Abstract

Photonic bandgap effects were observed in particulate arrays of solution-derived SiO2 particles prepared by the forced and unforced sedimentation of colloidal suspensions. The spectral shape of the bandgap is shown experimentally to correlate directly to the degree of microstructural order and is discussed by analogy to the x-ray diffraction of crystals, glasses, and glass–ceramics. An optical temperature sensor was made by use of the thermoptic differences between SiO2 and an organic liquid infiltrated into the particle interstices. This provides the proof-of-concept that easily fabricated disordered structures, i.e., photonic glasses, can permit simple, even disposable, optical devices based on photonic band engineering.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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  1. L. Brillouin, Wave Propagation in Periodic Structures (Dover, New York, 1953).
  2. J. Joannopoulos, R. Meade, and J. Winn, Photonic Crystals (Princeton U. Press, Princeton, N.J., 1995).
  3. E. Yablonovich, “Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059–2062 (1987).
  4. A. Balakin, V. Bushuev, N. Koroteev, B. Mantsyzov, I. Ozheredov, A. Shkurinov, D. Boucher, and P. Masselin, “Enhancement of second-harmonic generation with femtosecond laser pulses near the photonic band edge for difference polarizations of incident light,” Opt. Lett. 24, 793–795 (1999); J. Martorell, R. Vilaseca, and R. Corbalán, “Second harmonic generation in a photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 702–704 (1997).
  5. A. Mekis, J. Chen, I. Kurland, S. Fan, P. Villeneuve, and J. Joannopoulos, “High transmission through bends in photonic crystal waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3787–3790 (1996); J. Joannopoulos, P. Villeneuve, and S. Fan, “Photonic crystals: putting a new twist on light,” Nature 386, 143–149 (1997).
  6. J. Foresi, P. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. Joannopoulos, L. Kimerling, H. Smith, and E. Ippen, “Photonic-bandgap microcavities in optical waveguides,” Nature 390, 143–145 (1997); P. Villeneuve, D. Abrams, S. Fan, and J. Joannopoulos, “Single-mode waveguide microcavity for fast optical switching,” Opt. Lett. 21, 2017–2019 (1996); J. Chen, H. Haus, S. Fan, P. Villeneuve, and J. Joannopoulos, “Optical filters from photonic band gap air bridges,” J. Lightwave Technol. JLTEDG 14, 2575–2580 (1996).
  7. Y. Fink, J. Winn, S. Fan, C. Chen, J. Michel, J. Joannopoulos, and E. Thomas, “A dielectric omnidirectional reflector,” Science 282, 1679–1682 (1998); S. Fan, P. Villeneuve, and J. Joannopoulos, “Large omnidirectional band gaps in metallodielectric photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 54, 11245–11251 (1996).
  8. T. Birks, J. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 22, 961–963 (1997).
  9. A. Genack and N. Garcia, “Observation of photon localization in a three-dimensional disordered system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2064–2067 (1991).
  10. G. Heckmann, “Die Gittertheorie der festen Körper,” Ergeb. Exakten. Naturwiss. 4, 100–153 (1925); R. Thurston, “Warren P. Mason (1900–1986) physicist, engineer, inventor, author, teacher,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 41, 424–434 (1994); J. Nye, “Thermodynamics of equilibrium properties of crystals” in Physical Properties of Crystals (Oxford U. Press, London, UK, 1985), Chap. 10.
  11. Samples were coated with 10 nm of carbon to minimize charging artifacts. Images were collected at a 6-mm working distance with a 3-keV electron beam and a 30-μm aperture.
  12. Particles in suspension are influenced by forces associated with Brownian motion, gravity, viscous drag, and particle–particle and particle–liquid interactions. In the present case, the hydrolysis of the tetraethyl orthosilicate was base catalyzed, so that the pH of the suspension is below the silica zero point of charge such that the surfaces possess a sufficiently high charge to hinder particulate agglomeration. This indeed was the case as the suspensions slowly settled into uniformly packed colloidal solids after several hours under undisturbed conditions (Figs. 2 and 3). Since one point of this paper is to connect the microstructural characteristics of the solid to the spectral features of its optical bandgap, the reader is referred for seminal discussions on colloidal and surface chemistry to W. Russell, D. Saville, and W. Schowalter, Colloidal Dispersions (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1989).
  13. As a brief aside, the point defects and grain boundaries observed in Fig. 2 also reveal colloidal crystals to be useful pedagogical tools for both atomic and macroscopic structural features.
  14. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1959).
  15. D. Lide, ed., Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 76th ed. (CRC Press, New York, 1995).
  16. See, for example, the x-ray diffraction of the as-made and heat-treated glass–ceramics in P. Tick, N. Borrelli, L. Cornelius, and M. Newhouse, “Transparent glass ceramics for 1300 nm amplifier applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 78, 6367–6374 (1995).
  17. H. Klug and L. Alexander, X-Ray Diffraction Procedures (Wiley, New York, 1954).
  18. M. Noginov, S. Egarievwe, N. Noginova, H. Caulfield, and J. Wang, “Interferometric studies of coherence in a powder laser,” Opt. Mater. 12, 127–134 (1999); M. Noginov, S. Egarievwe, N. Noginova, J. Wang, and H. Caulfield, “Demonstration of a second-harmonic powder laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 2854–2860 (1998).
  19. E. Snitzer, “Optical maser action of Nd3+ in a barium crown glass,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 7, 444–446 (1961); C. Koester and E. Snitzer, “Amplification in a fiber laser,” Appl. Opt. 3, 1182–1186 (1964).
  20. H. Míquez, F. Meseguer, C. López, A. Blanco, J. Moya, J. Requena, A. Mifsud, and V. Fornés, “Control of the photonic crystal properties of fcc-packed submicrometer SiO2 spheres by sintering,” Adv. Mater. 10, 480–483 (1998).
  21. J. Weissman, H. Sunkara, A. Tse, and S. Asher, “Thermally switchable periodicities and diffraction from mesoscopically ordered materials,” Science 274, 959–960 (1996).

1998 (1)

H. Míquez, F. Meseguer, C. López, A. Blanco, J. Moya, J. Requena, A. Mifsud, and V. Fornés, “Control of the photonic crystal properties of fcc-packed submicrometer SiO2 spheres by sintering,” Adv. Mater. 10, 480–483 (1998).

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

J. Weissman, H. Sunkara, A. Tse, and S. Asher, “Thermally switchable periodicities and diffraction from mesoscopically ordered materials,” Science 274, 959–960 (1996).

1995 (1)

See, for example, the x-ray diffraction of the as-made and heat-treated glass–ceramics in P. Tick, N. Borrelli, L. Cornelius, and M. Newhouse, “Transparent glass ceramics for 1300 nm amplifier applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 78, 6367–6374 (1995).

1991 (1)

A. Genack and N. Garcia, “Observation of photon localization in a three-dimensional disordered system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2064–2067 (1991).

1987 (1)

E. Yablonovich, “Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059–2062 (1987).

Asher, S.

J. Weissman, H. Sunkara, A. Tse, and S. Asher, “Thermally switchable periodicities and diffraction from mesoscopically ordered materials,” Science 274, 959–960 (1996).

Birks, T.

Blanco, A.

H. Míquez, F. Meseguer, C. López, A. Blanco, J. Moya, J. Requena, A. Mifsud, and V. Fornés, “Control of the photonic crystal properties of fcc-packed submicrometer SiO2 spheres by sintering,” Adv. Mater. 10, 480–483 (1998).

Borrelli, N.

See, for example, the x-ray diffraction of the as-made and heat-treated glass–ceramics in P. Tick, N. Borrelli, L. Cornelius, and M. Newhouse, “Transparent glass ceramics for 1300 nm amplifier applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 78, 6367–6374 (1995).

Cornelius, L.

See, for example, the x-ray diffraction of the as-made and heat-treated glass–ceramics in P. Tick, N. Borrelli, L. Cornelius, and M. Newhouse, “Transparent glass ceramics for 1300 nm amplifier applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 78, 6367–6374 (1995).

Fornés, V.

H. Míquez, F. Meseguer, C. López, A. Blanco, J. Moya, J. Requena, A. Mifsud, and V. Fornés, “Control of the photonic crystal properties of fcc-packed submicrometer SiO2 spheres by sintering,” Adv. Mater. 10, 480–483 (1998).

Garcia, N.

A. Genack and N. Garcia, “Observation of photon localization in a three-dimensional disordered system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2064–2067 (1991).

Genack, A.

A. Genack and N. Garcia, “Observation of photon localization in a three-dimensional disordered system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2064–2067 (1991).

Knight, J.

López, C.

H. Míquez, F. Meseguer, C. López, A. Blanco, J. Moya, J. Requena, A. Mifsud, and V. Fornés, “Control of the photonic crystal properties of fcc-packed submicrometer SiO2 spheres by sintering,” Adv. Mater. 10, 480–483 (1998).

Meseguer, F.

H. Míquez, F. Meseguer, C. López, A. Blanco, J. Moya, J. Requena, A. Mifsud, and V. Fornés, “Control of the photonic crystal properties of fcc-packed submicrometer SiO2 spheres by sintering,” Adv. Mater. 10, 480–483 (1998).

Mifsud, A.

H. Míquez, F. Meseguer, C. López, A. Blanco, J. Moya, J. Requena, A. Mifsud, and V. Fornés, “Control of the photonic crystal properties of fcc-packed submicrometer SiO2 spheres by sintering,” Adv. Mater. 10, 480–483 (1998).

Míquez, H.

H. Míquez, F. Meseguer, C. López, A. Blanco, J. Moya, J. Requena, A. Mifsud, and V. Fornés, “Control of the photonic crystal properties of fcc-packed submicrometer SiO2 spheres by sintering,” Adv. Mater. 10, 480–483 (1998).

Moya, J.

H. Míquez, F. Meseguer, C. López, A. Blanco, J. Moya, J. Requena, A. Mifsud, and V. Fornés, “Control of the photonic crystal properties of fcc-packed submicrometer SiO2 spheres by sintering,” Adv. Mater. 10, 480–483 (1998).

Newhouse, M.

See, for example, the x-ray diffraction of the as-made and heat-treated glass–ceramics in P. Tick, N. Borrelli, L. Cornelius, and M. Newhouse, “Transparent glass ceramics for 1300 nm amplifier applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 78, 6367–6374 (1995).

Requena, J.

H. Míquez, F. Meseguer, C. López, A. Blanco, J. Moya, J. Requena, A. Mifsud, and V. Fornés, “Control of the photonic crystal properties of fcc-packed submicrometer SiO2 spheres by sintering,” Adv. Mater. 10, 480–483 (1998).

St. J. Russell, P.

Sunkara, H.

J. Weissman, H. Sunkara, A. Tse, and S. Asher, “Thermally switchable periodicities and diffraction from mesoscopically ordered materials,” Science 274, 959–960 (1996).

Tick, P.

See, for example, the x-ray diffraction of the as-made and heat-treated glass–ceramics in P. Tick, N. Borrelli, L. Cornelius, and M. Newhouse, “Transparent glass ceramics for 1300 nm amplifier applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 78, 6367–6374 (1995).

Tse, A.

J. Weissman, H. Sunkara, A. Tse, and S. Asher, “Thermally switchable periodicities and diffraction from mesoscopically ordered materials,” Science 274, 959–960 (1996).

Weissman, J.

J. Weissman, H. Sunkara, A. Tse, and S. Asher, “Thermally switchable periodicities and diffraction from mesoscopically ordered materials,” Science 274, 959–960 (1996).

Yablonovich, E.

E. Yablonovich, “Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059–2062 (1987).

Adv. Mater. (1)

H. Míquez, F. Meseguer, C. López, A. Blanco, J. Moya, J. Requena, A. Mifsud, and V. Fornés, “Control of the photonic crystal properties of fcc-packed submicrometer SiO2 spheres by sintering,” Adv. Mater. 10, 480–483 (1998).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

See, for example, the x-ray diffraction of the as-made and heat-treated glass–ceramics in P. Tick, N. Borrelli, L. Cornelius, and M. Newhouse, “Transparent glass ceramics for 1300 nm amplifier applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 78, 6367–6374 (1995).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

E. Yablonovich, “Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059–2062 (1987).

A. Genack and N. Garcia, “Observation of photon localization in a three-dimensional disordered system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2064–2067 (1991).

Science (1)

J. Weissman, H. Sunkara, A. Tse, and S. Asher, “Thermally switchable periodicities and diffraction from mesoscopically ordered materials,” Science 274, 959–960 (1996).

Other (15)

L. Brillouin, Wave Propagation in Periodic Structures (Dover, New York, 1953).

J. Joannopoulos, R. Meade, and J. Winn, Photonic Crystals (Princeton U. Press, Princeton, N.J., 1995).

H. Klug and L. Alexander, X-Ray Diffraction Procedures (Wiley, New York, 1954).

M. Noginov, S. Egarievwe, N. Noginova, H. Caulfield, and J. Wang, “Interferometric studies of coherence in a powder laser,” Opt. Mater. 12, 127–134 (1999); M. Noginov, S. Egarievwe, N. Noginova, J. Wang, and H. Caulfield, “Demonstration of a second-harmonic powder laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 2854–2860 (1998).

E. Snitzer, “Optical maser action of Nd3+ in a barium crown glass,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 7, 444–446 (1961); C. Koester and E. Snitzer, “Amplification in a fiber laser,” Appl. Opt. 3, 1182–1186 (1964).

G. Heckmann, “Die Gittertheorie der festen Körper,” Ergeb. Exakten. Naturwiss. 4, 100–153 (1925); R. Thurston, “Warren P. Mason (1900–1986) physicist, engineer, inventor, author, teacher,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 41, 424–434 (1994); J. Nye, “Thermodynamics of equilibrium properties of crystals” in Physical Properties of Crystals (Oxford U. Press, London, UK, 1985), Chap. 10.

Samples were coated with 10 nm of carbon to minimize charging artifacts. Images were collected at a 6-mm working distance with a 3-keV electron beam and a 30-μm aperture.

Particles in suspension are influenced by forces associated with Brownian motion, gravity, viscous drag, and particle–particle and particle–liquid interactions. In the present case, the hydrolysis of the tetraethyl orthosilicate was base catalyzed, so that the pH of the suspension is below the silica zero point of charge such that the surfaces possess a sufficiently high charge to hinder particulate agglomeration. This indeed was the case as the suspensions slowly settled into uniformly packed colloidal solids after several hours under undisturbed conditions (Figs. 2 and 3). Since one point of this paper is to connect the microstructural characteristics of the solid to the spectral features of its optical bandgap, the reader is referred for seminal discussions on colloidal and surface chemistry to W. Russell, D. Saville, and W. Schowalter, Colloidal Dispersions (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1989).

As a brief aside, the point defects and grain boundaries observed in Fig. 2 also reveal colloidal crystals to be useful pedagogical tools for both atomic and macroscopic structural features.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1959).

D. Lide, ed., Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 76th ed. (CRC Press, New York, 1995).

A. Balakin, V. Bushuev, N. Koroteev, B. Mantsyzov, I. Ozheredov, A. Shkurinov, D. Boucher, and P. Masselin, “Enhancement of second-harmonic generation with femtosecond laser pulses near the photonic band edge for difference polarizations of incident light,” Opt. Lett. 24, 793–795 (1999); J. Martorell, R. Vilaseca, and R. Corbalán, “Second harmonic generation in a photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 702–704 (1997).

A. Mekis, J. Chen, I. Kurland, S. Fan, P. Villeneuve, and J. Joannopoulos, “High transmission through bends in photonic crystal waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3787–3790 (1996); J. Joannopoulos, P. Villeneuve, and S. Fan, “Photonic crystals: putting a new twist on light,” Nature 386, 143–149 (1997).

J. Foresi, P. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. Joannopoulos, L. Kimerling, H. Smith, and E. Ippen, “Photonic-bandgap microcavities in optical waveguides,” Nature 390, 143–145 (1997); P. Villeneuve, D. Abrams, S. Fan, and J. Joannopoulos, “Single-mode waveguide microcavity for fast optical switching,” Opt. Lett. 21, 2017–2019 (1996); J. Chen, H. Haus, S. Fan, P. Villeneuve, and J. Joannopoulos, “Optical filters from photonic band gap air bridges,” J. Lightwave Technol. JLTEDG 14, 2575–2580 (1996).

Y. Fink, J. Winn, S. Fan, C. Chen, J. Michel, J. Joannopoulos, and E. Thomas, “A dielectric omnidirectional reflector,” Science 282, 1679–1682 (1998); S. Fan, P. Villeneuve, and J. Joannopoulos, “Large omnidirectional band gaps in metallodielectric photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 54, 11245–11251 (1996).

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