Abstract

We experimentally investigate and theoretically describe the amplification of ultrashort optical pulses in a double-stage InGaAs-semiconductor laser amplifier system consisting of a double-pass single-stripe diode laser and a tapered amplifier. The pulses were generated by a mode-locked single-stripe laser in an external-resonator configuration. On amplification in a tapered amplifier, pulses exhibited both spectral broadening and distortion, depending on the tapered amplifier current and the injected optical pulse power. This behavior originates from the dynamic nonlinear carrier induced spatiospectral gain and index changes as well as gain saturation and leads to self-phase modulation. The origin of the observed behavior is revealed by a spatially resolved microscopic theory based on Maxwell–Bloch–Langevin equations that takes into account many-body interactions, energy transfer between carrier and phonon systems, and, in particular, the spatiotemporal interplay of stimulated and amplified spontaneous emission and noise.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Gee, G. Alphonse, J. Connolly, and P. J. Delfyett, “High-power mode-locked external cavity semiconductor laser using inverse bow-tie semiconductor optical amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 209–215 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  7. P. J. Delfyett, A. Dienes, J. P. Heritage, M. Y. Hong, and Y. H. Chang, “Femtosecond hybrid mode-locked semiconductor laser and amplifier dynamics,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 58, 183–195 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  15. E. Gehrig and O. Hess, “Spatio-spectral wave-mixing dynamics of stimulated and amplified spontaneous emission in broad-area semiconductor lasers with coherent injection,” Phys. Rev. A (to be published).

1999 (2)

H. F. Hofmann and O. Hess, “Quantum Maxwell–Bloch equations for spatially inhomogeneous semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 2342–2358 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Gehrig and O. Hess, “Microscopic theory of spatiotemporal multiwave mixing in broad-area semiconductor laser amplifiers,” Phys. Rev. A 60, 5035–5045 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

E. Gehrig and O. Hess, “Nonequilibrium spatio-temporal dynamics of the Wigner distributions in broad-area semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 2150–2163 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Gee, G. Alphonse, J. Connolly, and P. J. Delfyett, “High-power mode-locked external cavity semiconductor laser using inverse bow-tie semiconductor optical amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 209–215 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

O. Hess and T. Kuhn, “Maxwell–Bloch equations for spatially inhomogeneous semiconductor lasers. I. Theoretical description,” Phys. Rev. A 54, 3347–3359 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

1994 (2)

A. Mar, R. Helkey, J. Bowers, D. Mehuys, and D. Walsh, “Mode-locked operation of a master oscillator power amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1067–1069 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Delfyett, A. Dienes, J. P. Heritage, M. Y. Hong, and Y. H. Chang, “Femtosecond hybrid mode-locked semiconductor laser and amplifier dynamics,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 58, 183–195 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

A. Dienes, J. P. Heritage, M. Y. Hong, and Y. H. Chang, “Time- and spectral-domain evolution of subpicosecond pulses in semiconductor optical amplifiers,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1602–1604 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Delfyett, L. T. Florez, N. Stoffel, T. Gmitter, N. C. Andreadakis, Y. Silberberg, J. P. Heritage, and G. A. Alphonse, “High-power ultrafast laser diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2203–2219 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

G. P. Agrawal and N. A. Olsson, “Self-phase modulation and spectral broadening of optical pulses in semiconductor laser amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2297–2305 (1989).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Olsson and G. P. Agrawal, “Spectral shift and distortion due to self-phase modulation of picosecond pulses in 1.5 μm optical amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 13–15 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, G. P.

N. A. Olsson and G. P. Agrawal, “Spectral shift and distortion due to self-phase modulation of picosecond pulses in 1.5 μm optical amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 13–15 (1989).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Agrawal and N. A. Olsson, “Self-phase modulation and spectral broadening of optical pulses in semiconductor laser amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2297–2305 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Alphonse, G.

S. Gee, G. Alphonse, J. Connolly, and P. J. Delfyett, “High-power mode-locked external cavity semiconductor laser using inverse bow-tie semiconductor optical amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 209–215 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Alphonse, G. A.

P. J. Delfyett, L. T. Florez, N. Stoffel, T. Gmitter, N. C. Andreadakis, Y. Silberberg, J. P. Heritage, and G. A. Alphonse, “High-power ultrafast laser diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2203–2219 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Andreadakis, N. C.

P. J. Delfyett, L. T. Florez, N. Stoffel, T. Gmitter, N. C. Andreadakis, Y. Silberberg, J. P. Heritage, and G. A. Alphonse, “High-power ultrafast laser diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2203–2219 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bowers, J.

A. Mar, R. Helkey, J. Bowers, D. Mehuys, and D. Walsh, “Mode-locked operation of a master oscillator power amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1067–1069 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Y. H.

P. J. Delfyett, A. Dienes, J. P. Heritage, M. Y. Hong, and Y. H. Chang, “Femtosecond hybrid mode-locked semiconductor laser and amplifier dynamics,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 58, 183–195 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Dienes, J. P. Heritage, M. Y. Hong, and Y. H. Chang, “Time- and spectral-domain evolution of subpicosecond pulses in semiconductor optical amplifiers,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1602–1604 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Connolly, J.

S. Gee, G. Alphonse, J. Connolly, and P. J. Delfyett, “High-power mode-locked external cavity semiconductor laser using inverse bow-tie semiconductor optical amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 209–215 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Delfyett, P. J.

S. Gee, G. Alphonse, J. Connolly, and P. J. Delfyett, “High-power mode-locked external cavity semiconductor laser using inverse bow-tie semiconductor optical amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 209–215 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Delfyett, A. Dienes, J. P. Heritage, M. Y. Hong, and Y. H. Chang, “Femtosecond hybrid mode-locked semiconductor laser and amplifier dynamics,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 58, 183–195 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Delfyett, L. T. Florez, N. Stoffel, T. Gmitter, N. C. Andreadakis, Y. Silberberg, J. P. Heritage, and G. A. Alphonse, “High-power ultrafast laser diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2203–2219 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Dienes, A.

P. J. Delfyett, A. Dienes, J. P. Heritage, M. Y. Hong, and Y. H. Chang, “Femtosecond hybrid mode-locked semiconductor laser and amplifier dynamics,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 58, 183–195 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Dienes, J. P. Heritage, M. Y. Hong, and Y. H. Chang, “Time- and spectral-domain evolution of subpicosecond pulses in semiconductor optical amplifiers,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1602–1604 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Florez, L. T.

P. J. Delfyett, L. T. Florez, N. Stoffel, T. Gmitter, N. C. Andreadakis, Y. Silberberg, J. P. Heritage, and G. A. Alphonse, “High-power ultrafast laser diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2203–2219 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gee, S.

S. Gee, G. Alphonse, J. Connolly, and P. J. Delfyett, “High-power mode-locked external cavity semiconductor laser using inverse bow-tie semiconductor optical amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 209–215 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gehrig, E.

E. Gehrig and O. Hess, “Microscopic theory of spatiotemporal multiwave mixing in broad-area semiconductor laser amplifiers,” Phys. Rev. A 60, 5035–5045 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Gehrig and O. Hess, “Nonequilibrium spatio-temporal dynamics of the Wigner distributions in broad-area semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 2150–2163 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gmitter, T.

P. J. Delfyett, L. T. Florez, N. Stoffel, T. Gmitter, N. C. Andreadakis, Y. Silberberg, J. P. Heritage, and G. A. Alphonse, “High-power ultrafast laser diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2203–2219 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Goldberg, L.

Helkey, R.

A. Mar, R. Helkey, J. Bowers, D. Mehuys, and D. Walsh, “Mode-locked operation of a master oscillator power amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1067–1069 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Heritage, J. P.

P. J. Delfyett, A. Dienes, J. P. Heritage, M. Y. Hong, and Y. H. Chang, “Femtosecond hybrid mode-locked semiconductor laser and amplifier dynamics,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 58, 183–195 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Delfyett, L. T. Florez, N. Stoffel, T. Gmitter, N. C. Andreadakis, Y. Silberberg, J. P. Heritage, and G. A. Alphonse, “High-power ultrafast laser diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2203–2219 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Dienes, J. P. Heritage, M. Y. Hong, and Y. H. Chang, “Time- and spectral-domain evolution of subpicosecond pulses in semiconductor optical amplifiers,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1602–1604 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hess, O.

E. Gehrig and O. Hess, “Microscopic theory of spatiotemporal multiwave mixing in broad-area semiconductor laser amplifiers,” Phys. Rev. A 60, 5035–5045 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Hofmann and O. Hess, “Quantum Maxwell–Bloch equations for spatially inhomogeneous semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 2342–2358 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Gehrig and O. Hess, “Nonequilibrium spatio-temporal dynamics of the Wigner distributions in broad-area semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 2150–2163 (1998).
[CrossRef]

O. Hess and T. Kuhn, “Maxwell–Bloch equations for spatially inhomogeneous semiconductor lasers. I. Theoretical description,” Phys. Rev. A 54, 3347–3359 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hofmann, H. F.

H. F. Hofmann and O. Hess, “Quantum Maxwell–Bloch equations for spatially inhomogeneous semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 2342–2358 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hong, M. Y.

P. J. Delfyett, A. Dienes, J. P. Heritage, M. Y. Hong, and Y. H. Chang, “Femtosecond hybrid mode-locked semiconductor laser and amplifier dynamics,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 58, 183–195 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Dienes, J. P. Heritage, M. Y. Hong, and Y. H. Chang, “Time- and spectral-domain evolution of subpicosecond pulses in semiconductor optical amplifiers,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1602–1604 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kliner, D. A. V.

Kuhn, T.

O. Hess and T. Kuhn, “Maxwell–Bloch equations for spatially inhomogeneous semiconductor lasers. I. Theoretical description,” Phys. Rev. A 54, 3347–3359 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mar, A.

A. Mar, R. Helkey, J. Bowers, D. Mehuys, and D. Walsh, “Mode-locked operation of a master oscillator power amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1067–1069 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mecozzi, A.

Mehuys, D.

A. Mar, R. Helkey, J. Bowers, D. Mehuys, and D. Walsh, “Mode-locked operation of a master oscillator power amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1067–1069 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mørk, J.

Olsson, N. A.

G. P. Agrawal and N. A. Olsson, “Self-phase modulation and spectral broadening of optical pulses in semiconductor laser amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2297–2305 (1989).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Olsson and G. P. Agrawal, “Spectral shift and distortion due to self-phase modulation of picosecond pulses in 1.5 μm optical amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 13–15 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Silberberg, Y.

P. J. Delfyett, L. T. Florez, N. Stoffel, T. Gmitter, N. C. Andreadakis, Y. Silberberg, J. P. Heritage, and G. A. Alphonse, “High-power ultrafast laser diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2203–2219 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Stoffel, N.

P. J. Delfyett, L. T. Florez, N. Stoffel, T. Gmitter, N. C. Andreadakis, Y. Silberberg, J. P. Heritage, and G. A. Alphonse, “High-power ultrafast laser diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2203–2219 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Walsh, D.

A. Mar, R. Helkey, J. Bowers, D. Mehuys, and D. Walsh, “Mode-locked operation of a master oscillator power amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1067–1069 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. (1)

P. J. Delfyett, A. Dienes, J. P. Heritage, M. Y. Hong, and Y. H. Chang, “Femtosecond hybrid mode-locked semiconductor laser and amplifier dynamics,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 58, 183–195 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

N. A. Olsson and G. P. Agrawal, “Spectral shift and distortion due to self-phase modulation of picosecond pulses in 1.5 μm optical amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 13–15 (1989).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

G. P. Agrawal and N. A. Olsson, “Self-phase modulation and spectral broadening of optical pulses in semiconductor laser amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2297–2305 (1989).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Delfyett, L. T. Florez, N. Stoffel, T. Gmitter, N. C. Andreadakis, Y. Silberberg, J. P. Heritage, and G. A. Alphonse, “High-power ultrafast laser diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2203–2219 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. Gee, G. Alphonse, J. Connolly, and P. J. Delfyett, “High-power mode-locked external cavity semiconductor laser using inverse bow-tie semiconductor optical amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 209–215 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

A. Mar, R. Helkey, J. Bowers, D. Mehuys, and D. Walsh, “Mode-locked operation of a master oscillator power amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1067–1069 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. A (4)

O. Hess and T. Kuhn, “Maxwell–Bloch equations for spatially inhomogeneous semiconductor lasers. I. Theoretical description,” Phys. Rev. A 54, 3347–3359 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Gehrig and O. Hess, “Nonequilibrium spatio-temporal dynamics of the Wigner distributions in broad-area semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 2150–2163 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Hofmann and O. Hess, “Quantum Maxwell–Bloch equations for spatially inhomogeneous semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 2342–2358 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Gehrig and O. Hess, “Microscopic theory of spatiotemporal multiwave mixing in broad-area semiconductor laser amplifiers,” Phys. Rev. A 60, 5035–5045 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

E. Gehrig and O. Hess, “Spatio-spectral wave-mixing dynamics of stimulated and amplified spontaneous emission in broad-area semiconductor lasers with coherent injection,” Phys. Rev. A (to be published).

P. Vasil’ev, Ultrafast Diode Lasers: Fundamentals and Applications (Artech House, Norwood, Mass., 1995).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Physical interactions and perpetual influence of temporal variations and spectral properties: (a) temporal variation of the intensity, (b) temporal variation of the nonlinear phase, (c) induced frequency variation, (d) spectral power density.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the experimental setup of the diode-laser master-oscillator–power-amplifier system with a Littrow oscillator (OSC) with an external grating (G), a single-stripe double-pass PA, and a high-power TA. ISO’s, optical isolators.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Measured and calculated peak output powers of the single-stripe PA as a function of the amplifier current. The optical peak input power from the oscillator is 15 mW. Under these operation conditions the spectrum of the output pulse from the single-stripe PA is shown as (b) measured and (c) calculated.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Measured and (b) calculated peak power of the high-power TA as a function of the amplifier current and the peak power of the optical input pulse from the PA.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Measured and (b) calculated spectrum of the output pulse from the TA as a function of the amplifier current.

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