Abstract

We present experimental data for the irradiance dependence of the optical nonlinearity of an organic material at different wavelengths across resonance. The material studied was a suspension of vanadyl-phthalocyanine nanocrystals in cyclohexane. The refractive and absorptive contributions to the nonlinearity were resolved by use of the z-scan technique with a tunable picosecond laser source. The observed dependence of the nonlinearity with irradiance is explained by excited-state absorption, and a three-level model is used to describe the nonlinear response. A fit to the experimental data is made, allowing the extraction of molecular parameters that are of interest for a full characterization of the nonlinearity.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. Rangel-Rojo, S. Yamada, H. Matsuda, H. Kasai, H. Nakanishi, A. K. Kar, and B. S. Wherrett, “Spectrally resolved third-order nonlinearities in polydiacetylene microcrystals: influence of particle size,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 2937–2945 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. Rangel-Rojo, S. Yamada, H. Matsuda, H. Kasai, Y. Komai, S. Okada, H. Oikawa, and H. Nakanishi, “Refractive third-order nonlinearity in Vanadium-oxide phthalocyanine microcrystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 38, 69–73 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. R. Coulter, V. M. Minkowski, J. W. Perry, T. Wei, E. W. Van Stryland, and D. J. Hagan, “Optical limiting in solutions of metallo-phthalocyanines and naphthalocyanines,” in Materials for Optical Switches, Isolators and Limiters, M. J. Soileau, ed., Proc. SPIE 1105, 42–51 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. J. Harter, M. L. Shand, and Y. B. Band, “Power/energy limiter using reverse saturable absorption,” J. Appl. Phys. 56, 865–868 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Hosoda, T. Wada, T. Yamamoto, A. Kaneko, A. F. Garito, and H. Sasabe, “Enhancement of third-order optical nonlinearities of soluble vanadyl phthalocyanines in doped polymer films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 1071–1075 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. Wada and H. Sasabe, “Metallophthalocyanine: aggregation and nonlinear optics,” in Organic, Metallo-Organic, and Polymeric Materials for Nonlinear Optical Applications, S. R. Marder and J. W. Perry, eds., Proc. SPIE 2143, 164–171 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Tian, S. Yanagi, K. Sasaki, T. Wada, and H. Sasabe, “Syntheses and nonlinear optical properties of nonaggregated metallophthalocyanines,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 846–853 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. H. Wei, T. H. Huang, and M. S. Lin, “Signs of nonlinear refraction in chloroaluminum phthalocyanine,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2505–2507 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. Fang, H. Tada, and S. Mashiko, “Enhancement of the third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility in epitaxial vanadyl-phthalocyanine films grown on KBr,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 767–769 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. Rangel-Rojo, G. Spruce, and B. S. Wherrett, “Measurement of the vibrational relaxation time in metal-phthalocyanine solutions,” Opt. Mater. 7, 89–94 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. Hughes, G. Spruce, J. M. Burzler, R. Rangel-Rojo, and B. S. Wherrett, “Theoretical analysis of the picosecond, induced absorption exhibited by chloroaluminum phthalocyanine,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 400–405 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Y. Suda, K. Shigehara, A. Yamada, H. Matsuda, S. Okada, A. Masaki, and H. Nakanishi, “Reversible phase transition and third order nonlinearity of phthalocyanine derivatives,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials IV, K. D. Singer, ed., Proc. SPIE 1560, 75–83 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. S. Shirk, J. R. Linde, F. J. Bartoli, C. A. Hoffman, Z. H. Kafafi, and A. W. Snow, “Off-resonant third-order optical nonlinearities of metal-substituted phthalocyanines,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1287–1288 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  14. H. Kasai, H. S. Nalwa, H. Oikawa, S. Okada, N. Minami, A. Kakuta, K. Ono, A. Mukoh, and H. Nakanishi, “A novel preparation method for organic microcrystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, L1132–L1134 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  15. H. Matsuda, S. Yamada, E. Van Keuren, H. Katagi, H. Kasai, S. Okada, H. Oikawa, H. Nakanishi, E. C. Smith, A. K. Kar, and B. S. Wherrett, “Nonlinear refractive indices of polydiacetylene microcrystals,” in Photosensitive Optical Materials and Devices, M. P. Andrews, ed., Proc. SPIE 2998, 241–248 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  16. E. Van Keuren, T. Wakebe, H. Möhwald, S. Rozouvan, W. Schrof, V. Belov, H. Matsuda, R. Rangel-Rojo, and S. Yamada, “Numerical modeling of saturation effects in nonlinear optical transmission and refraction,” Nonlin. Opt. 22, 325–328 (1999).
  17. R. Rangel-Rojo, A. K. Kar, B. S. Wherrett, M. Carroll, G. H. Cross, and D. Bloor, “Third-order optical nonlinearities of a polymeric film doped with a novel zwitterion, DEMI-3CNQ,” Rev. Mex. Fis. 41, 832–840 (1995).
  18. W. E. Torruellas, B. L. Lawrence, G. I. Stegeman, and G. Baker, “Two-photon saturation in the band gap of a molecular quantum wire,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1777–1779 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. L. Oliveira, T. Catunda, and S. Zilio, “Saturation effects in z-scan measurements,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 2649–2652 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  20. A. A. Said, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, T. H. Wei, J. Wang, J. Young, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Determination of bound-electronic and free-carrier nonlinearities in ZnSe, GaAs, CdTe, and ZnTe,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 405–414 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  21. T. H. Wei, T. H. Huang, H. D. Lin, and S. H. Lin, “Lifetime determination for high-lying excited states using Z scan,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2266 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  22. N. Tang and R. L. Sutherland, “Time-domain theory for pump–probe experiments with chirped pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 3412–3423 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  23. J. Bolger, T. G. Harvey, W. Ji, A. K. Kar, S. Molyneux, B. S. Wherrett, D. Bloor, and P. Norman, “Near-resonant third-order optical nonlinearities in p-toluene sulfonate polydiacetylene,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 1552–1557 (1992).
    [CrossRef]

1999 (2)

R. Rangel-Rojo, S. Yamada, H. Matsuda, H. Kasai, Y. Komai, S. Okada, H. Oikawa, and H. Nakanishi, “Refractive third-order nonlinearity in Vanadium-oxide phthalocyanine microcrystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 38, 69–73 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Van Keuren, T. Wakebe, H. Möhwald, S. Rozouvan, W. Schrof, V. Belov, H. Matsuda, R. Rangel-Rojo, and S. Yamada, “Numerical modeling of saturation effects in nonlinear optical transmission and refraction,” Nonlin. Opt. 22, 325–328 (1999).

1998 (3)

1997 (4)

S. Hughes, G. Spruce, J. M. Burzler, R. Rangel-Rojo, and B. S. Wherrett, “Theoretical analysis of the picosecond, induced absorption exhibited by chloroaluminum phthalocyanine,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 400–405 (1997).
[CrossRef]

N. Tang and R. L. Sutherland, “Time-domain theory for pump–probe experiments with chirped pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 3412–3423 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Rangel-Rojo, G. Spruce, and B. S. Wherrett, “Measurement of the vibrational relaxation time in metal-phthalocyanine solutions,” Opt. Mater. 7, 89–94 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Matsuda, S. Yamada, E. Van Keuren, H. Katagi, H. Kasai, S. Okada, H. Oikawa, H. Nakanishi, E. C. Smith, A. K. Kar, and B. S. Wherrett, “Nonlinear refractive indices of polydiacetylene microcrystals,” in Photosensitive Optical Materials and Devices, M. P. Andrews, ed., Proc. SPIE 2998, 241–248 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

L. Oliveira, T. Catunda, and S. Zilio, “Saturation effects in z-scan measurements,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 2649–2652 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Fang, H. Tada, and S. Mashiko, “Enhancement of the third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility in epitaxial vanadyl-phthalocyanine films grown on KBr,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 767–769 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. E. Torruellas, B. L. Lawrence, G. I. Stegeman, and G. Baker, “Two-photon saturation in the band gap of a molecular quantum wire,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1777–1779 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (2)

T. H. Wei, T. H. Huang, H. D. Lin, and S. H. Lin, “Lifetime determination for high-lying excited states using Z scan,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2266 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. Rangel-Rojo, A. K. Kar, B. S. Wherrett, M. Carroll, G. H. Cross, and D. Bloor, “Third-order optical nonlinearities of a polymeric film doped with a novel zwitterion, DEMI-3CNQ,” Rev. Mex. Fis. 41, 832–840 (1995).

1994 (1)

T. Wada and H. Sasabe, “Metallophthalocyanine: aggregation and nonlinear optics,” in Organic, Metallo-Organic, and Polymeric Materials for Nonlinear Optical Applications, S. R. Marder and J. W. Perry, eds., Proc. SPIE 2143, 164–171 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (4)

M. Hosoda, T. Wada, T. Yamamoto, A. Kaneko, A. F. Garito, and H. Sasabe, “Enhancement of third-order optical nonlinearities of soluble vanadyl phthalocyanines in doped polymer films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 1071–1075 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H. Kasai, H. S. Nalwa, H. Oikawa, S. Okada, N. Minami, A. Kakuta, K. Ono, A. Mukoh, and H. Nakanishi, “A novel preparation method for organic microcrystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, L1132–L1134 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Said, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, T. H. Wei, J. Wang, J. Young, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Determination of bound-electronic and free-carrier nonlinearities in ZnSe, GaAs, CdTe, and ZnTe,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 405–414 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Bolger, T. G. Harvey, W. Ji, A. K. Kar, S. Molyneux, B. S. Wherrett, D. Bloor, and P. Norman, “Near-resonant third-order optical nonlinearities in p-toluene sulfonate polydiacetylene,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 1552–1557 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

Y. Suda, K. Shigehara, A. Yamada, H. Matsuda, S. Okada, A. Masaki, and H. Nakanishi, “Reversible phase transition and third order nonlinearity of phthalocyanine derivatives,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials IV, K. D. Singer, ed., Proc. SPIE 1560, 75–83 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

J. S. Shirk, J. R. Linde, F. J. Bartoli, C. A. Hoffman, Z. H. Kafafi, and A. W. Snow, “Off-resonant third-order optical nonlinearities of metal-substituted phthalocyanines,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1287–1288 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Coulter, V. M. Minkowski, J. W. Perry, T. Wei, E. W. Van Stryland, and D. J. Hagan, “Optical limiting in solutions of metallo-phthalocyanines and naphthalocyanines,” in Materials for Optical Switches, Isolators and Limiters, M. J. Soileau, ed., Proc. SPIE 1105, 42–51 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

D. J. Harter, M. L. Shand, and Y. B. Band, “Power/energy limiter using reverse saturable absorption,” J. Appl. Phys. 56, 865–868 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Baker, G.

Band, Y. B.

D. J. Harter, M. L. Shand, and Y. B. Band, “Power/energy limiter using reverse saturable absorption,” J. Appl. Phys. 56, 865–868 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Bartoli, F. J.

J. S. Shirk, J. R. Linde, F. J. Bartoli, C. A. Hoffman, Z. H. Kafafi, and A. W. Snow, “Off-resonant third-order optical nonlinearities of metal-substituted phthalocyanines,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1287–1288 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Belov, V.

E. Van Keuren, T. Wakebe, H. Möhwald, S. Rozouvan, W. Schrof, V. Belov, H. Matsuda, R. Rangel-Rojo, and S. Yamada, “Numerical modeling of saturation effects in nonlinear optical transmission and refraction,” Nonlin. Opt. 22, 325–328 (1999).

Bloor, D.

R. Rangel-Rojo, A. K. Kar, B. S. Wherrett, M. Carroll, G. H. Cross, and D. Bloor, “Third-order optical nonlinearities of a polymeric film doped with a novel zwitterion, DEMI-3CNQ,” Rev. Mex. Fis. 41, 832–840 (1995).

J. Bolger, T. G. Harvey, W. Ji, A. K. Kar, S. Molyneux, B. S. Wherrett, D. Bloor, and P. Norman, “Near-resonant third-order optical nonlinearities in p-toluene sulfonate polydiacetylene,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 1552–1557 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bolger, J.

Burzler, J. M.

Carroll, M.

R. Rangel-Rojo, A. K. Kar, B. S. Wherrett, M. Carroll, G. H. Cross, and D. Bloor, “Third-order optical nonlinearities of a polymeric film doped with a novel zwitterion, DEMI-3CNQ,” Rev. Mex. Fis. 41, 832–840 (1995).

Catunda, T.

L. Oliveira, T. Catunda, and S. Zilio, “Saturation effects in z-scan measurements,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 2649–2652 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Coulter, D. R.

D. R. Coulter, V. M. Minkowski, J. W. Perry, T. Wei, E. W. Van Stryland, and D. J. Hagan, “Optical limiting in solutions of metallo-phthalocyanines and naphthalocyanines,” in Materials for Optical Switches, Isolators and Limiters, M. J. Soileau, ed., Proc. SPIE 1105, 42–51 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Cross, G. H.

R. Rangel-Rojo, A. K. Kar, B. S. Wherrett, M. Carroll, G. H. Cross, and D. Bloor, “Third-order optical nonlinearities of a polymeric film doped with a novel zwitterion, DEMI-3CNQ,” Rev. Mex. Fis. 41, 832–840 (1995).

Fang, S.

S. Fang, H. Tada, and S. Mashiko, “Enhancement of the third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility in epitaxial vanadyl-phthalocyanine films grown on KBr,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 767–769 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Garito, A. F.

M. Hosoda, T. Wada, T. Yamamoto, A. Kaneko, A. F. Garito, and H. Sasabe, “Enhancement of third-order optical nonlinearities of soluble vanadyl phthalocyanines in doped polymer films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 1071–1075 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hagan, D. J.

A. A. Said, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, T. H. Wei, J. Wang, J. Young, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Determination of bound-electronic and free-carrier nonlinearities in ZnSe, GaAs, CdTe, and ZnTe,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 405–414 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Coulter, V. M. Minkowski, J. W. Perry, T. Wei, E. W. Van Stryland, and D. J. Hagan, “Optical limiting in solutions of metallo-phthalocyanines and naphthalocyanines,” in Materials for Optical Switches, Isolators and Limiters, M. J. Soileau, ed., Proc. SPIE 1105, 42–51 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Harter, D. J.

D. J. Harter, M. L. Shand, and Y. B. Band, “Power/energy limiter using reverse saturable absorption,” J. Appl. Phys. 56, 865–868 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Harvey, T. G.

Hoffman, C. A.

J. S. Shirk, J. R. Linde, F. J. Bartoli, C. A. Hoffman, Z. H. Kafafi, and A. W. Snow, “Off-resonant third-order optical nonlinearities of metal-substituted phthalocyanines,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1287–1288 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hosoda, M.

M. Hosoda, T. Wada, T. Yamamoto, A. Kaneko, A. F. Garito, and H. Sasabe, “Enhancement of third-order optical nonlinearities of soluble vanadyl phthalocyanines in doped polymer films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 1071–1075 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Huang, T. H.

T. H. Wei, T. H. Huang, and M. S. Lin, “Signs of nonlinear refraction in chloroaluminum phthalocyanine,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2505–2507 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Wei, T. H. Huang, H. D. Lin, and S. H. Lin, “Lifetime determination for high-lying excited states using Z scan,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2266 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hughes, S.

Ji, W.

Kafafi, Z. H.

J. S. Shirk, J. R. Linde, F. J. Bartoli, C. A. Hoffman, Z. H. Kafafi, and A. W. Snow, “Off-resonant third-order optical nonlinearities of metal-substituted phthalocyanines,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1287–1288 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kakuta, A.

H. Kasai, H. S. Nalwa, H. Oikawa, S. Okada, N. Minami, A. Kakuta, K. Ono, A. Mukoh, and H. Nakanishi, “A novel preparation method for organic microcrystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, L1132–L1134 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kaneko, A.

M. Hosoda, T. Wada, T. Yamamoto, A. Kaneko, A. F. Garito, and H. Sasabe, “Enhancement of third-order optical nonlinearities of soluble vanadyl phthalocyanines in doped polymer films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 1071–1075 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kar, A. K.

R. Rangel-Rojo, S. Yamada, H. Matsuda, H. Kasai, H. Nakanishi, A. K. Kar, and B. S. Wherrett, “Spectrally resolved third-order nonlinearities in polydiacetylene microcrystals: influence of particle size,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 2937–2945 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Matsuda, S. Yamada, E. Van Keuren, H. Katagi, H. Kasai, S. Okada, H. Oikawa, H. Nakanishi, E. C. Smith, A. K. Kar, and B. S. Wherrett, “Nonlinear refractive indices of polydiacetylene microcrystals,” in Photosensitive Optical Materials and Devices, M. P. Andrews, ed., Proc. SPIE 2998, 241–248 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Rangel-Rojo, A. K. Kar, B. S. Wherrett, M. Carroll, G. H. Cross, and D. Bloor, “Third-order optical nonlinearities of a polymeric film doped with a novel zwitterion, DEMI-3CNQ,” Rev. Mex. Fis. 41, 832–840 (1995).

J. Bolger, T. G. Harvey, W. Ji, A. K. Kar, S. Molyneux, B. S. Wherrett, D. Bloor, and P. Norman, “Near-resonant third-order optical nonlinearities in p-toluene sulfonate polydiacetylene,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 1552–1557 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kasai, H.

R. Rangel-Rojo, S. Yamada, H. Matsuda, H. Kasai, Y. Komai, S. Okada, H. Oikawa, and H. Nakanishi, “Refractive third-order nonlinearity in Vanadium-oxide phthalocyanine microcrystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 38, 69–73 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Rangel-Rojo, S. Yamada, H. Matsuda, H. Kasai, H. Nakanishi, A. K. Kar, and B. S. Wherrett, “Spectrally resolved third-order nonlinearities in polydiacetylene microcrystals: influence of particle size,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 2937–2945 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Matsuda, S. Yamada, E. Van Keuren, H. Katagi, H. Kasai, S. Okada, H. Oikawa, H. Nakanishi, E. C. Smith, A. K. Kar, and B. S. Wherrett, “Nonlinear refractive indices of polydiacetylene microcrystals,” in Photosensitive Optical Materials and Devices, M. P. Andrews, ed., Proc. SPIE 2998, 241–248 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Kasai, H. S. Nalwa, H. Oikawa, S. Okada, N. Minami, A. Kakuta, K. Ono, A. Mukoh, and H. Nakanishi, “A novel preparation method for organic microcrystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, L1132–L1134 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Katagi, H.

H. Matsuda, S. Yamada, E. Van Keuren, H. Katagi, H. Kasai, S. Okada, H. Oikawa, H. Nakanishi, E. C. Smith, A. K. Kar, and B. S. Wherrett, “Nonlinear refractive indices of polydiacetylene microcrystals,” in Photosensitive Optical Materials and Devices, M. P. Andrews, ed., Proc. SPIE 2998, 241–248 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Komai, Y.

R. Rangel-Rojo, S. Yamada, H. Matsuda, H. Kasai, Y. Komai, S. Okada, H. Oikawa, and H. Nakanishi, “Refractive third-order nonlinearity in Vanadium-oxide phthalocyanine microcrystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 38, 69–73 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lawrence, B. L.

Lin, H. D.

T. H. Wei, T. H. Huang, H. D. Lin, and S. H. Lin, “Lifetime determination for high-lying excited states using Z scan,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2266 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lin, M. S.

T. H. Wei, T. H. Huang, and M. S. Lin, “Signs of nonlinear refraction in chloroaluminum phthalocyanine,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2505–2507 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lin, S. H.

T. H. Wei, T. H. Huang, H. D. Lin, and S. H. Lin, “Lifetime determination for high-lying excited states using Z scan,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2266 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Linde, J. R.

J. S. Shirk, J. R. Linde, F. J. Bartoli, C. A. Hoffman, Z. H. Kafafi, and A. W. Snow, “Off-resonant third-order optical nonlinearities of metal-substituted phthalocyanines,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1287–1288 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Masaki, A.

Y. Suda, K. Shigehara, A. Yamada, H. Matsuda, S. Okada, A. Masaki, and H. Nakanishi, “Reversible phase transition and third order nonlinearity of phthalocyanine derivatives,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials IV, K. D. Singer, ed., Proc. SPIE 1560, 75–83 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Mashiko, S.

S. Fang, H. Tada, and S. Mashiko, “Enhancement of the third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility in epitaxial vanadyl-phthalocyanine films grown on KBr,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 767–769 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Matsuda, H.

R. Rangel-Rojo, S. Yamada, H. Matsuda, H. Kasai, Y. Komai, S. Okada, H. Oikawa, and H. Nakanishi, “Refractive third-order nonlinearity in Vanadium-oxide phthalocyanine microcrystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 38, 69–73 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Van Keuren, T. Wakebe, H. Möhwald, S. Rozouvan, W. Schrof, V. Belov, H. Matsuda, R. Rangel-Rojo, and S. Yamada, “Numerical modeling of saturation effects in nonlinear optical transmission and refraction,” Nonlin. Opt. 22, 325–328 (1999).

R. Rangel-Rojo, S. Yamada, H. Matsuda, H. Kasai, H. Nakanishi, A. K. Kar, and B. S. Wherrett, “Spectrally resolved third-order nonlinearities in polydiacetylene microcrystals: influence of particle size,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 2937–2945 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Matsuda, S. Yamada, E. Van Keuren, H. Katagi, H. Kasai, S. Okada, H. Oikawa, H. Nakanishi, E. C. Smith, A. K. Kar, and B. S. Wherrett, “Nonlinear refractive indices of polydiacetylene microcrystals,” in Photosensitive Optical Materials and Devices, M. P. Andrews, ed., Proc. SPIE 2998, 241–248 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Suda, K. Shigehara, A. Yamada, H. Matsuda, S. Okada, A. Masaki, and H. Nakanishi, “Reversible phase transition and third order nonlinearity of phthalocyanine derivatives,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials IV, K. D. Singer, ed., Proc. SPIE 1560, 75–83 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Minami, N.

H. Kasai, H. S. Nalwa, H. Oikawa, S. Okada, N. Minami, A. Kakuta, K. Ono, A. Mukoh, and H. Nakanishi, “A novel preparation method for organic microcrystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, L1132–L1134 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Minkowski, V. M.

D. R. Coulter, V. M. Minkowski, J. W. Perry, T. Wei, E. W. Van Stryland, and D. J. Hagan, “Optical limiting in solutions of metallo-phthalocyanines and naphthalocyanines,” in Materials for Optical Switches, Isolators and Limiters, M. J. Soileau, ed., Proc. SPIE 1105, 42–51 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Möhwald, H.

E. Van Keuren, T. Wakebe, H. Möhwald, S. Rozouvan, W. Schrof, V. Belov, H. Matsuda, R. Rangel-Rojo, and S. Yamada, “Numerical modeling of saturation effects in nonlinear optical transmission and refraction,” Nonlin. Opt. 22, 325–328 (1999).

Molyneux, S.

Mukoh, A.

H. Kasai, H. S. Nalwa, H. Oikawa, S. Okada, N. Minami, A. Kakuta, K. Ono, A. Mukoh, and H. Nakanishi, “A novel preparation method for organic microcrystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, L1132–L1134 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nakanishi, H.

R. Rangel-Rojo, S. Yamada, H. Matsuda, H. Kasai, Y. Komai, S. Okada, H. Oikawa, and H. Nakanishi, “Refractive third-order nonlinearity in Vanadium-oxide phthalocyanine microcrystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 38, 69–73 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Rangel-Rojo, S. Yamada, H. Matsuda, H. Kasai, H. Nakanishi, A. K. Kar, and B. S. Wherrett, “Spectrally resolved third-order nonlinearities in polydiacetylene microcrystals: influence of particle size,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 2937–2945 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Matsuda, S. Yamada, E. Van Keuren, H. Katagi, H. Kasai, S. Okada, H. Oikawa, H. Nakanishi, E. C. Smith, A. K. Kar, and B. S. Wherrett, “Nonlinear refractive indices of polydiacetylene microcrystals,” in Photosensitive Optical Materials and Devices, M. P. Andrews, ed., Proc. SPIE 2998, 241–248 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Kasai, H. S. Nalwa, H. Oikawa, S. Okada, N. Minami, A. Kakuta, K. Ono, A. Mukoh, and H. Nakanishi, “A novel preparation method for organic microcrystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, L1132–L1134 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Y. Suda, K. Shigehara, A. Yamada, H. Matsuda, S. Okada, A. Masaki, and H. Nakanishi, “Reversible phase transition and third order nonlinearity of phthalocyanine derivatives,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials IV, K. D. Singer, ed., Proc. SPIE 1560, 75–83 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Nalwa, H. S.

H. Kasai, H. S. Nalwa, H. Oikawa, S. Okada, N. Minami, A. Kakuta, K. Ono, A. Mukoh, and H. Nakanishi, “A novel preparation method for organic microcrystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, L1132–L1134 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Norman, P.

Oikawa, H.

R. Rangel-Rojo, S. Yamada, H. Matsuda, H. Kasai, Y. Komai, S. Okada, H. Oikawa, and H. Nakanishi, “Refractive third-order nonlinearity in Vanadium-oxide phthalocyanine microcrystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 38, 69–73 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Matsuda, S. Yamada, E. Van Keuren, H. Katagi, H. Kasai, S. Okada, H. Oikawa, H. Nakanishi, E. C. Smith, A. K. Kar, and B. S. Wherrett, “Nonlinear refractive indices of polydiacetylene microcrystals,” in Photosensitive Optical Materials and Devices, M. P. Andrews, ed., Proc. SPIE 2998, 241–248 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Kasai, H. S. Nalwa, H. Oikawa, S. Okada, N. Minami, A. Kakuta, K. Ono, A. Mukoh, and H. Nakanishi, “A novel preparation method for organic microcrystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, L1132–L1134 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Okada, S.

R. Rangel-Rojo, S. Yamada, H. Matsuda, H. Kasai, Y. Komai, S. Okada, H. Oikawa, and H. Nakanishi, “Refractive third-order nonlinearity in Vanadium-oxide phthalocyanine microcrystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 38, 69–73 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Matsuda, S. Yamada, E. Van Keuren, H. Katagi, H. Kasai, S. Okada, H. Oikawa, H. Nakanishi, E. C. Smith, A. K. Kar, and B. S. Wherrett, “Nonlinear refractive indices of polydiacetylene microcrystals,” in Photosensitive Optical Materials and Devices, M. P. Andrews, ed., Proc. SPIE 2998, 241–248 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Kasai, H. S. Nalwa, H. Oikawa, S. Okada, N. Minami, A. Kakuta, K. Ono, A. Mukoh, and H. Nakanishi, “A novel preparation method for organic microcrystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, L1132–L1134 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Y. Suda, K. Shigehara, A. Yamada, H. Matsuda, S. Okada, A. Masaki, and H. Nakanishi, “Reversible phase transition and third order nonlinearity of phthalocyanine derivatives,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials IV, K. D. Singer, ed., Proc. SPIE 1560, 75–83 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Oliveira, L.

L. Oliveira, T. Catunda, and S. Zilio, “Saturation effects in z-scan measurements,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 2649–2652 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ono, K.

H. Kasai, H. S. Nalwa, H. Oikawa, S. Okada, N. Minami, A. Kakuta, K. Ono, A. Mukoh, and H. Nakanishi, “A novel preparation method for organic microcrystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, L1132–L1134 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Perry, J. W.

D. R. Coulter, V. M. Minkowski, J. W. Perry, T. Wei, E. W. Van Stryland, and D. J. Hagan, “Optical limiting in solutions of metallo-phthalocyanines and naphthalocyanines,” in Materials for Optical Switches, Isolators and Limiters, M. J. Soileau, ed., Proc. SPIE 1105, 42–51 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Rangel-Rojo, R.

E. Van Keuren, T. Wakebe, H. Möhwald, S. Rozouvan, W. Schrof, V. Belov, H. Matsuda, R. Rangel-Rojo, and S. Yamada, “Numerical modeling of saturation effects in nonlinear optical transmission and refraction,” Nonlin. Opt. 22, 325–328 (1999).

R. Rangel-Rojo, S. Yamada, H. Matsuda, H. Kasai, Y. Komai, S. Okada, H. Oikawa, and H. Nakanishi, “Refractive third-order nonlinearity in Vanadium-oxide phthalocyanine microcrystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 38, 69–73 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Rangel-Rojo, S. Yamada, H. Matsuda, H. Kasai, H. Nakanishi, A. K. Kar, and B. S. Wherrett, “Spectrally resolved third-order nonlinearities in polydiacetylene microcrystals: influence of particle size,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 2937–2945 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Hughes, G. Spruce, J. M. Burzler, R. Rangel-Rojo, and B. S. Wherrett, “Theoretical analysis of the picosecond, induced absorption exhibited by chloroaluminum phthalocyanine,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 400–405 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Rangel-Rojo, G. Spruce, and B. S. Wherrett, “Measurement of the vibrational relaxation time in metal-phthalocyanine solutions,” Opt. Mater. 7, 89–94 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Rangel-Rojo, A. K. Kar, B. S. Wherrett, M. Carroll, G. H. Cross, and D. Bloor, “Third-order optical nonlinearities of a polymeric film doped with a novel zwitterion, DEMI-3CNQ,” Rev. Mex. Fis. 41, 832–840 (1995).

Rozouvan, S.

E. Van Keuren, T. Wakebe, H. Möhwald, S. Rozouvan, W. Schrof, V. Belov, H. Matsuda, R. Rangel-Rojo, and S. Yamada, “Numerical modeling of saturation effects in nonlinear optical transmission and refraction,” Nonlin. Opt. 22, 325–328 (1999).

Said, A. A.

Sasabe, H.

M. Tian, S. Yanagi, K. Sasaki, T. Wada, and H. Sasabe, “Syntheses and nonlinear optical properties of nonaggregated metallophthalocyanines,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 846–853 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Wada and H. Sasabe, “Metallophthalocyanine: aggregation and nonlinear optics,” in Organic, Metallo-Organic, and Polymeric Materials for Nonlinear Optical Applications, S. R. Marder and J. W. Perry, eds., Proc. SPIE 2143, 164–171 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Hosoda, T. Wada, T. Yamamoto, A. Kaneko, A. F. Garito, and H. Sasabe, “Enhancement of third-order optical nonlinearities of soluble vanadyl phthalocyanines in doped polymer films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 1071–1075 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, K.

Schrof, W.

E. Van Keuren, T. Wakebe, H. Möhwald, S. Rozouvan, W. Schrof, V. Belov, H. Matsuda, R. Rangel-Rojo, and S. Yamada, “Numerical modeling of saturation effects in nonlinear optical transmission and refraction,” Nonlin. Opt. 22, 325–328 (1999).

Shand, M. L.

D. J. Harter, M. L. Shand, and Y. B. Band, “Power/energy limiter using reverse saturable absorption,” J. Appl. Phys. 56, 865–868 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Sheik-Bahae, M.

Shigehara, K.

Y. Suda, K. Shigehara, A. Yamada, H. Matsuda, S. Okada, A. Masaki, and H. Nakanishi, “Reversible phase transition and third order nonlinearity of phthalocyanine derivatives,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials IV, K. D. Singer, ed., Proc. SPIE 1560, 75–83 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Shirk, J. S.

J. S. Shirk, J. R. Linde, F. J. Bartoli, C. A. Hoffman, Z. H. Kafafi, and A. W. Snow, “Off-resonant third-order optical nonlinearities of metal-substituted phthalocyanines,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1287–1288 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Smith, E. C.

H. Matsuda, S. Yamada, E. Van Keuren, H. Katagi, H. Kasai, S. Okada, H. Oikawa, H. Nakanishi, E. C. Smith, A. K. Kar, and B. S. Wherrett, “Nonlinear refractive indices of polydiacetylene microcrystals,” in Photosensitive Optical Materials and Devices, M. P. Andrews, ed., Proc. SPIE 2998, 241–248 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Snow, A. W.

J. S. Shirk, J. R. Linde, F. J. Bartoli, C. A. Hoffman, Z. H. Kafafi, and A. W. Snow, “Off-resonant third-order optical nonlinearities of metal-substituted phthalocyanines,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1287–1288 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Spruce, G.

S. Hughes, G. Spruce, J. M. Burzler, R. Rangel-Rojo, and B. S. Wherrett, “Theoretical analysis of the picosecond, induced absorption exhibited by chloroaluminum phthalocyanine,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 400–405 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Rangel-Rojo, G. Spruce, and B. S. Wherrett, “Measurement of the vibrational relaxation time in metal-phthalocyanine solutions,” Opt. Mater. 7, 89–94 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Stegeman, G. I.

Suda, Y.

Y. Suda, K. Shigehara, A. Yamada, H. Matsuda, S. Okada, A. Masaki, and H. Nakanishi, “Reversible phase transition and third order nonlinearity of phthalocyanine derivatives,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials IV, K. D. Singer, ed., Proc. SPIE 1560, 75–83 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sutherland, R. L.

Tada, H.

S. Fang, H. Tada, and S. Mashiko, “Enhancement of the third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility in epitaxial vanadyl-phthalocyanine films grown on KBr,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 767–769 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tang, N.

Tian, M.

Torruellas, W. E.

Van Keuren, E.

E. Van Keuren, T. Wakebe, H. Möhwald, S. Rozouvan, W. Schrof, V. Belov, H. Matsuda, R. Rangel-Rojo, and S. Yamada, “Numerical modeling of saturation effects in nonlinear optical transmission and refraction,” Nonlin. Opt. 22, 325–328 (1999).

H. Matsuda, S. Yamada, E. Van Keuren, H. Katagi, H. Kasai, S. Okada, H. Oikawa, H. Nakanishi, E. C. Smith, A. K. Kar, and B. S. Wherrett, “Nonlinear refractive indices of polydiacetylene microcrystals,” in Photosensitive Optical Materials and Devices, M. P. Andrews, ed., Proc. SPIE 2998, 241–248 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Van Stryland, E. W.

A. A. Said, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, T. H. Wei, J. Wang, J. Young, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Determination of bound-electronic and free-carrier nonlinearities in ZnSe, GaAs, CdTe, and ZnTe,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 405–414 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Coulter, V. M. Minkowski, J. W. Perry, T. Wei, E. W. Van Stryland, and D. J. Hagan, “Optical limiting in solutions of metallo-phthalocyanines and naphthalocyanines,” in Materials for Optical Switches, Isolators and Limiters, M. J. Soileau, ed., Proc. SPIE 1105, 42–51 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Wada, T.

M. Tian, S. Yanagi, K. Sasaki, T. Wada, and H. Sasabe, “Syntheses and nonlinear optical properties of nonaggregated metallophthalocyanines,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 846–853 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Wada and H. Sasabe, “Metallophthalocyanine: aggregation and nonlinear optics,” in Organic, Metallo-Organic, and Polymeric Materials for Nonlinear Optical Applications, S. R. Marder and J. W. Perry, eds., Proc. SPIE 2143, 164–171 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Hosoda, T. Wada, T. Yamamoto, A. Kaneko, A. F. Garito, and H. Sasabe, “Enhancement of third-order optical nonlinearities of soluble vanadyl phthalocyanines in doped polymer films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 1071–1075 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wakebe, T.

E. Van Keuren, T. Wakebe, H. Möhwald, S. Rozouvan, W. Schrof, V. Belov, H. Matsuda, R. Rangel-Rojo, and S. Yamada, “Numerical modeling of saturation effects in nonlinear optical transmission and refraction,” Nonlin. Opt. 22, 325–328 (1999).

Wang, J.

Wei, T.

D. R. Coulter, V. M. Minkowski, J. W. Perry, T. Wei, E. W. Van Stryland, and D. J. Hagan, “Optical limiting in solutions of metallo-phthalocyanines and naphthalocyanines,” in Materials for Optical Switches, Isolators and Limiters, M. J. Soileau, ed., Proc. SPIE 1105, 42–51 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Wei, T. H.

T. H. Wei, T. H. Huang, and M. S. Lin, “Signs of nonlinear refraction in chloroaluminum phthalocyanine,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2505–2507 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Wei, T. H. Huang, H. D. Lin, and S. H. Lin, “Lifetime determination for high-lying excited states using Z scan,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2266 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Said, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, T. H. Wei, J. Wang, J. Young, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Determination of bound-electronic and free-carrier nonlinearities in ZnSe, GaAs, CdTe, and ZnTe,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 405–414 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wherrett, B. S.

R. Rangel-Rojo, S. Yamada, H. Matsuda, H. Kasai, H. Nakanishi, A. K. Kar, and B. S. Wherrett, “Spectrally resolved third-order nonlinearities in polydiacetylene microcrystals: influence of particle size,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 2937–2945 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Hughes, G. Spruce, J. M. Burzler, R. Rangel-Rojo, and B. S. Wherrett, “Theoretical analysis of the picosecond, induced absorption exhibited by chloroaluminum phthalocyanine,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 400–405 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Rangel-Rojo, G. Spruce, and B. S. Wherrett, “Measurement of the vibrational relaxation time in metal-phthalocyanine solutions,” Opt. Mater. 7, 89–94 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Matsuda, S. Yamada, E. Van Keuren, H. Katagi, H. Kasai, S. Okada, H. Oikawa, H. Nakanishi, E. C. Smith, A. K. Kar, and B. S. Wherrett, “Nonlinear refractive indices of polydiacetylene microcrystals,” in Photosensitive Optical Materials and Devices, M. P. Andrews, ed., Proc. SPIE 2998, 241–248 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Rangel-Rojo, A. K. Kar, B. S. Wherrett, M. Carroll, G. H. Cross, and D. Bloor, “Third-order optical nonlinearities of a polymeric film doped with a novel zwitterion, DEMI-3CNQ,” Rev. Mex. Fis. 41, 832–840 (1995).

J. Bolger, T. G. Harvey, W. Ji, A. K. Kar, S. Molyneux, B. S. Wherrett, D. Bloor, and P. Norman, “Near-resonant third-order optical nonlinearities in p-toluene sulfonate polydiacetylene,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 1552–1557 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, A.

Y. Suda, K. Shigehara, A. Yamada, H. Matsuda, S. Okada, A. Masaki, and H. Nakanishi, “Reversible phase transition and third order nonlinearity of phthalocyanine derivatives,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials IV, K. D. Singer, ed., Proc. SPIE 1560, 75–83 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, S.

R. Rangel-Rojo, S. Yamada, H. Matsuda, H. Kasai, Y. Komai, S. Okada, H. Oikawa, and H. Nakanishi, “Refractive third-order nonlinearity in Vanadium-oxide phthalocyanine microcrystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 38, 69–73 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Van Keuren, T. Wakebe, H. Möhwald, S. Rozouvan, W. Schrof, V. Belov, H. Matsuda, R. Rangel-Rojo, and S. Yamada, “Numerical modeling of saturation effects in nonlinear optical transmission and refraction,” Nonlin. Opt. 22, 325–328 (1999).

R. Rangel-Rojo, S. Yamada, H. Matsuda, H. Kasai, H. Nakanishi, A. K. Kar, and B. S. Wherrett, “Spectrally resolved third-order nonlinearities in polydiacetylene microcrystals: influence of particle size,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 2937–2945 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Matsuda, S. Yamada, E. Van Keuren, H. Katagi, H. Kasai, S. Okada, H. Oikawa, H. Nakanishi, E. C. Smith, A. K. Kar, and B. S. Wherrett, “Nonlinear refractive indices of polydiacetylene microcrystals,” in Photosensitive Optical Materials and Devices, M. P. Andrews, ed., Proc. SPIE 2998, 241–248 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, T.

M. Hosoda, T. Wada, T. Yamamoto, A. Kaneko, A. F. Garito, and H. Sasabe, “Enhancement of third-order optical nonlinearities of soluble vanadyl phthalocyanines in doped polymer films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 1071–1075 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Yanagi, S.

Young, J.

Zilio, S.

L. Oliveira, T. Catunda, and S. Zilio, “Saturation effects in z-scan measurements,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 2649–2652 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

T. H. Wei, T. H. Huang, and M. S. Lin, “Signs of nonlinear refraction in chloroaluminum phthalocyanine,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2505–2507 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Fang, H. Tada, and S. Mashiko, “Enhancement of the third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility in epitaxial vanadyl-phthalocyanine films grown on KBr,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 767–769 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Shirk, J. R. Linde, F. J. Bartoli, C. A. Hoffman, Z. H. Kafafi, and A. W. Snow, “Off-resonant third-order optical nonlinearities of metal-substituted phthalocyanines,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1287–1288 (1989).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Wei, T. H. Huang, H. D. Lin, and S. H. Lin, “Lifetime determination for high-lying excited states using Z scan,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2266 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

D. J. Harter, M. L. Shand, and Y. B. Band, “Power/energy limiter using reverse saturable absorption,” J. Appl. Phys. 56, 865–868 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (6)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (3)

L. Oliveira, T. Catunda, and S. Zilio, “Saturation effects in z-scan measurements,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 2649–2652 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Kasai, H. S. Nalwa, H. Oikawa, S. Okada, N. Minami, A. Kakuta, K. Ono, A. Mukoh, and H. Nakanishi, “A novel preparation method for organic microcrystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, L1132–L1134 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Hosoda, T. Wada, T. Yamamoto, A. Kaneko, A. F. Garito, and H. Sasabe, “Enhancement of third-order optical nonlinearities of soluble vanadyl phthalocyanines in doped polymer films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 1071–1075 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 (1)

R. Rangel-Rojo, S. Yamada, H. Matsuda, H. Kasai, Y. Komai, S. Okada, H. Oikawa, and H. Nakanishi, “Refractive third-order nonlinearity in Vanadium-oxide phthalocyanine microcrystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 38, 69–73 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nonlin. Opt. (1)

E. Van Keuren, T. Wakebe, H. Möhwald, S. Rozouvan, W. Schrof, V. Belov, H. Matsuda, R. Rangel-Rojo, and S. Yamada, “Numerical modeling of saturation effects in nonlinear optical transmission and refraction,” Nonlin. Opt. 22, 325–328 (1999).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Mater. (1)

R. Rangel-Rojo, G. Spruce, and B. S. Wherrett, “Measurement of the vibrational relaxation time in metal-phthalocyanine solutions,” Opt. Mater. 7, 89–94 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (4)

Y. Suda, K. Shigehara, A. Yamada, H. Matsuda, S. Okada, A. Masaki, and H. Nakanishi, “Reversible phase transition and third order nonlinearity of phthalocyanine derivatives,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials IV, K. D. Singer, ed., Proc. SPIE 1560, 75–83 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Coulter, V. M. Minkowski, J. W. Perry, T. Wei, E. W. Van Stryland, and D. J. Hagan, “Optical limiting in solutions of metallo-phthalocyanines and naphthalocyanines,” in Materials for Optical Switches, Isolators and Limiters, M. J. Soileau, ed., Proc. SPIE 1105, 42–51 (1989).
[CrossRef]

T. Wada and H. Sasabe, “Metallophthalocyanine: aggregation and nonlinear optics,” in Organic, Metallo-Organic, and Polymeric Materials for Nonlinear Optical Applications, S. R. Marder and J. W. Perry, eds., Proc. SPIE 2143, 164–171 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. Matsuda, S. Yamada, E. Van Keuren, H. Katagi, H. Kasai, S. Okada, H. Oikawa, H. Nakanishi, E. C. Smith, A. K. Kar, and B. S. Wherrett, “Nonlinear refractive indices of polydiacetylene microcrystals,” in Photosensitive Optical Materials and Devices, M. P. Andrews, ed., Proc. SPIE 2998, 241–248 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mex. Fis. (1)

R. Rangel-Rojo, A. K. Kar, B. S. Wherrett, M. Carroll, G. H. Cross, and D. Bloor, “Third-order optical nonlinearities of a polymeric film doped with a novel zwitterion, DEMI-3CNQ,” Rev. Mex. Fis. 41, 832–840 (1995).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Absorption spectrum of cyclohexane suspension of VOPc(C6)4 nanocrystals 40 nm in size, cell thickness of 100 µm, and concentration of 10 mM.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Open-aperture z-scan results at three different wavelengths: (a) 633, (b) 610, and (c) 580 nm, taken under similar peak-irradiance values. Transmittance is normalized to 1 and traces (a) and (b) have been vertically shifted by ±0.05 for clarity. The curves represent fits to the data.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Closed-aperture z-scan results at 580 nm, showing the signature of a positive nonlinearity. The normalized ratio of the closed- to open-aperture signals is shown. Data are taken for a pulse energy Ep=81 nJ, corresponding to a peak irradiance of 1.17 GW/cm2. The curve represents the best fit to the data.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Wavelength dependence of the real and the imaginary parts of χ(3)(-ω; ω,-ω, ω) of VOPc(C6S)4 crystals. Also shown is the linear-absorption coefficient.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Irradiance dependence of z-scan results at 580 nm. Tp-1<0, indicating the presence of induced absorption. The points are the experimental data, and the curves are the best fits obtained with the three-level model for the nonlinearity.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Irradiance dependence of z-scan results at 633 nm. In this case Tp-1>0, indicating the presence of saturable absorption. The points are the experimental data, and the curves are the best fits obtained with the three-level model for the nonlinearity.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Open-aperture z-scan results at λ = 633 nm for two different pulse energies, (dots) 24.4 nJ (corresponding to Ip=0.35GW/cm2) and (stars) 244 nJ (Ip=3.5GW/cm2). A broadening effect is clearly visible as the irradiance is increased. The curves represent fits to the data.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Calculated irradiance dependence of Im χeff for σ23/σ12=2.0 and for (a) τ32/τ21=0.001 and (b) τ32/τ21=0.02.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Three-Level Model Parameters

Equations (13)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

dN3dt=(N2-N3)σ23 p-N3τ32,
dN2dt=(N1-N2)σ12 p+(N3-N2)σ23 p+N3τ32-N2τ21,
Im χeff=n0cω[(N1-N2)σ12+(N2-N3)σ23].
Im χeff=n0cωN0σ12p[σ12W32+σ23(W21+W32)]+W21W323p2σ12σ23+p(W21σ23+2W32σ12)+W21W32,
Re χeff(ω)=n0cω[σ12(N1-N2)(ω-ω21)T2+σ23(N2-N3)(ω-ω32)T3],
Re χeff=n0cωN0σ12p[(σ12W32+σ23W21)Δ21T2+σ23W32Δ32T3]+W21W32Δ21T23p2σ12σ23+p(W21σ23+2W32σ12)+W21W32.
α=α01+(I/Is)[1+σr(1+τr)]1+(I/Is)(2+σrτr)+3(I/Is)2σrτr,
Δn(I)=n0c2ωN0σ12Δ12T2(I/Is){1+σr[τr+(Δ23T3)/(Δ21T2)]}1+(I/Is)(2+σrτr)+3(I/Is)2σrτr,
=λ2πq0α0(I/Is){1+σr[τr+(Δ23T3)/(Δ21T2)]}1+(I/Is)(2+σrτr)+3(I/Is)2σrτr,
αα01+IIsσ23σ12-1+,
Im χ(3)=n0cωIsN0σ12σ23σ12-1.
dI/dz=-α(I)/I,
dΔϕnldz=2πλΔn(z),

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