Abstract

Nonresonant-type homogeneous Bi2O3B2O3SiO2 glasses were prepared by melting. The third-order optical nonlinear susceptibility χ(3), which was determined by measurement of third-harmonic generation, increased with increasing concentrations of Bi2O3 in the glass. The maximum χ(3) estimated was 9.3×10-12 esu in glass that contained 92 wt. % of Bi2O3. χ(3) values of these glasses were enhanced by the small optical bandgap. These glasses also exhibited an ultrafast response time, less than 200 fs, when a degenerate four-wave mixing method with a femtosecond laser was used, indicating that the nonlinearity of these glasses originated mainly from pure electronic polarization.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. W. Hall, M. A. Newhouse, N. F. Borrelli, W. H. Dum- baugh, and D. L. Weildman, “Nonlinear optical susceptibilities of high-index glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1293–1295 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  2. E. M. Vogel, S. G. Kosinski, D. M. Krol, J. L. Jackel, S. R. Friberg, M. K. Oliver, and J. D. Powers, “Structural and optical study of silicate glasses for nonlinear optical devices,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 107, 244–250 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. Nasu, Y. Ibara, and K. Kubodera, “Optical third-harmonic generation from some high-index glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 110, 229–234 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. Nasu, K. Kubodera, M. Kobayashi, M. Nakamura, and K. Kamiya, “Third-harmonic generation from some chalcogenide glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 73, 1794–1796 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. Nasu, T. Uchigaki, K. Kamiya, H. Kanmara, and K. Kubodera, “Nonresonant-type third-order nonlinearity of (PbO, Nb2O5)–TiO2–TeO2 glass measured by third-harmonic generation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 31, 3899–3900 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Nasu, J. Matsuoka, and K. Kamiya, “Second- and third-order optical non-linearity of homogeneous glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 178, 23–30 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  7. F. Miyaji, K. Tadanaga, and S. Sakka, “Third harmonic generation from MOx–PbO–GaO1.5 ternary glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2060–2061 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Asobe, T. Kanamori, and K. Kubodera, “Ultrafast all-optical switching using highly nonlinear chalcogenide glass fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4, 362–365 (1992).
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  9. N. Sugimoto, H. Kanbara, S. Fujiwara, K. Tanaka, and K. Hirao, “Ultrafast response of third-order optical nonlinearity in glasses containing Bi2O3,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1637–1639 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
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  12. G. R. Meredith, B. Buchalter, and C. Hanzlik, “Third-orderoptical susceptibility determination by third harmonic generation. I,” J. Chem. Phys. 78, 1533–1542 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. C. Miller, “Optical second harmonic generation in piezoelectric crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 5, 17–19 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  14. C. C. Wang, “Empirical relation between the linear and the third-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities,” Phys. Rev. B 2, 2045–2048 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  15. T. Hashimoto and T. Yoko, “Sol-gel preparation and nonlinear optical properties of transition metal oxide thin films,” Mater. Trans. JIM 37, 435–441 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  16. T. Hashimoto, T. Yamada, and T. Yoko, “Third-order nonlinear optical properties of sol-gel derived α-Fe2O3, γ-Fe2O3, and Fe2O3 thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 80, 3184–3190 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  17. T. Kanetake, K. Ishikawa, T. Hasegawa, T. Koda, K. Takeda, M. Hasegawa, K. Kubodera, and H. Kobayashi, “Nonlinear optical properties of highly oriented polydiacetylene evaporated films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 2287–2289 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  18. T. Kurihara, Y. Mori, T. Kaino, H. Murata, N. Takada, T. Tsutsumi, and S. Saito, “Spectra of χ(3)(−3ω;ω, ω, ω) in poly (2, 5-dimethoxy p-phenylene vinylene) (MO-PPV) for various conversion levels,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 183, 534–538 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  21. T. Hashimoto and T. Yoko, “Third-order nonlinear optical properties of sol-gel-derived V2O5, Nb2O5, and Ta2O5 thin films,” Appl. Opt. 34, 2941–2948 (1995).
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    [CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1996 (2)

T. Hashimoto and T. Yoko, “Sol-gel preparation and nonlinear optical properties of transition metal oxide thin films,” Mater. Trans. JIM 37, 435–441 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. Hashimoto, T. Yamada, and T. Yoko, “Third-order nonlinear optical properties of sol-gel derived α-Fe2O3, γ-Fe2O3, and Fe2O3 thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 80, 3184–3190 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1994 (2)

H. Nasu, J. Matsuoka, and K. Kamiya, “Second- and third-order optical non-linearity of homogeneous glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 178, 23–30 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Hashimoto, T. Yoko, and S. Sakka, “Sol-gel preparation and third-order nonlinear optical properties of TiO2 thin films,” Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. 67, 653–660 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

H. Kobayashi, H. Kanbara, M. Koga, and K. Kubodera, “Third-order nonlinear optical properties of As2S3 chalcogenide glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 3683–3687 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (3)

F. Miyaji, K. Tadanaga, and S. Sakka, “Third harmonic generation from MOx–PbO–GaO1.5 ternary glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2060–2061 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Asobe, T. Kanamori, and K. Kubodera, “Ultrafast all-optical switching using highly nonlinear chalcogenide glass fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4, 362–365 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H. Nasu, T. Uchigaki, K. Kamiya, H. Kanmara, and K. Kubodera, “Nonresonant-type third-order nonlinearity of (PbO, Nb2O5)–TiO2–TeO2 glass measured by third-harmonic generation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 31, 3899–3900 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

T. Kurihara, Y. Mori, T. Kaino, H. Murata, N. Takada, T. Tsutsumi, and S. Saito, “Spectra of χ(3)(−3ω;ω, ω, ω) in poly (2, 5-dimethoxy p-phenylene vinylene) (MO-PPV) for various conversion levels,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 183, 534–538 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (2)

H. Nasu, K. Kubodera, M. Kobayashi, M. Nakamura, and K. Kamiya, “Third-harmonic generation from some chalcogenide glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 73, 1794–1796 (1990).
[CrossRef]

K. Kubodera and H. Kobayashi, “Determination of third-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities for organic materials by third-harmonic generation,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 182A, 103–113 (1990).

1989 (4)

D. W. Hall, M. A. Newhouse, N. F. Borrelli, W. H. Dum- baugh, and D. L. Weildman, “Nonlinear optical susceptibilities of high-index glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1293–1295 (1989).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Vogel, S. G. Kosinski, D. M. Krol, J. L. Jackel, S. R. Friberg, M. K. Oliver, and J. D. Powers, “Structural and optical study of silicate glasses for nonlinear optical devices,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 107, 244–250 (1989).
[CrossRef]

H. Nasu, Y. Ibara, and K. Kubodera, “Optical third-harmonic generation from some high-index glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 110, 229–234 (1989).
[CrossRef]

T. Kanetake, K. Ishikawa, T. Hasegawa, T. Koda, K. Takeda, M. Hasegawa, K. Kubodera, and H. Kobayashi, “Nonlinear optical properties of highly oriented polydiacetylene evaporated films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 2287–2289 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

G. R. Meredith, B. Buchalter, and C. Hanzlik, “Third-orderoptical susceptibility determination by third harmonic generation. I,” J. Chem. Phys. 78, 1533–1542 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

E. P. Ippen and C. V. Shank, “Picosecond response of a high-repetition-rate CS2 optical Kerr gate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 92–93 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

C. C. Wang, “Empirical relation between the linear and the third-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities,” Phys. Rev. B 2, 2045–2048 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1964 (1)

R. C. Miller, “Optical second harmonic generation in piezoelectric crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 5, 17–19 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Asobe, M.

M. Asobe, T. Kanamori, and K. Kubodera, “Ultrafast all-optical switching using highly nonlinear chalcogenide glass fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4, 362–365 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Borrelli, N. F.

D. W. Hall, M. A. Newhouse, N. F. Borrelli, W. H. Dum- baugh, and D. L. Weildman, “Nonlinear optical susceptibilities of high-index glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1293–1295 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Buchalter, B.

G. R. Meredith, B. Buchalter, and C. Hanzlik, “Third-orderoptical susceptibility determination by third harmonic generation. I,” J. Chem. Phys. 78, 1533–1542 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Dum- baugh, W. H.

D. W. Hall, M. A. Newhouse, N. F. Borrelli, W. H. Dum- baugh, and D. L. Weildman, “Nonlinear optical susceptibilities of high-index glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1293–1295 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Friberg, S. R.

E. M. Vogel, S. G. Kosinski, D. M. Krol, J. L. Jackel, S. R. Friberg, M. K. Oliver, and J. D. Powers, “Structural and optical study of silicate glasses for nonlinear optical devices,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 107, 244–250 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Fujiwara, S.

Hall, D. W.

D. W. Hall, M. A. Newhouse, N. F. Borrelli, W. H. Dum- baugh, and D. L. Weildman, “Nonlinear optical susceptibilities of high-index glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1293–1295 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hanzlik, C.

G. R. Meredith, B. Buchalter, and C. Hanzlik, “Third-orderoptical susceptibility determination by third harmonic generation. I,” J. Chem. Phys. 78, 1533–1542 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Hasegawa, M.

T. Kanetake, K. Ishikawa, T. Hasegawa, T. Koda, K. Takeda, M. Hasegawa, K. Kubodera, and H. Kobayashi, “Nonlinear optical properties of highly oriented polydiacetylene evaporated films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 2287–2289 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hasegawa, T.

T. Kanetake, K. Ishikawa, T. Hasegawa, T. Koda, K. Takeda, M. Hasegawa, K. Kubodera, and H. Kobayashi, “Nonlinear optical properties of highly oriented polydiacetylene evaporated films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 2287–2289 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hashimoto, T.

T. Hashimoto and T. Yoko, “Sol-gel preparation and nonlinear optical properties of transition metal oxide thin films,” Mater. Trans. JIM 37, 435–441 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. Hashimoto, T. Yamada, and T. Yoko, “Third-order nonlinear optical properties of sol-gel derived α-Fe2O3, γ-Fe2O3, and Fe2O3 thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 80, 3184–3190 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. Hashimoto and T. Yoko, “Third-order nonlinear optical properties of sol-gel-derived V2O5, Nb2O5, and Ta2O5 thin films,” Appl. Opt. 34, 2941–2948 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Hashimoto, T. Yoko, and S. Sakka, “Sol-gel preparation and third-order nonlinear optical properties of TiO2 thin films,” Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. 67, 653–660 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hirao, K.

Ibara, Y.

H. Nasu, Y. Ibara, and K. Kubodera, “Optical third-harmonic generation from some high-index glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 110, 229–234 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

E. P. Ippen and C. V. Shank, “Picosecond response of a high-repetition-rate CS2 optical Kerr gate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 92–93 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, K.

T. Kanetake, K. Ishikawa, T. Hasegawa, T. Koda, K. Takeda, M. Hasegawa, K. Kubodera, and H. Kobayashi, “Nonlinear optical properties of highly oriented polydiacetylene evaporated films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 2287–2289 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Jackel, J. L.

E. M. Vogel, S. G. Kosinski, D. M. Krol, J. L. Jackel, S. R. Friberg, M. K. Oliver, and J. D. Powers, “Structural and optical study of silicate glasses for nonlinear optical devices,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 107, 244–250 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kaino, T.

T. Kurihara, Y. Mori, T. Kaino, H. Murata, N. Takada, T. Tsutsumi, and S. Saito, “Spectra of χ(3)(−3ω;ω, ω, ω) in poly (2, 5-dimethoxy p-phenylene vinylene) (MO-PPV) for various conversion levels,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 183, 534–538 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kamiya, K.

H. Nasu, J. Matsuoka, and K. Kamiya, “Second- and third-order optical non-linearity of homogeneous glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 178, 23–30 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. Nasu, T. Uchigaki, K. Kamiya, H. Kanmara, and K. Kubodera, “Nonresonant-type third-order nonlinearity of (PbO, Nb2O5)–TiO2–TeO2 glass measured by third-harmonic generation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 31, 3899–3900 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H. Nasu, K. Kubodera, M. Kobayashi, M. Nakamura, and K. Kamiya, “Third-harmonic generation from some chalcogenide glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 73, 1794–1796 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kanamori, T.

M. Asobe, T. Kanamori, and K. Kubodera, “Ultrafast all-optical switching using highly nonlinear chalcogenide glass fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4, 362–365 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kanbara, H.

N. Sugimoto, H. Kanbara, S. Fujiwara, K. Tanaka, and K. Hirao, “Ultrafast response of third-order optical nonlinearity in glasses containing Bi2O3,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1637–1639 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Kobayashi, H. Kanbara, M. Koga, and K. Kubodera, “Third-order nonlinear optical properties of As2S3 chalcogenide glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 3683–3687 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kanetake, T.

T. Kanetake, K. Ishikawa, T. Hasegawa, T. Koda, K. Takeda, M. Hasegawa, K. Kubodera, and H. Kobayashi, “Nonlinear optical properties of highly oriented polydiacetylene evaporated films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 2287–2289 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kanmara, H.

H. Nasu, T. Uchigaki, K. Kamiya, H. Kanmara, and K. Kubodera, “Nonresonant-type third-order nonlinearity of (PbO, Nb2O5)–TiO2–TeO2 glass measured by third-harmonic generation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 31, 3899–3900 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, H.

H. Kobayashi, H. Kanbara, M. Koga, and K. Kubodera, “Third-order nonlinear optical properties of As2S3 chalcogenide glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 3683–3687 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. Kubodera and H. Kobayashi, “Determination of third-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities for organic materials by third-harmonic generation,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 182A, 103–113 (1990).

T. Kanetake, K. Ishikawa, T. Hasegawa, T. Koda, K. Takeda, M. Hasegawa, K. Kubodera, and H. Kobayashi, “Nonlinear optical properties of highly oriented polydiacetylene evaporated films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 2287–2289 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, M.

H. Nasu, K. Kubodera, M. Kobayashi, M. Nakamura, and K. Kamiya, “Third-harmonic generation from some chalcogenide glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 73, 1794–1796 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Koda, T.

T. Kanetake, K. Ishikawa, T. Hasegawa, T. Koda, K. Takeda, M. Hasegawa, K. Kubodera, and H. Kobayashi, “Nonlinear optical properties of highly oriented polydiacetylene evaporated films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 2287–2289 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Koga, M.

H. Kobayashi, H. Kanbara, M. Koga, and K. Kubodera, “Third-order nonlinear optical properties of As2S3 chalcogenide glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 3683–3687 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kosinski, S. G.

E. M. Vogel, S. G. Kosinski, D. M. Krol, J. L. Jackel, S. R. Friberg, M. K. Oliver, and J. D. Powers, “Structural and optical study of silicate glasses for nonlinear optical devices,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 107, 244–250 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Krol, D. M.

E. M. Vogel, S. G. Kosinski, D. M. Krol, J. L. Jackel, S. R. Friberg, M. K. Oliver, and J. D. Powers, “Structural and optical study of silicate glasses for nonlinear optical devices,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 107, 244–250 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kubodera, K.

H. Kobayashi, H. Kanbara, M. Koga, and K. Kubodera, “Third-order nonlinear optical properties of As2S3 chalcogenide glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 3683–3687 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. Nasu, T. Uchigaki, K. Kamiya, H. Kanmara, and K. Kubodera, “Nonresonant-type third-order nonlinearity of (PbO, Nb2O5)–TiO2–TeO2 glass measured by third-harmonic generation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 31, 3899–3900 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Asobe, T. Kanamori, and K. Kubodera, “Ultrafast all-optical switching using highly nonlinear chalcogenide glass fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4, 362–365 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H. Nasu, K. Kubodera, M. Kobayashi, M. Nakamura, and K. Kamiya, “Third-harmonic generation from some chalcogenide glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 73, 1794–1796 (1990).
[CrossRef]

K. Kubodera and H. Kobayashi, “Determination of third-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities for organic materials by third-harmonic generation,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 182A, 103–113 (1990).

T. Kanetake, K. Ishikawa, T. Hasegawa, T. Koda, K. Takeda, M. Hasegawa, K. Kubodera, and H. Kobayashi, “Nonlinear optical properties of highly oriented polydiacetylene evaporated films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 2287–2289 (1989).
[CrossRef]

H. Nasu, Y. Ibara, and K. Kubodera, “Optical third-harmonic generation from some high-index glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 110, 229–234 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kurihara, T.

T. Kurihara, Y. Mori, T. Kaino, H. Murata, N. Takada, T. Tsutsumi, and S. Saito, “Spectra of χ(3)(−3ω;ω, ω, ω) in poly (2, 5-dimethoxy p-phenylene vinylene) (MO-PPV) for various conversion levels,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 183, 534–538 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Matsuoka, J.

H. Nasu, J. Matsuoka, and K. Kamiya, “Second- and third-order optical non-linearity of homogeneous glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 178, 23–30 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Meredith, G. R.

G. R. Meredith, B. Buchalter, and C. Hanzlik, “Third-orderoptical susceptibility determination by third harmonic generation. I,” J. Chem. Phys. 78, 1533–1542 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Miller, R. C.

R. C. Miller, “Optical second harmonic generation in piezoelectric crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 5, 17–19 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Miyaji, F.

F. Miyaji, K. Tadanaga, and S. Sakka, “Third harmonic generation from MOx–PbO–GaO1.5 ternary glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2060–2061 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Mori, Y.

T. Kurihara, Y. Mori, T. Kaino, H. Murata, N. Takada, T. Tsutsumi, and S. Saito, “Spectra of χ(3)(−3ω;ω, ω, ω) in poly (2, 5-dimethoxy p-phenylene vinylene) (MO-PPV) for various conversion levels,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 183, 534–538 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Murata, H.

T. Kurihara, Y. Mori, T. Kaino, H. Murata, N. Takada, T. Tsutsumi, and S. Saito, “Spectra of χ(3)(−3ω;ω, ω, ω) in poly (2, 5-dimethoxy p-phenylene vinylene) (MO-PPV) for various conversion levels,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 183, 534–538 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, M.

H. Nasu, K. Kubodera, M. Kobayashi, M. Nakamura, and K. Kamiya, “Third-harmonic generation from some chalcogenide glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 73, 1794–1796 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Nasu, H.

H. Nasu, J. Matsuoka, and K. Kamiya, “Second- and third-order optical non-linearity of homogeneous glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 178, 23–30 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. Nasu, T. Uchigaki, K. Kamiya, H. Kanmara, and K. Kubodera, “Nonresonant-type third-order nonlinearity of (PbO, Nb2O5)–TiO2–TeO2 glass measured by third-harmonic generation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 31, 3899–3900 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H. Nasu, K. Kubodera, M. Kobayashi, M. Nakamura, and K. Kamiya, “Third-harmonic generation from some chalcogenide glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 73, 1794–1796 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H. Nasu, Y. Ibara, and K. Kubodera, “Optical third-harmonic generation from some high-index glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 110, 229–234 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Newhouse, M. A.

D. W. Hall, M. A. Newhouse, N. F. Borrelli, W. H. Dum- baugh, and D. L. Weildman, “Nonlinear optical susceptibilities of high-index glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1293–1295 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Oliver, M. K.

E. M. Vogel, S. G. Kosinski, D. M. Krol, J. L. Jackel, S. R. Friberg, M. K. Oliver, and J. D. Powers, “Structural and optical study of silicate glasses for nonlinear optical devices,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 107, 244–250 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Powers, J. D.

E. M. Vogel, S. G. Kosinski, D. M. Krol, J. L. Jackel, S. R. Friberg, M. K. Oliver, and J. D. Powers, “Structural and optical study of silicate glasses for nonlinear optical devices,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 107, 244–250 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Saito, S.

T. Kurihara, Y. Mori, T. Kaino, H. Murata, N. Takada, T. Tsutsumi, and S. Saito, “Spectra of χ(3)(−3ω;ω, ω, ω) in poly (2, 5-dimethoxy p-phenylene vinylene) (MO-PPV) for various conversion levels,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 183, 534–538 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sakka, S.

T. Hashimoto, T. Yoko, and S. Sakka, “Sol-gel preparation and third-order nonlinear optical properties of TiO2 thin films,” Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. 67, 653–660 (1994).
[CrossRef]

F. Miyaji, K. Tadanaga, and S. Sakka, “Third harmonic generation from MOx–PbO–GaO1.5 ternary glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2060–2061 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Shank, C. V.

E. P. Ippen and C. V. Shank, “Picosecond response of a high-repetition-rate CS2 optical Kerr gate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 92–93 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Sugimoto, N.

Tadanaga, K.

F. Miyaji, K. Tadanaga, and S. Sakka, “Third harmonic generation from MOx–PbO–GaO1.5 ternary glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2060–2061 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Takada, N.

T. Kurihara, Y. Mori, T. Kaino, H. Murata, N. Takada, T. Tsutsumi, and S. Saito, “Spectra of χ(3)(−3ω;ω, ω, ω) in poly (2, 5-dimethoxy p-phenylene vinylene) (MO-PPV) for various conversion levels,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 183, 534–538 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Takeda, K.

T. Kanetake, K. Ishikawa, T. Hasegawa, T. Koda, K. Takeda, M. Hasegawa, K. Kubodera, and H. Kobayashi, “Nonlinear optical properties of highly oriented polydiacetylene evaporated films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 2287–2289 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, K.

Tsutsumi, T.

T. Kurihara, Y. Mori, T. Kaino, H. Murata, N. Takada, T. Tsutsumi, and S. Saito, “Spectra of χ(3)(−3ω;ω, ω, ω) in poly (2, 5-dimethoxy p-phenylene vinylene) (MO-PPV) for various conversion levels,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 183, 534–538 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Uchigaki, T.

H. Nasu, T. Uchigaki, K. Kamiya, H. Kanmara, and K. Kubodera, “Nonresonant-type third-order nonlinearity of (PbO, Nb2O5)–TiO2–TeO2 glass measured by third-harmonic generation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 31, 3899–3900 (1992).
[CrossRef]

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E. M. Vogel, S. G. Kosinski, D. M. Krol, J. L. Jackel, S. R. Friberg, M. K. Oliver, and J. D. Powers, “Structural and optical study of silicate glasses for nonlinear optical devices,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 107, 244–250 (1989).
[CrossRef]

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C. C. Wang, “Empirical relation between the linear and the third-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities,” Phys. Rev. B 2, 2045–2048 (1970).
[CrossRef]

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D. W. Hall, M. A. Newhouse, N. F. Borrelli, W. H. Dum- baugh, and D. L. Weildman, “Nonlinear optical susceptibilities of high-index glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1293–1295 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, T.

T. Hashimoto, T. Yamada, and T. Yoko, “Third-order nonlinear optical properties of sol-gel derived α-Fe2O3, γ-Fe2O3, and Fe2O3 thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 80, 3184–3190 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yoko, T.

T. Hashimoto, T. Yamada, and T. Yoko, “Third-order nonlinear optical properties of sol-gel derived α-Fe2O3, γ-Fe2O3, and Fe2O3 thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 80, 3184–3190 (1996).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

F. Miyaji, K. Tadanaga, and S. Sakka, “Third harmonic generation from MOx–PbO–GaO1.5 ternary glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2060–2061 (1992).
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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. (1)

T. Hashimoto, T. Yoko, and S. Sakka, “Sol-gel preparation and third-order nonlinear optical properties of TiO2 thin films,” Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. 67, 653–660 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

T. Kurihara, Y. Mori, T. Kaino, H. Murata, N. Takada, T. Tsutsumi, and S. Saito, “Spectra of χ(3)(−3ω;ω, ω, ω) in poly (2, 5-dimethoxy p-phenylene vinylene) (MO-PPV) for various conversion levels,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 183, 534–538 (1991).
[CrossRef]

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M. Asobe, T. Kanamori, and K. Kubodera, “Ultrafast all-optical switching using highly nonlinear chalcogenide glass fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4, 362–365 (1992).
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H. Nasu, K. Kubodera, M. Kobayashi, M. Nakamura, and K. Kamiya, “Third-harmonic generation from some chalcogenide glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 73, 1794–1796 (1990).
[CrossRef]

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T. Hashimoto, T. Yamada, and T. Yoko, “Third-order nonlinear optical properties of sol-gel derived α-Fe2O3, γ-Fe2O3, and Fe2O3 thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 80, 3184–3190 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Kobayashi, H. Kanbara, M. Koga, and K. Kubodera, “Third-order nonlinear optical properties of As2S3 chalcogenide glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 3683–3687 (1993).
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E. M. Vogel, S. G. Kosinski, D. M. Krol, J. L. Jackel, S. R. Friberg, M. K. Oliver, and J. D. Powers, “Structural and optical study of silicate glasses for nonlinear optical devices,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 107, 244–250 (1989).
[CrossRef]

H. Nasu, Y. Ibara, and K. Kubodera, “Optical third-harmonic generation from some high-index glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 110, 229–234 (1989).
[CrossRef]

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H. Nasu, T. Uchigaki, K. Kamiya, H. Kanmara, and K. Kubodera, “Nonresonant-type third-order nonlinearity of (PbO, Nb2O5)–TiO2–TeO2 glass measured by third-harmonic generation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 31, 3899–3900 (1992).
[CrossRef]

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T. Hashimoto and T. Yoko, “Sol-gel preparation and nonlinear optical properties of transition metal oxide thin films,” Mater. Trans. JIM 37, 435–441 (1996).
[CrossRef]

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Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

C. C. Wang, “Empirical relation between the linear and the third-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities,” Phys. Rev. B 2, 2045–2048 (1970).
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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for DFWM measurement with a femtosecond laser.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Transmission spectra of glasses containing various concentrations of Bi2O3 melted at 1150 °C in air. Sample thickness, 0.6 mm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Relationship between χ(3) determined by the THG method and the concentration of Bi2O3 in glasses.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Dependence of DFWM signal power on pump power density in BI-3, BI-5, and BI-7.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Decay properties of BI-3 and the reference material CS2 at a pump power density of 9 GW/cm2.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Decay properties of BI-5 with various pump power densities.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Relation between χ(3) and refractive index n for Bi2O3B2O3SiO2 glasses and other nonlinear optical materials. The refractive indices are the values at wavelengths of 633 nm and 1900 nm, respectively. The curve represents the relation based on Miller’s rule. Filled squares, open squares, and asterisks denote inorganic crystals, organic materials, and amorphous materials, respectively.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Relation between χ(3) and optical bandgap Eg for Bi2O3B2O3SiO2 glasses and other nonlinear-optical materials. The curve represents the relation based on Eq. (3). Data points are the same as in Fig. 7.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Composition of Glasses

Equations (5)

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χ(3)=n+1ns+14I3ωI3ω,s1/2χs(3) lc,slc,
χ(3)=[χ(1)]4×10-10[esu],
χ(1)=n2-14π.
χ(3)=A(Eg-1.96)(Eg-1.31)(Eg-0.65)[esu],
Eg>1.96,

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