar photoconducting structures,” J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 6, 85–106 (1992).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Smith, D. H. Auston, and M. C. Nuss, “Subpicosecondphotoconducting dipole antenna,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 255–260 (1988).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Auston, “Impulse response of photoconductors in transmission lines,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 19, 639–648 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Bell, R. E.

J. B. Thaxter and R. E. Bell, “Experimental 6-GHz frozen wave generator with fiber-optic feed,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 43, 1798–1803 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Brown, E. R.

K. A. McIntosh, E. R. Brown, K. B. Nichols, O. B. McMahon, W. F. DiNatale, and T. M. Lyszczara, “Terahertz measurements of resonant planar antennas coupled to low-temperature-grown GaAs photomixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3632–3634 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cheville, R. A.

R. A. Cheville and D. Grischkowsky, “Time domain terahertz impulse ranging studies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1960–1962 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chuang, S. L.

B. B. Hu, E. A. De Souza, W. H. Knox, J. E. Cunningham, M. C. Nuss, A. V. Kuznetsov, and S. L. Chuang, “Identifying the distinct phases of carrier transport in semiconductors with 10 fs resolution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1689–1692 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chwalek, J. M.

J. M. Chwalek and D. R. Dykaar, “A mixer based electro-optic sampling system for submillivolt signal detection,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61, 1273–1275 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Cronson, H. M.

H. M. Cronson, “Picosecond pulse sequential waveform generation,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 23, 1048–1049 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, J. E.

B. B. Hu, E. A. De Souza, W. H. Knox, J. E. Cunningham, M. C. Nuss, A. V. Kuznetsov, and S. L. Chuang, “Identifying the distinct phases of carrier transport in semiconductors with 10 fs resolution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1689–1692 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Currie, M.

C. Wang, M. Currie, R. Sobolewski, and T. Y. Hsiang, “Subpicosecond electrical pulse generation by edge illumination of silicon and phosphide photoconductive switches,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 79–81 (1995).
[CrossRef]

De Souza, E. A.

B. B. Hu, E. A. De Souza, W. H. Knox, J. E. Cunningham, M. C. Nuss, A. V. Kuznetsov, and S. L. Chuang, “Identifying the distinct phases of carrier transport in semiconductors with 10 fs resolution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1689–1692 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DiNatale, W. F.

K. A. McIntosh, E. R. Brown, K. B. Nichols, O. B. McMahon, W. F. DiNatale, and T. M. Lyszczara, “Terahertz measurements of resonant planar antennas coupled to low-temperature-grown GaAs photomixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3632–3634 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dykaar, D. R.

J. M. Chwalek and D. R. Dykaar, “A mixer based electro-optic sampling system for submillivolt signal detection,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61, 1273–1275 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Elezzabi, A. Y.

J. F. Holzman, F. E. Vermeulen, and A. Y. Elezzabi, “Ultrafast photoconductive self-switching of subpicosecond electrical pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 130–136 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fatinger, Ch.

Gabel, C. W.

J. A. Valdmanis, G. Mourou, and C. W. Gabel, “Picosecond electro-optic sampling system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 211–212 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Grischkowsky, D.

R. W. McGowan and D. Grischkowsky, “Direct observation of Gouy phase shift in THz impulse ranging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 670–672 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. W. McGowan and D. Grischkowsky, “Experimental time-domain study of THz signals from impulse excitation of a horizontal surface dipole,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1764–1766 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Cheville and D. Grischkowsky, “Time domain terahertz impulse ranging studies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1960–1962 (1995).
[CrossRef]

N. Katzenellenbogen and D. Grischkowsky, “Electrical characterization to 4 THz of n- and p-type GaAs using THz time-domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 840–842 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Grischkowsky, S. R. Keiding, M. van Exter, and Ch. Fatinger, “Far-infrared time-domain spectroscopy with terahertz beams of dielectrics and semiconductors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2006–2015 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. van Exter and D. Grischkowsky, “Optical and electronic properties of doped silicon from 0.1 to 2 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1694–1696 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Halbout, J. M.

Y. Pastol, G. Arjavalingam, J. M. Halbout, and G. V. Kopcsay, “Characterization of an optoelectronically pulsed broadband microwave antenna,” Electron. Lett. 24, 1318–1319 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Heinz, T. F.

Holzman, J. F.

J. F. Holzman, F. E. Vermeulen, and A. Y. Elezzabi, “Ultrafast photoconductive self-switching of subpicosecond electrical pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 130–136 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hsiang, T. Y.

C. Wang, M. Currie, R. Sobolewski, and T. Y. Hsiang, “Subpicosecond electrical pulse generation by edge illumination of silicon and phosphide photoconductive switches,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 79–81 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hu, B. B.

B. B. Hu and M. C. Nuss, “Imaging with terahertz waves,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1716–1718 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. B. Hu, E. A. De Souza, W. H. Knox, J. E. Cunningham, M. C. Nuss, A. V. Kuznetsov, and S. L. Chuang, “Identifying the distinct phases of carrier transport in semiconductors with 10 fs resolution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1689–1692 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hwang, J.

R. K. Lai, J. Hwang, T. B. Norris, and J. F. Whitaker, “A photoconductive, miniature terahertz source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 3100–3102 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jacobsen, R. H.

P. Uhd Jepsen, R. H. Jacobsen, and S. R. Keiding, “Generation and detection of terahertz pulses from biased semiconductor antennas,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 2424–2436 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Mittleman, R. H. Jacobsen, and M. C. Nuss, “T-ray imaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 679–692 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. Thrane, R. H. Jacobsen, P. Uhd Jepsen, and S. R. Keiding, “THz reflection spectroscopy of liquid water,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 240, 330–333 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jepsen, P. Uhd

P. Uhd Jepsen, R. H. Jacobsen, and S. R. Keiding, “Generation and detection of terahertz pulses from biased semiconductor antennas,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 2424–2436 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. Thrane, R. H. Jacobsen, P. Uhd Jepsen, and S. R. Keiding, “THz reflection spectroscopy of liquid water,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 240, 330–333 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Katzenellenbogen, N.

N. Katzenellenbogen and D. Grischkowsky, “Electrical characterization to 4 THz of n- and p-type GaAs using THz time-domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 840–842 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Keiding, S. R.

Knox, W. H.

B. B. Hu, E. A. De Souza, W. H. Knox, J. E. Cunningham, M. C. Nuss, A. V. Kuznetsov, and S. L. Chuang, “Identifying the distinct phases of carrier transport in semiconductors with 10 fs resolution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1689–1692 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kopcsay, G. V.

Y. Pastol, G. Arjavalingam, J. M. Halbout, and G. V. Kopcsay, “Characterization of an optoelectronically pulsed broadband microwave antenna,” Electron. Lett. 24, 1318–1319 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kuznetsov, A. V.

B. B. Hu, E. A. De Souza, W. H. Knox, J. E. Cunningham, M. C. Nuss, A. V. Kuznetsov, and S. L. Chuang, “Identifying the distinct phases of carrier transport in semiconductors with 10 fs resolution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1689–1692 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lai, R. K.

R. K. Lai, J. Hwang, T. B. Norris, and J. F. Whitaker, “A photoconductive, miniature terahertz source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 3100–3102 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. H.

C. H. Lee, “Picosecond optics and microwave technology,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 38, 596–607 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Lyszczara, T. M.

K. A. McIntosh, E. R. Brown, K. B. Nichols, O. B. McMahon, W. F. DiNatale, and T. M. Lyszczara, “Terahertz measurements of resonant planar antennas coupled to low-temperature-grown GaAs photomixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3632–3634 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Matsuura, S.

S. Matsuura, M. Tani, and K. Sakai, “Generation of coherent radiation by photomixing in dipole photoconductive antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 559–561 (1997).
[CrossRef]

McGowan, R. W.

R. W. McGowan and D. Grischkowsky, “Direct observation of Gouy phase shift in THz impulse ranging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 670–672 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. W. McGowan and D. Grischkowsky, “Experimental time-domain study of THz signals from impulse excitation of a horizontal surface dipole,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1764–1766 (1999).
[CrossRef]

McIntosh, K. A.

K. A. McIntosh, E. R. Brown, K. B. Nichols, O. B. McMahon, W. F. DiNatale, and T. M. Lyszczara, “Terahertz measurements of resonant planar antennas coupled to low-temperature-grown GaAs photomixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3632–3634 (1996).
[CrossRef]

McMahon, O. B.

K. A. McIntosh, E. R. Brown, K. B. Nichols, O. B. McMahon, W. F. DiNatale, and T. M. Lyszczara, “Terahertz measurements of resonant planar antennas coupled to low-temperature-grown GaAs photomixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3632–3634 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Melloch, M. R.

Mittleman, D. M.

D. M. Mittleman, R. H. Jacobsen, and M. C. Nuss, “T-ray imaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 679–692 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mourou, G.

J. A. Valdmanis, G. Mourou, and C. W. Gabel, “Picosecond electro-optic sampling system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 211–212 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Nahata, A.

Nichols, K. B.

K. A. McIntosh, E. R. Brown, K. B. Nichols, O. B. McMahon, W. F. DiNatale, and T. M. Lyszczara, “Terahertz measurements of resonant planar antennas coupled to low-temperature-grown GaAs photomixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3632–3634 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Norman, S. L.

J. M. Proud, Jr., and S. L. Norman, “High-frequency generation using optoelectronic switching in silicon,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 26, 137–140 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Norris, T. B.

R. K. Lai, J. Hwang, T. B. Norris, and J. F. Whitaker, “A photoconductive, miniature terahertz source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 3100–3102 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nuss, M. C.

D. M. Mittleman, R. H. Jacobsen, and M. C. Nuss, “T-ray imaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 679–692 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. B. Hu and M. C. Nuss, “Imaging with terahertz waves,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1716–1718 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. B. Hu, E. A. De Souza, W. H. Knox, J. E. Cunningham, M. C. Nuss, A. V. Kuznetsov, and S. L. Chuang, “Identifying the distinct phases of carrier transport in semiconductors with 10 fs resolution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1689–1692 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. R. Smith, D. H. Auston, and M. C. Nuss, “Subpicosecondphotoconducting dipole antenna,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 255–260 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Park, S. G.

Pastol, Y.

Y. Pastol, G. Arjavalingam, J. M. Halbout, and G. V. Kopcsay, “Characterization of an optoelectronically pulsed broadband microwave antenna,” Electron. Lett. 24, 1318–1319 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Proud Jr., J. M.

J. M. Proud, Jr., and S. L. Norman, “High-frequency generation using optoelectronic switching in silicon,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 26, 137–140 (1978).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Pump–probe experimental arrangement for the FWG, the dipole transmitter and dipole receiver, and the LiTaO3 electro-optic transducer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Time-domain waveform of the THz electrical signal measured at point A for the case of uniform excitation of the FWG gaps. (b) Spectral intensity of the electrical signal showing both the experimental curve (circles) and the calculated curve (solid curve) for γT=0 s/m.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Equivalent circuit representation of a single photoconductive switch consisting of a time-dependent conductance, G(t), parallel with a gap capacitance, C.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Time-domain waveform of the THz electrical signal measured at point A for the case of nonuniform excitation of the FWG gaps. (b) Spectral intensity of the electrical signal showing both the experimental curve (circles) and the calculated curve (solid curve) for γT=1.1×10-9 s/m.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Time-domain waveform of the THz electrical signal measured at point B for the case of nonuniform excitation of the FWG gaps. (b) Expanded view of the near-field pattern measured at point B. (c) Spectral intensity of the electrical signal in (b).

Equations (11)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

G(t)=0;t<0G;t0.
vt(t)=Vb2 2Z0G1+2Z0G1-exp-tτ,
τ=2Z0C1+2Z0G,
G=wμeffeτdlhνI.
I(x)=I0+γIx,
G(x)=wμeffeτdlhν(I0+γIx).
ττ0-γTx,
τ0=2Z0Clhνlhν+2Z0wμeffeτdI0,
γT=4Z02ClhνwμeffeτdγI(lhν+2Z0wμeffeτdI0)2.
feff=fr/eff,
eff=(+1)/2.

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