Abstract

The laser-induced fluorescence spectrum (LIF) of LiLuF4:Ho3+ single crystals pumped by a molecular F2 pulsed-discharge laser at 157.6 nm is obtained in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and UV regions of the spectrum. The observed transitions originate from the levels and the edge of the 4f95d electronic configuration, and they are assigned to the 4f95d4f10 interconfigurational transitions. The LIF spectra for the dipole-allowed transitions can be explained provided that phonon trapping of the lattice vibrations is taking place within the Stark components of the 4f95d electronic configuration. The absorption spectrum of the crystal samples in the VUV was obtained as well. We observed five main transitions between the ground level  5I8 of the 4f10 electronic configuration and the Stark components of the levels of the 4f95d electronic configuration in the spectral range between 125 and 150 nm, and we observed four main spin-forbidden transitions in the spectral range from 153 to 170 nm.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Thogersen, J. D. Gill, and H. K. Haugen, “Stepwise multiphoton excitation of the 4 f 25d configuration in Nd3+:YLF,” Opt. Commun. 132, 83–88 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Guy, M. F. Joubert, and B. Jacquier, “Photon avalanche and mean-field approximation,” Phys. Rev. B 55, 8420–8428 (1998).
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    [CrossRef]
  9. S. Kubodera, M. Kitahara, J. Kawanaka, W. Sasaki, and K. Kurosava, “A vacuum ultraviolet flash lamp with extremely broadened emission spectra,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 452–454 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. T. Wegh, H. Donker, A. Meijerink, R. J. Lamminmaki, and J. Holsa, “Vacuum-ultraviolet spectroscopy and quantum cutting for Gd3+ in LiLuF4,” Phys. Rev. B 56, 13841–13848 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. M. Srivastava and S. J. Duclos, “On the luminescence of YF3–Pr3+ under vacuum ultraviolet and X-ray emission,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 275, 453–456 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. J. Digonnet, R. W. Sadowski, H. J. Shaw, and R. H. Pantell, “Resonantly enhanced nonlinearity in doped fibers for low power all optical switching,” Opt. Fiber Technol.: Mater., Devices Syst. 3, 44–64 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Z. Kollia, E. Sarantopoulou, A. C. Cefalas, C. A. Nikolaides, A. K. Naumov, V. V. Semashko, R. Yu Abdulsabirov, S. L. Korableva, and M. A. Dubinskii, “Vacuum-ultraviolet interconfigurational 4 f 3→4 f 25d absorption and emission studies of the Nd3+ ion in KYF, YF, and YLF crystal hosts,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 782–785 (1995).
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  14. T. Szczurek and M. Schlesinger, “4 f→5d transition studies in calcium fluoride,” Phys. Rev. B 9, 3938–3940 (1974).
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    [CrossRef]
  17. A. A. Vlasenko, L. I. Devyatkova, O. N. Ivanova, V. V. Mizailin, S. P. Chernov, T. Uvarova, and B. P. Sobolev, “Transmission spectra of single crystals of the type BaLn2F8 in a wide spectral region (from 12 to 0.12 μm),” Sov. Phys. Dokl. 30, 395–397 (1985).
  18. G. H. Dieke and H. M. Crosswhite, “The spectra of the doubly and triply ionized rare earths,” Appl. Opt. 2, 675–686 (1963).
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  19. R. T. Wegh, H. Donker, and A. Meijerink, “Spin-allowed and spin forbidden emission from Er3+ and LiLuF4,” Phys. Rev. B 57, 2025–2028 (1998); R. T. Wegh, H. Donker, and A. Meijerink, “Vacuum ultraviolet excitation and emission studies of 4 f n−1→4 f n−15d transition for Ln3+ in LiYF4,” Proc. Electrochem. Soc. 97, 284–295 (1998).
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  20. E. Sarantopoulou, Z. Kollia, A. C. Cefalas, M. A. Dubinskii, C. A. Nikolaides, R. Yu Abdulsabirov, S. L. Korableva, A. K. Naumov, and V. V. Semashko, “Vacuum ultraviolet and ultraviolet fluorescence and absorption studies of Er3+-doped LiLuF4 single crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 813–815 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  21. Z. Kollia, E. Sarantopoulou, A. C. Cefalas, A. K. Naumov, V. V. Semashko, R. Yu. Abdulsabirov, and S. L. Korableva, “On the 4 f 25d→4 f 3 interconfigurational transitions of Nd3+ ions in K2YF5 and LiYF4 crystal hosts,” Opt. Commun. 149, 386 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  22. S. Geschwind, G. E. Devlin, and R. L. Cohen, “Orbach relaxation and hyperfine structure in the excited 2E state of Cr3+ in Al2O3,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 137, A1087 (1965).
  23. L. I. Devyatkova, O. N. Ivanova, V. V. Mikhailin, S. N. Rudnev, and S. P. Chernov, “High-energy 4 f states of Er3+ and Ho3+ ions in fluoride crystals,” Opt. Spectrosc. 62, 275–276 (1987).
  24. W. T. Carnall, G. L. Goodman, K. Rajnak, and R. S. Rana, “A systematic analysis of the spectra of the lanthanides doped into single crystal LaF3,” J. Chem. Phys. 90, 3443–3457 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  25. H. M. Crosswhite, H. Crosswhite, N. Edelstein, and K. Rajnak, “Parametric energy level analysis of Ho3+:LaCl3,” J. Chem. Phys. 67, 3002–3008 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  26. G. Dieke, in Spectra and Energy Levels of Rare Earth Ions in Crystals, H. M. Crosswhite and H. Crosswhite, eds. (Wiley, New York, 1968), Vol. 5, p. 461.
  27. N. I. Agladze and M. N. Popova, “Hyperfine structure in optical spectra of LiLuF4–Ho,” Solid State Commun. 55, 1097–1100 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  28. W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, “Electronic energy levels in the trivalent lanthanide aquo ions. I. Pr3+, Nd3+, Pm3+, Sm3+, Dy3+, Ho3+, Er3+, and Tm3+,” J. Chem. Phys. 49, 4424–4442 (1968).
    [CrossRef]

1998 (2)

S. Guy, M. F. Joubert, and B. Jacquier, “Photon avalanche and mean-field approximation,” Phys. Rev. B 55, 8420–8428 (1998).

Z. Kollia, E. Sarantopoulou, A. C. Cefalas, A. K. Naumov, V. V. Semashko, R. Yu. Abdulsabirov, and S. L. Korableva, “On the 4 f 25d→4 f 3 interconfigurational transitions of Nd3+ ions in K2YF5 and LiYF4 crystal hosts,” Opt. Commun. 149, 386 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (4)

H. M. Crosswhite, H. Crosswhite, N. Edelstein, and K. Rajnak, “Parametric energy level analysis of Ho3+:LaCl3,” J. Chem. Phys. 67, 3002–3008 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Wegh, H. Donker, A. Meijerink, R. J. Lamminmaki, and J. Holsa, “Vacuum-ultraviolet spectroscopy and quantum cutting for Gd3+ in LiLuF4,” Phys. Rev. B 56, 13841–13848 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Srivastava and S. J. Duclos, “On the luminescence of YF3–Pr3+ under vacuum ultraviolet and X-ray emission,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 275, 453–456 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Digonnet, R. W. Sadowski, H. J. Shaw, and R. H. Pantell, “Resonantly enhanced nonlinearity in doped fibers for low power all optical switching,” Opt. Fiber Technol.: Mater., Devices Syst. 3, 44–64 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

S. Kubodera, M. Kitahara, J. Kawanaka, W. Sasaki, and K. Kurosava, “A vacuum ultraviolet flash lamp with extremely broadened emission spectra,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 452–454 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Thogersen, J. D. Gill, and H. K. Haugen, “Stepwise multiphoton excitation of the 4 f 25d configuration in Nd3+:YLF,” Opt. Commun. 132, 83–88 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1994 (1)

E. Sarantopoulou, Z. Kollia, A. C. Cefalas, M. A. Dubinskii, C. A. Nikolaides, R. Yu Abdulsabirov, S. L. Korableva, A. K. Naumov, and V. V. Semashko, “Vacuum ultraviolet and ultraviolet fluorescence and absorption studies of Er3+-doped LiLuF4 single crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 813–815 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

R. Visser, P. Dorenbos, C. W. E. Van Eijk, A. Meijerink, and H. W. den Hartog, “The scintillation intensity and decay from Nd3+ 4 f 25d and 4 f 3 excited states in several fluoride crystals,” Phys. Cond. Matt. 5, 8437–8460 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

M. A. Dubinskii, A. C. Cefalas, and C. A. Nikolaides, “Solid state LaF3:Nd3+ vuv laser pumped by a pulsed discharge F2-molecular laser at 157 nm,” Opt. Commun. 88, 122–124 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

W. T. Carnall, G. L. Goodman, K. Rajnak, and R. S. Rana, “A systematic analysis of the spectra of the lanthanides doped into single crystal LaF3,” J. Chem. Phys. 90, 3443–3457 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

L. I. Devyatkova, O. N. Ivanova, V. V. Mikhailin, S. N. Rudnev, and S. P. Chernov, “High-energy 4 f states of Er3+ and Ho3+ ions in fluoride crystals,” Opt. Spectrosc. 62, 275–276 (1987).

1985 (3)

N. I. Agladze and M. N. Popova, “Hyperfine structure in optical spectra of LiLuF4–Ho,” Solid State Commun. 55, 1097–1100 (1985).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Waynant and P. H. Klein, “Vacuum ultraviolet emission from Nd3+:LaF3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 14–16 (1985).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Vlasenko, L. I. Devyatkova, O. N. Ivanova, V. V. Mizailin, S. P. Chernov, T. Uvarova, and B. P. Sobolev, “Transmission spectra of single crystals of the type BaLn2F8 in a wide spectral region (from 12 to 0.12 μm),” Sov. Phys. Dokl. 30, 395–397 (1985).

1980 (1)

1979 (1)

1976 (2)

K. H. Yang and J. A. DeLuka, “VUV fluorescence of Nd3+, Er3+, and Tm3+-doped trifluorides and tunable coherent sources from 165 to 260 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 499–501 (1976).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Heaps, L. R. Elias, and W. M. Yen, “Vacuum ultraviolet absorption bands of trivalent lanthanides in LaF3,” Phys. Rev. B 13, 94–104 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

T. Szczurek and M. Schlesinger, “4 f→5d transition studies in calcium fluoride,” Phys. Rev. B 9, 3938–3940 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, “Electronic energy levels in the trivalent lanthanide aquo ions. I. Pr3+, Nd3+, Pm3+, Sm3+, Dy3+, Ho3+, Er3+, and Tm3+,” J. Chem. Phys. 49, 4424–4442 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

S. Geschwind, G. E. Devlin, and R. L. Cohen, “Orbach relaxation and hyperfine structure in the excited 2E state of Cr3+ in Al2O3,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 137, A1087 (1965).

1963 (1)

Abdulsabirov, R. Yu

Z. Kollia, E. Sarantopoulou, A. C. Cefalas, C. A. Nikolaides, A. K. Naumov, V. V. Semashko, R. Yu Abdulsabirov, S. L. Korableva, and M. A. Dubinskii, “Vacuum-ultraviolet interconfigurational 4 f 3→4 f 25d absorption and emission studies of the Nd3+ ion in KYF, YF, and YLF crystal hosts,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 782–785 (1995).
[CrossRef]

E. Sarantopoulou, Z. Kollia, A. C. Cefalas, M. A. Dubinskii, C. A. Nikolaides, R. Yu Abdulsabirov, S. L. Korableva, A. K. Naumov, and V. V. Semashko, “Vacuum ultraviolet and ultraviolet fluorescence and absorption studies of Er3+-doped LiLuF4 single crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 813–815 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Abdulsabirov, R. Yu.

Z. Kollia, E. Sarantopoulou, A. C. Cefalas, A. K. Naumov, V. V. Semashko, R. Yu. Abdulsabirov, and S. L. Korableva, “On the 4 f 25d→4 f 3 interconfigurational transitions of Nd3+ ions in K2YF5 and LiYF4 crystal hosts,” Opt. Commun. 149, 386 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Agladze, N. I.

N. I. Agladze and M. N. Popova, “Hyperfine structure in optical spectra of LiLuF4–Ho,” Solid State Commun. 55, 1097–1100 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Carnall, W. T.

W. T. Carnall, G. L. Goodman, K. Rajnak, and R. S. Rana, “A systematic analysis of the spectra of the lanthanides doped into single crystal LaF3,” J. Chem. Phys. 90, 3443–3457 (1989).
[CrossRef]

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, “Electronic energy levels in the trivalent lanthanide aquo ions. I. Pr3+, Nd3+, Pm3+, Sm3+, Dy3+, Ho3+, Er3+, and Tm3+,” J. Chem. Phys. 49, 4424–4442 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Cefalas, A. C.

Z. Kollia, E. Sarantopoulou, A. C. Cefalas, A. K. Naumov, V. V. Semashko, R. Yu. Abdulsabirov, and S. L. Korableva, “On the 4 f 25d→4 f 3 interconfigurational transitions of Nd3+ ions in K2YF5 and LiYF4 crystal hosts,” Opt. Commun. 149, 386 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Z. Kollia, E. Sarantopoulou, A. C. Cefalas, C. A. Nikolaides, A. K. Naumov, V. V. Semashko, R. Yu Abdulsabirov, S. L. Korableva, and M. A. Dubinskii, “Vacuum-ultraviolet interconfigurational 4 f 3→4 f 25d absorption and emission studies of the Nd3+ ion in KYF, YF, and YLF crystal hosts,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 782–785 (1995).
[CrossRef]

E. Sarantopoulou, Z. Kollia, A. C. Cefalas, M. A. Dubinskii, C. A. Nikolaides, R. Yu Abdulsabirov, S. L. Korableva, A. K. Naumov, and V. V. Semashko, “Vacuum ultraviolet and ultraviolet fluorescence and absorption studies of Er3+-doped LiLuF4 single crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 813–815 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Dubinskii, A. C. Cefalas, and C. A. Nikolaides, “Solid state LaF3:Nd3+ vuv laser pumped by a pulsed discharge F2-molecular laser at 157 nm,” Opt. Commun. 88, 122–124 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Chernov, S. P.

L. I. Devyatkova, O. N. Ivanova, V. V. Mikhailin, S. N. Rudnev, and S. P. Chernov, “High-energy 4 f states of Er3+ and Ho3+ ions in fluoride crystals,” Opt. Spectrosc. 62, 275–276 (1987).

A. A. Vlasenko, L. I. Devyatkova, O. N. Ivanova, V. V. Mizailin, S. P. Chernov, T. Uvarova, and B. P. Sobolev, “Transmission spectra of single crystals of the type BaLn2F8 in a wide spectral region (from 12 to 0.12 μm),” Sov. Phys. Dokl. 30, 395–397 (1985).

Cohen, R. L.

S. Geschwind, G. E. Devlin, and R. L. Cohen, “Orbach relaxation and hyperfine structure in the excited 2E state of Cr3+ in Al2O3,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 137, A1087 (1965).

Crosswhite, H.

H. M. Crosswhite, H. Crosswhite, N. Edelstein, and K. Rajnak, “Parametric energy level analysis of Ho3+:LaCl3,” J. Chem. Phys. 67, 3002–3008 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Crosswhite, H. M.

H. M. Crosswhite, H. Crosswhite, N. Edelstein, and K. Rajnak, “Parametric energy level analysis of Ho3+:LaCl3,” J. Chem. Phys. 67, 3002–3008 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. H. Dieke and H. M. Crosswhite, “The spectra of the doubly and triply ionized rare earths,” Appl. Opt. 2, 675–686 (1963).
[CrossRef]

DeLuka, J. A.

K. H. Yang and J. A. DeLuka, “VUV fluorescence of Nd3+, Er3+, and Tm3+-doped trifluorides and tunable coherent sources from 165 to 260 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 499–501 (1976).
[CrossRef]

den Hartog, H. W.

R. Visser, P. Dorenbos, C. W. E. Van Eijk, A. Meijerink, and H. W. den Hartog, “The scintillation intensity and decay from Nd3+ 4 f 25d and 4 f 3 excited states in several fluoride crystals,” Phys. Cond. Matt. 5, 8437–8460 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Devlin, G. E.

S. Geschwind, G. E. Devlin, and R. L. Cohen, “Orbach relaxation and hyperfine structure in the excited 2E state of Cr3+ in Al2O3,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 137, A1087 (1965).

Devyatkova, L. I.

L. I. Devyatkova, O. N. Ivanova, V. V. Mikhailin, S. N. Rudnev, and S. P. Chernov, “High-energy 4 f states of Er3+ and Ho3+ ions in fluoride crystals,” Opt. Spectrosc. 62, 275–276 (1987).

A. A. Vlasenko, L. I. Devyatkova, O. N. Ivanova, V. V. Mizailin, S. P. Chernov, T. Uvarova, and B. P. Sobolev, “Transmission spectra of single crystals of the type BaLn2F8 in a wide spectral region (from 12 to 0.12 μm),” Sov. Phys. Dokl. 30, 395–397 (1985).

Dieke, G. H.

Digonnet, M. J.

M. J. Digonnet, R. W. Sadowski, H. J. Shaw, and R. H. Pantell, “Resonantly enhanced nonlinearity in doped fibers for low power all optical switching,” Opt. Fiber Technol.: Mater., Devices Syst. 3, 44–64 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Donker, H.

R. T. Wegh, H. Donker, A. Meijerink, R. J. Lamminmaki, and J. Holsa, “Vacuum-ultraviolet spectroscopy and quantum cutting for Gd3+ in LiLuF4,” Phys. Rev. B 56, 13841–13848 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dorenbos, P.

R. Visser, P. Dorenbos, C. W. E. Van Eijk, A. Meijerink, and H. W. den Hartog, “The scintillation intensity and decay from Nd3+ 4 f 25d and 4 f 3 excited states in several fluoride crystals,” Phys. Cond. Matt. 5, 8437–8460 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Dubinskii, M. A.

Z. Kollia, E. Sarantopoulou, A. C. Cefalas, C. A. Nikolaides, A. K. Naumov, V. V. Semashko, R. Yu Abdulsabirov, S. L. Korableva, and M. A. Dubinskii, “Vacuum-ultraviolet interconfigurational 4 f 3→4 f 25d absorption and emission studies of the Nd3+ ion in KYF, YF, and YLF crystal hosts,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 782–785 (1995).
[CrossRef]

E. Sarantopoulou, Z. Kollia, A. C. Cefalas, M. A. Dubinskii, C. A. Nikolaides, R. Yu Abdulsabirov, S. L. Korableva, A. K. Naumov, and V. V. Semashko, “Vacuum ultraviolet and ultraviolet fluorescence and absorption studies of Er3+-doped LiLuF4 single crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 813–815 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Dubinskii, A. C. Cefalas, and C. A. Nikolaides, “Solid state LaF3:Nd3+ vuv laser pumped by a pulsed discharge F2-molecular laser at 157 nm,” Opt. Commun. 88, 122–124 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Duclos, S. J.

A. M. Srivastava and S. J. Duclos, “On the luminescence of YF3–Pr3+ under vacuum ultraviolet and X-ray emission,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 275, 453–456 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Edelstein, N.

H. M. Crosswhite, H. Crosswhite, N. Edelstein, and K. Rajnak, “Parametric energy level analysis of Ho3+:LaCl3,” J. Chem. Phys. 67, 3002–3008 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ehrlich, D. J.

Elias, L. R.

W. S. Heaps, L. R. Elias, and W. M. Yen, “Vacuum ultraviolet absorption bands of trivalent lanthanides in LaF3,” Phys. Rev. B 13, 94–104 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Fields, P. R.

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, “Electronic energy levels in the trivalent lanthanide aquo ions. I. Pr3+, Nd3+, Pm3+, Sm3+, Dy3+, Ho3+, Er3+, and Tm3+,” J. Chem. Phys. 49, 4424–4442 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Geschwind, S.

S. Geschwind, G. E. Devlin, and R. L. Cohen, “Orbach relaxation and hyperfine structure in the excited 2E state of Cr3+ in Al2O3,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 137, A1087 (1965).

Gill, J. D.

J. Thogersen, J. D. Gill, and H. K. Haugen, “Stepwise multiphoton excitation of the 4 f 25d configuration in Nd3+:YLF,” Opt. Commun. 132, 83–88 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Goodman, G. L.

W. T. Carnall, G. L. Goodman, K. Rajnak, and R. S. Rana, “A systematic analysis of the spectra of the lanthanides doped into single crystal LaF3,” J. Chem. Phys. 90, 3443–3457 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Guy, S.

S. Guy, M. F. Joubert, and B. Jacquier, “Photon avalanche and mean-field approximation,” Phys. Rev. B 55, 8420–8428 (1998).

Haugen, H. K.

J. Thogersen, J. D. Gill, and H. K. Haugen, “Stepwise multiphoton excitation of the 4 f 25d configuration in Nd3+:YLF,” Opt. Commun. 132, 83–88 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Heaps, W. S.

W. S. Heaps, L. R. Elias, and W. M. Yen, “Vacuum ultraviolet absorption bands of trivalent lanthanides in LaF3,” Phys. Rev. B 13, 94–104 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Holsa, J.

R. T. Wegh, H. Donker, A. Meijerink, R. J. Lamminmaki, and J. Holsa, “Vacuum-ultraviolet spectroscopy and quantum cutting for Gd3+ in LiLuF4,” Phys. Rev. B 56, 13841–13848 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ivanova, O. N.

L. I. Devyatkova, O. N. Ivanova, V. V. Mikhailin, S. N. Rudnev, and S. P. Chernov, “High-energy 4 f states of Er3+ and Ho3+ ions in fluoride crystals,” Opt. Spectrosc. 62, 275–276 (1987).

A. A. Vlasenko, L. I. Devyatkova, O. N. Ivanova, V. V. Mizailin, S. P. Chernov, T. Uvarova, and B. P. Sobolev, “Transmission spectra of single crystals of the type BaLn2F8 in a wide spectral region (from 12 to 0.12 μm),” Sov. Phys. Dokl. 30, 395–397 (1985).

Jacquier, B.

S. Guy, M. F. Joubert, and B. Jacquier, “Photon avalanche and mean-field approximation,” Phys. Rev. B 55, 8420–8428 (1998).

Joubert, M. F.

S. Guy, M. F. Joubert, and B. Jacquier, “Photon avalanche and mean-field approximation,” Phys. Rev. B 55, 8420–8428 (1998).

Kawanaka, J.

S. Kubodera, M. Kitahara, J. Kawanaka, W. Sasaki, and K. Kurosava, “A vacuum ultraviolet flash lamp with extremely broadened emission spectra,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 452–454 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kitahara, M.

S. Kubodera, M. Kitahara, J. Kawanaka, W. Sasaki, and K. Kurosava, “A vacuum ultraviolet flash lamp with extremely broadened emission spectra,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 452–454 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Klein, P. H.

R. W. Waynant and P. H. Klein, “Vacuum ultraviolet emission from Nd3+:LaF3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 14–16 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Kollia, Z.

Z. Kollia, E. Sarantopoulou, A. C. Cefalas, A. K. Naumov, V. V. Semashko, R. Yu. Abdulsabirov, and S. L. Korableva, “On the 4 f 25d→4 f 3 interconfigurational transitions of Nd3+ ions in K2YF5 and LiYF4 crystal hosts,” Opt. Commun. 149, 386 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Z. Kollia, E. Sarantopoulou, A. C. Cefalas, C. A. Nikolaides, A. K. Naumov, V. V. Semashko, R. Yu Abdulsabirov, S. L. Korableva, and M. A. Dubinskii, “Vacuum-ultraviolet interconfigurational 4 f 3→4 f 25d absorption and emission studies of the Nd3+ ion in KYF, YF, and YLF crystal hosts,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 782–785 (1995).
[CrossRef]

E. Sarantopoulou, Z. Kollia, A. C. Cefalas, M. A. Dubinskii, C. A. Nikolaides, R. Yu Abdulsabirov, S. L. Korableva, A. K. Naumov, and V. V. Semashko, “Vacuum ultraviolet and ultraviolet fluorescence and absorption studies of Er3+-doped LiLuF4 single crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 813–815 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Korableva, S. L.

Z. Kollia, E. Sarantopoulou, A. C. Cefalas, A. K. Naumov, V. V. Semashko, R. Yu. Abdulsabirov, and S. L. Korableva, “On the 4 f 25d→4 f 3 interconfigurational transitions of Nd3+ ions in K2YF5 and LiYF4 crystal hosts,” Opt. Commun. 149, 386 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Z. Kollia, E. Sarantopoulou, A. C. Cefalas, C. A. Nikolaides, A. K. Naumov, V. V. Semashko, R. Yu Abdulsabirov, S. L. Korableva, and M. A. Dubinskii, “Vacuum-ultraviolet interconfigurational 4 f 3→4 f 25d absorption and emission studies of the Nd3+ ion in KYF, YF, and YLF crystal hosts,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 782–785 (1995).
[CrossRef]

E. Sarantopoulou, Z. Kollia, A. C. Cefalas, M. A. Dubinskii, C. A. Nikolaides, R. Yu Abdulsabirov, S. L. Korableva, A. K. Naumov, and V. V. Semashko, “Vacuum ultraviolet and ultraviolet fluorescence and absorption studies of Er3+-doped LiLuF4 single crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 813–815 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kubodera, S.

S. Kubodera, M. Kitahara, J. Kawanaka, W. Sasaki, and K. Kurosava, “A vacuum ultraviolet flash lamp with extremely broadened emission spectra,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 452–454 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kurosava, K.

S. Kubodera, M. Kitahara, J. Kawanaka, W. Sasaki, and K. Kurosava, “A vacuum ultraviolet flash lamp with extremely broadened emission spectra,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 452–454 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lamminmaki, R. J.

R. T. Wegh, H. Donker, A. Meijerink, R. J. Lamminmaki, and J. Holsa, “Vacuum-ultraviolet spectroscopy and quantum cutting for Gd3+ in LiLuF4,” Phys. Rev. B 56, 13841–13848 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Meijerink, A.

R. T. Wegh, H. Donker, A. Meijerink, R. J. Lamminmaki, and J. Holsa, “Vacuum-ultraviolet spectroscopy and quantum cutting for Gd3+ in LiLuF4,” Phys. Rev. B 56, 13841–13848 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Visser, P. Dorenbos, C. W. E. Van Eijk, A. Meijerink, and H. W. den Hartog, “The scintillation intensity and decay from Nd3+ 4 f 25d and 4 f 3 excited states in several fluoride crystals,” Phys. Cond. Matt. 5, 8437–8460 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mikhailin, V. V.

L. I. Devyatkova, O. N. Ivanova, V. V. Mikhailin, S. N. Rudnev, and S. P. Chernov, “High-energy 4 f states of Er3+ and Ho3+ ions in fluoride crystals,” Opt. Spectrosc. 62, 275–276 (1987).

Mizailin, V. V.

A. A. Vlasenko, L. I. Devyatkova, O. N. Ivanova, V. V. Mizailin, S. P. Chernov, T. Uvarova, and B. P. Sobolev, “Transmission spectra of single crystals of the type BaLn2F8 in a wide spectral region (from 12 to 0.12 μm),” Sov. Phys. Dokl. 30, 395–397 (1985).

Moulton, P. F.

Naumov, A. K.

Z. Kollia, E. Sarantopoulou, A. C. Cefalas, A. K. Naumov, V. V. Semashko, R. Yu. Abdulsabirov, and S. L. Korableva, “On the 4 f 25d→4 f 3 interconfigurational transitions of Nd3+ ions in K2YF5 and LiYF4 crystal hosts,” Opt. Commun. 149, 386 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Z. Kollia, E. Sarantopoulou, A. C. Cefalas, C. A. Nikolaides, A. K. Naumov, V. V. Semashko, R. Yu Abdulsabirov, S. L. Korableva, and M. A. Dubinskii, “Vacuum-ultraviolet interconfigurational 4 f 3→4 f 25d absorption and emission studies of the Nd3+ ion in KYF, YF, and YLF crystal hosts,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 782–785 (1995).
[CrossRef]

E. Sarantopoulou, Z. Kollia, A. C. Cefalas, M. A. Dubinskii, C. A. Nikolaides, R. Yu Abdulsabirov, S. L. Korableva, A. K. Naumov, and V. V. Semashko, “Vacuum ultraviolet and ultraviolet fluorescence and absorption studies of Er3+-doped LiLuF4 single crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 813–815 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nikolaides, C. A.

Z. Kollia, E. Sarantopoulou, A. C. Cefalas, C. A. Nikolaides, A. K. Naumov, V. V. Semashko, R. Yu Abdulsabirov, S. L. Korableva, and M. A. Dubinskii, “Vacuum-ultraviolet interconfigurational 4 f 3→4 f 25d absorption and emission studies of the Nd3+ ion in KYF, YF, and YLF crystal hosts,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 782–785 (1995).
[CrossRef]

E. Sarantopoulou, Z. Kollia, A. C. Cefalas, M. A. Dubinskii, C. A. Nikolaides, R. Yu Abdulsabirov, S. L. Korableva, A. K. Naumov, and V. V. Semashko, “Vacuum ultraviolet and ultraviolet fluorescence and absorption studies of Er3+-doped LiLuF4 single crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 813–815 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Dubinskii, A. C. Cefalas, and C. A. Nikolaides, “Solid state LaF3:Nd3+ vuv laser pumped by a pulsed discharge F2-molecular laser at 157 nm,” Opt. Commun. 88, 122–124 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Osgood , Jr., R. M.

Pantell, R. H.

M. J. Digonnet, R. W. Sadowski, H. J. Shaw, and R. H. Pantell, “Resonantly enhanced nonlinearity in doped fibers for low power all optical switching,” Opt. Fiber Technol.: Mater., Devices Syst. 3, 44–64 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Popova, M. N.

N. I. Agladze and M. N. Popova, “Hyperfine structure in optical spectra of LiLuF4–Ho,” Solid State Commun. 55, 1097–1100 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Rajnak, K.

H. M. Crosswhite, H. Crosswhite, N. Edelstein, and K. Rajnak, “Parametric energy level analysis of Ho3+:LaCl3,” J. Chem. Phys. 67, 3002–3008 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. T. Carnall, G. L. Goodman, K. Rajnak, and R. S. Rana, “A systematic analysis of the spectra of the lanthanides doped into single crystal LaF3,” J. Chem. Phys. 90, 3443–3457 (1989).
[CrossRef]

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, “Electronic energy levels in the trivalent lanthanide aquo ions. I. Pr3+, Nd3+, Pm3+, Sm3+, Dy3+, Ho3+, Er3+, and Tm3+,” J. Chem. Phys. 49, 4424–4442 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Rana, R. S.

W. T. Carnall, G. L. Goodman, K. Rajnak, and R. S. Rana, “A systematic analysis of the spectra of the lanthanides doped into single crystal LaF3,” J. Chem. Phys. 90, 3443–3457 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Rudnev, S. N.

L. I. Devyatkova, O. N. Ivanova, V. V. Mikhailin, S. N. Rudnev, and S. P. Chernov, “High-energy 4 f states of Er3+ and Ho3+ ions in fluoride crystals,” Opt. Spectrosc. 62, 275–276 (1987).

Sadowski, R. W.

M. J. Digonnet, R. W. Sadowski, H. J. Shaw, and R. H. Pantell, “Resonantly enhanced nonlinearity in doped fibers for low power all optical switching,” Opt. Fiber Technol.: Mater., Devices Syst. 3, 44–64 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sarantopoulou, E.

Z. Kollia, E. Sarantopoulou, A. C. Cefalas, A. K. Naumov, V. V. Semashko, R. Yu. Abdulsabirov, and S. L. Korableva, “On the 4 f 25d→4 f 3 interconfigurational transitions of Nd3+ ions in K2YF5 and LiYF4 crystal hosts,” Opt. Commun. 149, 386 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Z. Kollia, E. Sarantopoulou, A. C. Cefalas, C. A. Nikolaides, A. K. Naumov, V. V. Semashko, R. Yu Abdulsabirov, S. L. Korableva, and M. A. Dubinskii, “Vacuum-ultraviolet interconfigurational 4 f 3→4 f 25d absorption and emission studies of the Nd3+ ion in KYF, YF, and YLF crystal hosts,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 782–785 (1995).
[CrossRef]

E. Sarantopoulou, Z. Kollia, A. C. Cefalas, M. A. Dubinskii, C. A. Nikolaides, R. Yu Abdulsabirov, S. L. Korableva, A. K. Naumov, and V. V. Semashko, “Vacuum ultraviolet and ultraviolet fluorescence and absorption studies of Er3+-doped LiLuF4 single crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 813–815 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, W.

S. Kubodera, M. Kitahara, J. Kawanaka, W. Sasaki, and K. Kurosava, “A vacuum ultraviolet flash lamp with extremely broadened emission spectra,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 452–454 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Schlesinger, M.

T. Szczurek and M. Schlesinger, “4 f→5d transition studies in calcium fluoride,” Phys. Rev. B 9, 3938–3940 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Semashko, V. V.

Z. Kollia, E. Sarantopoulou, A. C. Cefalas, A. K. Naumov, V. V. Semashko, R. Yu. Abdulsabirov, and S. L. Korableva, “On the 4 f 25d→4 f 3 interconfigurational transitions of Nd3+ ions in K2YF5 and LiYF4 crystal hosts,” Opt. Commun. 149, 386 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Z. Kollia, E. Sarantopoulou, A. C. Cefalas, C. A. Nikolaides, A. K. Naumov, V. V. Semashko, R. Yu Abdulsabirov, S. L. Korableva, and M. A. Dubinskii, “Vacuum-ultraviolet interconfigurational 4 f 3→4 f 25d absorption and emission studies of the Nd3+ ion in KYF, YF, and YLF crystal hosts,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 782–785 (1995).
[CrossRef]

E. Sarantopoulou, Z. Kollia, A. C. Cefalas, M. A. Dubinskii, C. A. Nikolaides, R. Yu Abdulsabirov, S. L. Korableva, A. K. Naumov, and V. V. Semashko, “Vacuum ultraviolet and ultraviolet fluorescence and absorption studies of Er3+-doped LiLuF4 single crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 813–815 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, H. J.

M. J. Digonnet, R. W. Sadowski, H. J. Shaw, and R. H. Pantell, “Resonantly enhanced nonlinearity in doped fibers for low power all optical switching,” Opt. Fiber Technol.: Mater., Devices Syst. 3, 44–64 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sobolev, B. P.

A. A. Vlasenko, L. I. Devyatkova, O. N. Ivanova, V. V. Mizailin, S. P. Chernov, T. Uvarova, and B. P. Sobolev, “Transmission spectra of single crystals of the type BaLn2F8 in a wide spectral region (from 12 to 0.12 μm),” Sov. Phys. Dokl. 30, 395–397 (1985).

Srivastava, A. M.

A. M. Srivastava and S. J. Duclos, “On the luminescence of YF3–Pr3+ under vacuum ultraviolet and X-ray emission,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 275, 453–456 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Szczurek, T.

T. Szczurek and M. Schlesinger, “4 f→5d transition studies in calcium fluoride,” Phys. Rev. B 9, 3938–3940 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Thogersen, J.

J. Thogersen, J. D. Gill, and H. K. Haugen, “Stepwise multiphoton excitation of the 4 f 25d configuration in Nd3+:YLF,” Opt. Commun. 132, 83–88 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Uvarova, T.

A. A. Vlasenko, L. I. Devyatkova, O. N. Ivanova, V. V. Mizailin, S. P. Chernov, T. Uvarova, and B. P. Sobolev, “Transmission spectra of single crystals of the type BaLn2F8 in a wide spectral region (from 12 to 0.12 μm),” Sov. Phys. Dokl. 30, 395–397 (1985).

Van Eijk, C. W. E.

R. Visser, P. Dorenbos, C. W. E. Van Eijk, A. Meijerink, and H. W. den Hartog, “The scintillation intensity and decay from Nd3+ 4 f 25d and 4 f 3 excited states in several fluoride crystals,” Phys. Cond. Matt. 5, 8437–8460 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Visser, R.

R. Visser, P. Dorenbos, C. W. E. Van Eijk, A. Meijerink, and H. W. den Hartog, “The scintillation intensity and decay from Nd3+ 4 f 25d and 4 f 3 excited states in several fluoride crystals,” Phys. Cond. Matt. 5, 8437–8460 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Vlasenko, A. A.

A. A. Vlasenko, L. I. Devyatkova, O. N. Ivanova, V. V. Mizailin, S. P. Chernov, T. Uvarova, and B. P. Sobolev, “Transmission spectra of single crystals of the type BaLn2F8 in a wide spectral region (from 12 to 0.12 μm),” Sov. Phys. Dokl. 30, 395–397 (1985).

Waynant, R. W.

R. W. Waynant and P. H. Klein, “Vacuum ultraviolet emission from Nd3+:LaF3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 14–16 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Wegh, R. T.

R. T. Wegh, H. Donker, A. Meijerink, R. J. Lamminmaki, and J. Holsa, “Vacuum-ultraviolet spectroscopy and quantum cutting for Gd3+ in LiLuF4,” Phys. Rev. B 56, 13841–13848 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yang, K. H.

K. H. Yang and J. A. DeLuka, “VUV fluorescence of Nd3+, Er3+, and Tm3+-doped trifluorides and tunable coherent sources from 165 to 260 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 499–501 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Yen, W. M.

W. S. Heaps, L. R. Elias, and W. M. Yen, “Vacuum ultraviolet absorption bands of trivalent lanthanides in LaF3,” Phys. Rev. B 13, 94–104 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

R. W. Waynant and P. H. Klein, “Vacuum ultraviolet emission from Nd3+:LaF3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 14–16 (1985).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Yang and J. A. DeLuka, “VUV fluorescence of Nd3+, Er3+, and Tm3+-doped trifluorides and tunable coherent sources from 165 to 260 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 499–501 (1976).
[CrossRef]

S. Kubodera, M. Kitahara, J. Kawanaka, W. Sasaki, and K. Kurosava, “A vacuum ultraviolet flash lamp with extremely broadened emission spectra,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 452–454 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. Sarantopoulou, Z. Kollia, A. C. Cefalas, M. A. Dubinskii, C. A. Nikolaides, R. Yu Abdulsabirov, S. L. Korableva, A. K. Naumov, and V. V. Semashko, “Vacuum ultraviolet and ultraviolet fluorescence and absorption studies of Er3+-doped LiLuF4 single crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 813–815 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. M. Srivastava and S. J. Duclos, “On the luminescence of YF3–Pr3+ under vacuum ultraviolet and X-ray emission,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 275, 453–456 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (3)

W. T. Carnall, G. L. Goodman, K. Rajnak, and R. S. Rana, “A systematic analysis of the spectra of the lanthanides doped into single crystal LaF3,” J. Chem. Phys. 90, 3443–3457 (1989).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Crosswhite, H. Crosswhite, N. Edelstein, and K. Rajnak, “Parametric energy level analysis of Ho3+:LaCl3,” J. Chem. Phys. 67, 3002–3008 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, “Electronic energy levels in the trivalent lanthanide aquo ions. I. Pr3+, Nd3+, Pm3+, Sm3+, Dy3+, Ho3+, Er3+, and Tm3+,” J. Chem. Phys. 49, 4424–4442 (1968).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Commun. (3)

M. A. Dubinskii, A. C. Cefalas, and C. A. Nikolaides, “Solid state LaF3:Nd3+ vuv laser pumped by a pulsed discharge F2-molecular laser at 157 nm,” Opt. Commun. 88, 122–124 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Thogersen, J. D. Gill, and H. K. Haugen, “Stepwise multiphoton excitation of the 4 f 25d configuration in Nd3+:YLF,” Opt. Commun. 132, 83–88 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Z. Kollia, E. Sarantopoulou, A. C. Cefalas, A. K. Naumov, V. V. Semashko, R. Yu. Abdulsabirov, and S. L. Korableva, “On the 4 f 25d→4 f 3 interconfigurational transitions of Nd3+ ions in K2YF5 and LiYF4 crystal hosts,” Opt. Commun. 149, 386 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Fiber Technol.: Mater., Devices Syst. (1)

M. J. Digonnet, R. W. Sadowski, H. J. Shaw, and R. H. Pantell, “Resonantly enhanced nonlinearity in doped fibers for low power all optical switching,” Opt. Fiber Technol.: Mater., Devices Syst. 3, 44–64 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Spectrosc. (1)

L. I. Devyatkova, O. N. Ivanova, V. V. Mikhailin, S. N. Rudnev, and S. P. Chernov, “High-energy 4 f states of Er3+ and Ho3+ ions in fluoride crystals,” Opt. Spectrosc. 62, 275–276 (1987).

Phys. Cond. Matt. (1)

R. Visser, P. Dorenbos, C. W. E. Van Eijk, A. Meijerink, and H. W. den Hartog, “The scintillation intensity and decay from Nd3+ 4 f 25d and 4 f 3 excited states in several fluoride crystals,” Phys. Cond. Matt. 5, 8437–8460 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (4)

R. T. Wegh, H. Donker, A. Meijerink, R. J. Lamminmaki, and J. Holsa, “Vacuum-ultraviolet spectroscopy and quantum cutting for Gd3+ in LiLuF4,” Phys. Rev. B 56, 13841–13848 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Guy, M. F. Joubert, and B. Jacquier, “Photon avalanche and mean-field approximation,” Phys. Rev. B 55, 8420–8428 (1998).

T. Szczurek and M. Schlesinger, “4 f→5d transition studies in calcium fluoride,” Phys. Rev. B 9, 3938–3940 (1974).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Heaps, L. R. Elias, and W. M. Yen, “Vacuum ultraviolet absorption bands of trivalent lanthanides in LaF3,” Phys. Rev. B 13, 94–104 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

S. Geschwind, G. E. Devlin, and R. L. Cohen, “Orbach relaxation and hyperfine structure in the excited 2E state of Cr3+ in Al2O3,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 137, A1087 (1965).

Solid State Commun. (1)

N. I. Agladze and M. N. Popova, “Hyperfine structure in optical spectra of LiLuF4–Ho,” Solid State Commun. 55, 1097–1100 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Sov. Phys. Dokl. (1)

A. A. Vlasenko, L. I. Devyatkova, O. N. Ivanova, V. V. Mizailin, S. P. Chernov, T. Uvarova, and B. P. Sobolev, “Transmission spectra of single crystals of the type BaLn2F8 in a wide spectral region (from 12 to 0.12 μm),” Sov. Phys. Dokl. 30, 395–397 (1985).

Other (3)

R. T. Wegh, H. Donker, and A. Meijerink, “Spin-allowed and spin forbidden emission from Er3+ and LiLuF4,” Phys. Rev. B 57, 2025–2028 (1998); R. T. Wegh, H. Donker, and A. Meijerink, “Vacuum ultraviolet excitation and emission studies of 4 f n−1→4 f n−15d transition for Ln3+ in LiYF4,” Proc. Electrochem. Soc. 97, 284–295 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Szczurek and M. Schlesinger, “Vacuum ultraviolet absorption spectra of CaF2:RE3+ crystals,” Proc. Rare Earths Spectrosc. Symp. 309–330 (1985), and references therein.

G. Dieke, in Spectra and Energy Levels of Rare Earth Ions in Crystals, H. M. Crosswhite and H. Crosswhite, eds. (Wiley, New York, 1968), Vol. 5, p. 461.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Absorption spectrum of LiLuF4:Ho3+ single crystal in the spectral range 120–180 nm. Nine transitions were observed between the 4 f10(5I8) ground level and the levels of the 4 f95d electronic configuration. The transitions in the spectral range 153–170 nm appear to be weaker than the transitions in the spectral range 125–150 nm. The 153–170 nm band was assigned to spin-forbidden transitions.19 The low-energy limit of the bandgap of the crystal is estimated to be between 81 300 (123 nm) and 78 740 cm-1 (127 nm).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

LIF spectrum of the LiLuF4:Ho3+ single crystal, under laser pumping at 157.6 nm, in the spectral range 157–300 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Energy diagram of the LiLuF4:Ho3+ single crystal, where the various transitions of the LIF spectrum are shown. The position of the levels of the 4 f95d electronic configuration is where maximum absorption is taking place. The numbers inside the brackets indicate the energy position at which the Frank–Condon factors have their highest values. The transitions are given in nanometers.

Equations (25)

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4 f95d(63 451cm-1)4 f10(5I7)+hν(168.3nm),
4 f95d(63 451cm-1)4 f10(5I5)+hν(190.6nm),
4 f95d(63 451cm-1)4 f10(5F5)+hν(208.3nm),
4 f95d(63 451cm-1)4 f10(5S2)+hν(222.1nm).
4 f95d(62 207cm-1)4 f10(5I8)+hν(160.7nm),
4 f95d(62 207cm-1)4 f10(5I7)+hν(174.8nm),
4 f95d(62 207cm-1)4 f10(5I6)+hν(185.4nm),
4 f95d(62 207cm-1)4 f10(5I5)+hν(194.8nm),
4 f95d(62 207cm-1)4 f10(5F5)+hν(212.4nm),
4 f95d(62 207cm-1)4 f10(5S2)+hν(228.8nm),
4 f95d(60 532cm-1)4 f10(5I8)+hν(162.9nm),
4 f95d(60 532cm-1)4 f10(5I7)+hν(180.4nm),
4 f95d(60 532cm-1)4 f10(5I6)+hν(201.2nm),
4 f95d(60 532cm-1)4 f10(5I5)+hν(204.8nm),
4 f95d(60 532cm-1)4 f10(5F5)+hν(215.6nm),
4 f95d(60 532cm-1)4 f10(5S2)+hν(232.6nm),
4 f95d(58 814cm-1)4 f10(5I8)+hν(170.3nm),
4 f95d(58 814cm-1)4 f10(5I7)+hν(183.5nm),
4 f95d(58 814cm-1)4 f10(5F5)+hν(215.6nm),
4 f95d(58 814cm-1)4 f10(5S2)+hν(232.6nm).
4 f10(56 961cm-1)4 f10(5I8)+hν(175.5nm),
4 f10(56 961cm-1)4 f10(5I6)+hν(204.8nm),
4 f10(56 961cm-1)4 f10(5I5)+hν(218.7nm),
4 f10(56 961cm-1)4 f10(5F5)+hν(240.8nm),
4 f10(56 961cm-1)4 f10(5S2)+hν(260.0nm).

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