Abstract

We present the results of ultrafast pump–probe measurements on films of gold-coated gold sulfide nanoshells. The measured change in transmission (ΔT/T) agrees with theoretical calculations that relate the increase in the electron temperature to changes in the Drude and interband components of the gold shell dielectric function. The major contribution physically corresponds to modified screening of the d-band electrons by the conduction electrons in the gold shell. The electrons cool with a lifetime of ∼1.6 ps, indicating a slower cooling rate than is observed in bulk gold.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. A. Prybyla, H. W. K. Tom, and G. D. Aumiller, “Femtosecond time-resolved surface reaction: desorption of Co from Cu(111) in <325 fsec,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 503–506 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. W. S. Fann, R. Storz, H. W. K. Tom, and J. Bokor, “Direct measurement of nonequilibrium electron-energy distributions in subpicosecond laser-heated gold films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2834–2837 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. D. Steinmüller-Nethl, R. A. Höpfel, E. Gornik, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Femtosecond relaxation of localized plasma excitations in Ag islands,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 389–392 (1992).
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  6. T. W. Roberti, B. A. Smith, and J. Z. Zhang, “Ultrafast electron dynamics at the liquid–metal interface: femtosecond studies using surface plasmons in aqueous silver colloid,” J. Chem. Phys. 102, 3860–3866 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J.-Y. Bigot, J.-C. Merle, O. Cregut, and A. Daunois, “Electron dynamics in copper metallic nanoparticles probed with femtosecond optical pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4702–4705 (1995).
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  8. M. Perner, P. Bost, U. Lemmer, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, U. Becker, M. Mennig, M. Schmitt, and H. Schmidt, “Optically induced damping of the surface plasmon resonance in gold colloids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2192–2195 (1997).
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  9. M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, A. Stella, P. Tognini, P. Cheyssac, and R. Kofman, “Ultrafast electronic dynamics in solid and liquid gallium nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3575–3578 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. L. Logunov, T. S. Ahmadi, M. A. El-Sayed, J. T. Khoury, and R. L. Whetten, “Electron dynamics of passivated gold nanocrystals probed by subpicosecond transient absorption spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. 101, 3713–3719 (1997).
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  16. R. D. Averitt, D. Sarkar, and N. J. Halas, “Plasmon resonance shifts of Au-coated Au2S nanoshells: insight into multicomponent nanoparticle growth,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4217–4220 (1997).
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  17. S. J. Oldenburg, R. D. Averitt, S. L. Westcott, and N. J. Halas, “Nanoengineering of optical resonances,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 288, 243–247 (1998).
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    [CrossRef]
  20. H. S. Zhou, I. Honma, H. Komiyama, and J. W. Haus, “Controlled synthesis and quantum-size effect in gold-coated nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 12, 052–12, 056 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  21. C.-K. Sun, F. Vallée, L. H. Acioli, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Femtosecond-tunable measurement of electron thermalization in gold,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 15, 337–15, 348 (1994).
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  22. R. D. Averitt, “Gold nanoshells: optical properties and femtosecond electron dynamics,” Ph.D. dissertation (Rice University, Houston, Tex., 1998).
  23. R. H. M. Groeneveld, R. Sprik, and A. Lagendijk, “Femtosecond spectroscopy of electron–electron and electron–phonon energy relaxation in Ag and Au,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 11, 433–11, 445 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  24. N. E. Christensen and B. O. Seraphin, “Relativistic band calculation and the optical properties of gold,” Phys. Rev. B 4, 3321–3344 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  25. R. Rosei and D. W. Lynch, “Thermomodulation spectra of Al, Au, and Cu,” Phys. Rev. B 5, 3883–3894 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  26. R. Rosei, “Temperature modulation of the optical transitions involving the Fermi surface in Ag: theory,” Phys. Rev. B 10, 474–483 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  27. R. Rosei, F. Antonangeli, and U. M. Grassano, “d bands position and width in gold from very low temperature thermomodulation measurements,” Surf. Sci. 37, 689–699 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  28. M. Guerrisi, R. Rosei, and P. Winsemius, “Splitting of the interband absorption edge in Au,” Phys. Rev. B 12, 557–563 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  29. W. J. Scouler, “Temperature-modulated reflectance of gold from 2 to 10 eV,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 18, 445–448 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  30. K. Ohta and H. Ishida, “Comparison among several numerical integration methods for Kramers–Kronig transformation,” Appl. Spectrosc. 42, 952–957 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  31. S. I. Anisimov, B. L. Kapeliovich, and T. L. Perel’man, “Electron emission from metal surfaces exposed to ultrashort laser pulses,” Sov. Phys. JETP 39, 375–377 (1974) [Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 66, 776–781 (1974)].
  32. W. S. Fann, R. Storz, H. W. K. Tom, and J. Bokor, “Electron thermalization in gold,” Phys. Rev. B 46, 13, 592–13, 595 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  33. C.-K. Sun, F. Vallée, L. Acioli, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Femtosecond investigation of electron thermalization in gold,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 12, 365–12, 368 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  34. M. I. Kaganov, I. M. Lifshitz, and L. V. Tanatarov, “Relaxation between electrons and the crystalline lattice,” Sov. Phys. JETP 4, 173–178 (1957) [Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 31, 232–237 (1956)].
  35. E. A. Manykin, P. P. Poluéktov, and Y. G. Rubezhnyĭ, “Theory of absorption of electromagnetic waves by small particles,” Sov. Phys. JETP 43, 1105–1109 (1976) [Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 70, 2117–2126 (1976)].
  36. E. D. Belotskii and P. M. Tomchuk, “Electron–phonon interaction and hot electrons in small metal islands,” Surf. Sci. 239, 143–155 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  37. S. A. Gorban, S. A. Nepijko, and P. M. Tomchuk, “Electron–phonon interaction in small metal islands deposited on an insulating substrate,” Int. J. Electron. 70, 485–490 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  38. E. D. Belotskii and P. M. Tomchuk, “Surface electron–phonon energy exchange in small metallic particles,” Int. J. Electron. 73, 955–957 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  39. J. Z. Zhang, “Ultrafast studies of electron dynamics in semiconductor and metal colloidal nanoparticles: effects of size and surface,” Acc. Chem. Res. 30, 423–429 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1998 (6)

R. D. Averitt, S. L. Westcott, and N. J. Halas, “Ultrafast electron dynamics in gold nanoshells,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 10, 203–10, 206 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Hodak, I. Martini, and G. V. Hartland, “Ultrafast study of electron-phonon coupling in colloidal gold particles,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 284, 135–141 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Klein-Wiele, P. Simon, and H.-G. Rubahn, “Size-dependent plasmon lifetimes and electron–phonon coupling time constants for surface bound Na clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 45–48 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Klar, M. Perner, S. Grosse, G. von Plessen, W. Spirkl, and J. Feldmann, “Surface-plasmon resonances in single metallic nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4249–4252 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. V. Shahbazyan, I. E. Perakis, and J.-Y. Bigot, “Size-dependent surface plasmon dynamics in metal nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3120–3123 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Oldenburg, R. D. Averitt, S. L. Westcott, and N. J. Halas, “Nanoengineering of optical resonances,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 288, 243–247 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (5)

R. D. Averitt, D. Sarkar, and N. J. Halas, “Plasmon resonance shifts of Au-coated Au2S nanoshells: insight into multicomponent nanoparticle growth,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4217–4220 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Perner, P. Bost, U. Lemmer, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, U. Becker, M. Mennig, M. Schmitt, and H. Schmidt, “Optically induced damping of the surface plasmon resonance in gold colloids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2192–2195 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, A. Stella, P. Tognini, P. Cheyssac, and R. Kofman, “Ultrafast electronic dynamics in solid and liquid gallium nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3575–3578 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Logunov, T. S. Ahmadi, M. A. El-Sayed, J. T. Khoury, and R. L. Whetten, “Electron dynamics of passivated gold nanocrystals probed by subpicosecond transient absorption spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. 101, 3713–3719 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Z. Zhang, “Ultrafast studies of electron dynamics in semiconductor and metal colloidal nanoparticles: effects of size and surface,” Acc. Chem. Res. 30, 423–429 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (3)

T. W. Roberti, B. A. Smith, and J. Z. Zhang, “Ultrafast electron dynamics at the liquid–metal interface: femtosecond studies using surface plasmons in aqueous silver colloid,” J. Chem. Phys. 102, 3860–3866 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J.-Y. Bigot, J.-C. Merle, O. Cregut, and A. Daunois, “Electron dynamics in copper metallic nanoparticles probed with femtosecond optical pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4702–4705 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. H. M. Groeneveld, R. Sprik, and A. Lagendijk, “Femtosecond spectroscopy of electron–electron and electron–phonon energy relaxation in Ag and Au,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 11, 433–11, 445 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

H. S. Zhou, I. Honma, H. Komiyama, and J. W. Haus, “Controlled synthesis and quantum-size effect in gold-coated nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 12, 052–12, 056 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C.-K. Sun, F. Vallée, L. H. Acioli, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Femtosecond-tunable measurement of electron thermalization in gold,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 15, 337–15, 348 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

C.-K. Sun, F. Vallée, L. Acioli, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Femtosecond investigation of electron thermalization in gold,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 12, 365–12, 368 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (5)

W. S. Fann, R. Storz, H. W. K. Tom, and J. Bokor, “Electron thermalization in gold,” Phys. Rev. B 46, 13, 592–13, 595 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Prybyla, H. W. K. Tom, and G. D. Aumiller, “Femtosecond time-resolved surface reaction: desorption of Co from Cu(111) in <325 fsec,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 503–506 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. S. Fann, R. Storz, H. W. K. Tom, and J. Bokor, “Direct measurement of nonequilibrium electron-energy distributions in subpicosecond laser-heated gold films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2834–2837 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Steinmüller-Nethl, R. A. Höpfel, E. Gornik, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Femtosecond relaxation of localized plasma excitations in Ag islands,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 389–392 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. D. Belotskii and P. M. Tomchuk, “Surface electron–phonon energy exchange in small metallic particles,” Int. J. Electron. 73, 955–957 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

S. A. Gorban, S. A. Nepijko, and P. M. Tomchuk, “Electron–phonon interaction in small metal islands deposited on an insulating substrate,” Int. J. Electron. 70, 485–490 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

E. D. Belotskii and P. M. Tomchuk, “Electron–phonon interaction and hot electrons in small metal islands,” Surf. Sci. 239, 143–155 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988 (2)

K. Ohta and H. Ishida, “Comparison among several numerical integration methods for Kramers–Kronig transformation,” Appl. Spectrosc. 42, 952–957 (1988).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Corkum, F. Brunel, N. K. Sherman, and T. Srinivasan-Rao, “Thermal response of metals to ultrashort-pulse laser excitation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2886–2889 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983 (1)

G. L. Eesley, “Observation of nonequilibrium electron heating in copper,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 2140–2143 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

E. A. Manykin, P. P. Poluéktov, and Y. G. Rubezhnyĭ, “Theory of absorption of electromagnetic waves by small particles,” Sov. Phys. JETP 43, 1105–1109 (1976) [Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 70, 2117–2126 (1976)].

1975 (1)

M. Guerrisi, R. Rosei, and P. Winsemius, “Splitting of the interband absorption edge in Au,” Phys. Rev. B 12, 557–563 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974 (2)

R. Rosei, “Temperature modulation of the optical transitions involving the Fermi surface in Ag: theory,” Phys. Rev. B 10, 474–483 (1974).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Anisimov, B. L. Kapeliovich, and T. L. Perel’man, “Electron emission from metal surfaces exposed to ultrashort laser pulses,” Sov. Phys. JETP 39, 375–377 (1974) [Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 66, 776–781 (1974)].

1973 (1)

R. Rosei, F. Antonangeli, and U. M. Grassano, “d bands position and width in gold from very low temperature thermomodulation measurements,” Surf. Sci. 37, 689–699 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

R. Rosei and D. W. Lynch, “Thermomodulation spectra of Al, Au, and Cu,” Phys. Rev. B 5, 3883–3894 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

N. E. Christensen and B. O. Seraphin, “Relativistic band calculation and the optical properties of gold,” Phys. Rev. B 4, 3321–3344 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

W. J. Scouler, “Temperature-modulated reflectance of gold from 2 to 10 eV,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 18, 445–448 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1957 (1)

M. I. Kaganov, I. M. Lifshitz, and L. V. Tanatarov, “Relaxation between electrons and the crystalline lattice,” Sov. Phys. JETP 4, 173–178 (1957) [Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 31, 232–237 (1956)].

Acioli, L.

C.-K. Sun, F. Vallée, L. Acioli, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Femtosecond investigation of electron thermalization in gold,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 12, 365–12, 368 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Acioli, L. H.

C.-K. Sun, F. Vallée, L. H. Acioli, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Femtosecond-tunable measurement of electron thermalization in gold,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 15, 337–15, 348 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ahmadi, T. S.

S. L. Logunov, T. S. Ahmadi, M. A. El-Sayed, J. T. Khoury, and R. L. Whetten, “Electron dynamics of passivated gold nanocrystals probed by subpicosecond transient absorption spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. 101, 3713–3719 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Anisimov, S. I.

S. I. Anisimov, B. L. Kapeliovich, and T. L. Perel’man, “Electron emission from metal surfaces exposed to ultrashort laser pulses,” Sov. Phys. JETP 39, 375–377 (1974) [Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 66, 776–781 (1974)].

Antonangeli, F.

R. Rosei, F. Antonangeli, and U. M. Grassano, “d bands position and width in gold from very low temperature thermomodulation measurements,” Surf. Sci. 37, 689–699 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Aumiller, G. D.

J. A. Prybyla, H. W. K. Tom, and G. D. Aumiller, “Femtosecond time-resolved surface reaction: desorption of Co from Cu(111) in <325 fsec,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 503–506 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aussenegg, F. R.

D. Steinmüller-Nethl, R. A. Höpfel, E. Gornik, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Femtosecond relaxation of localized plasma excitations in Ag islands,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 389–392 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Averitt, R. D.

R. D. Averitt, S. L. Westcott, and N. J. Halas, “The linear optical properties of gold nanoshells,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 1824–1832 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Averitt, S. L. Westcott, and N. J. Halas, “Ultrafast electron dynamics in gold nanoshells,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 10, 203–10, 206 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Oldenburg, R. D. Averitt, S. L. Westcott, and N. J. Halas, “Nanoengineering of optical resonances,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 288, 243–247 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Averitt, D. Sarkar, and N. J. Halas, “Plasmon resonance shifts of Au-coated Au2S nanoshells: insight into multicomponent nanoparticle growth,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4217–4220 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Becker, U.

M. Perner, P. Bost, U. Lemmer, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, U. Becker, M. Mennig, M. Schmitt, and H. Schmidt, “Optically induced damping of the surface plasmon resonance in gold colloids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2192–2195 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Belotskii, E. D.

E. D. Belotskii and P. M. Tomchuk, “Surface electron–phonon energy exchange in small metallic particles,” Int. J. Electron. 73, 955–957 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. D. Belotskii and P. M. Tomchuk, “Electron–phonon interaction and hot electrons in small metal islands,” Surf. Sci. 239, 143–155 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Bigot, J.-Y.

T. V. Shahbazyan, I. E. Perakis, and J.-Y. Bigot, “Size-dependent surface plasmon dynamics in metal nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3120–3123 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J.-Y. Bigot, J.-C. Merle, O. Cregut, and A. Daunois, “Electron dynamics in copper metallic nanoparticles probed with femtosecond optical pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4702–4705 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bokor, J.

W. S. Fann, R. Storz, H. W. K. Tom, and J. Bokor, “Direct measurement of nonequilibrium electron-energy distributions in subpicosecond laser-heated gold films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2834–2837 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. S. Fann, R. Storz, H. W. K. Tom, and J. Bokor, “Electron thermalization in gold,” Phys. Rev. B 46, 13, 592–13, 595 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bost, P.

M. Perner, P. Bost, U. Lemmer, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, U. Becker, M. Mennig, M. Schmitt, and H. Schmidt, “Optically induced damping of the surface plasmon resonance in gold colloids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2192–2195 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Brunel, F.

P. B. Corkum, F. Brunel, N. K. Sherman, and T. Srinivasan-Rao, “Thermal response of metals to ultrashort-pulse laser excitation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2886–2889 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheyssac, P.

M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, A. Stella, P. Tognini, P. Cheyssac, and R. Kofman, “Ultrafast electronic dynamics in solid and liquid gallium nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3575–3578 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Christensen, N. E.

N. E. Christensen and B. O. Seraphin, “Relativistic band calculation and the optical properties of gold,” Phys. Rev. B 4, 3321–3344 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Corkum, P. B.

P. B. Corkum, F. Brunel, N. K. Sherman, and T. Srinivasan-Rao, “Thermal response of metals to ultrashort-pulse laser excitation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2886–2889 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cregut, O.

J.-Y. Bigot, J.-C. Merle, O. Cregut, and A. Daunois, “Electron dynamics in copper metallic nanoparticles probed with femtosecond optical pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4702–4705 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Daunois, A.

J.-Y. Bigot, J.-C. Merle, O. Cregut, and A. Daunois, “Electron dynamics in copper metallic nanoparticles probed with femtosecond optical pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4702–4705 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Silvestri, S.

M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, A. Stella, P. Tognini, P. Cheyssac, and R. Kofman, “Ultrafast electronic dynamics in solid and liquid gallium nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3575–3578 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Eesley, G. L.

G. L. Eesley, “Observation of nonequilibrium electron heating in copper,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 2140–2143 (1983).
[CrossRef]

El-Sayed, M. A.

S. L. Logunov, T. S. Ahmadi, M. A. El-Sayed, J. T. Khoury, and R. L. Whetten, “Electron dynamics of passivated gold nanocrystals probed by subpicosecond transient absorption spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. 101, 3713–3719 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fann, W. S.

W. S. Fann, R. Storz, H. W. K. Tom, and J. Bokor, “Direct measurement of nonequilibrium electron-energy distributions in subpicosecond laser-heated gold films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2834–2837 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. S. Fann, R. Storz, H. W. K. Tom, and J. Bokor, “Electron thermalization in gold,” Phys. Rev. B 46, 13, 592–13, 595 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Feldmann, J.

T. Klar, M. Perner, S. Grosse, G. von Plessen, W. Spirkl, and J. Feldmann, “Surface-plasmon resonances in single metallic nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4249–4252 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Perner, P. Bost, U. Lemmer, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, U. Becker, M. Mennig, M. Schmitt, and H. Schmidt, “Optically induced damping of the surface plasmon resonance in gold colloids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2192–2195 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

C.-K. Sun, F. Vallée, L. H. Acioli, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Femtosecond-tunable measurement of electron thermalization in gold,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 15, 337–15, 348 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C.-K. Sun, F. Vallée, L. Acioli, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Femtosecond investigation of electron thermalization in gold,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 12, 365–12, 368 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gorban, S. A.

S. A. Gorban, S. A. Nepijko, and P. M. Tomchuk, “Electron–phonon interaction in small metal islands deposited on an insulating substrate,” Int. J. Electron. 70, 485–490 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Gornik, E.

D. Steinmüller-Nethl, R. A. Höpfel, E. Gornik, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Femtosecond relaxation of localized plasma excitations in Ag islands,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 389–392 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grassano, U. M.

R. Rosei, F. Antonangeli, and U. M. Grassano, “d bands position and width in gold from very low temperature thermomodulation measurements,” Surf. Sci. 37, 689–699 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Groeneveld, R. H. M.

R. H. M. Groeneveld, R. Sprik, and A. Lagendijk, “Femtosecond spectroscopy of electron–electron and electron–phonon energy relaxation in Ag and Au,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 11, 433–11, 445 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Grosse, S.

T. Klar, M. Perner, S. Grosse, G. von Plessen, W. Spirkl, and J. Feldmann, “Surface-plasmon resonances in single metallic nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4249–4252 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Guerrisi, M.

M. Guerrisi, R. Rosei, and P. Winsemius, “Splitting of the interband absorption edge in Au,” Phys. Rev. B 12, 557–563 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Halas, N. J.

R. D. Averitt, S. L. Westcott, and N. J. Halas, “The linear optical properties of gold nanoshells,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 1824–1832 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Averitt, S. L. Westcott, and N. J. Halas, “Ultrafast electron dynamics in gold nanoshells,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 10, 203–10, 206 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Oldenburg, R. D. Averitt, S. L. Westcott, and N. J. Halas, “Nanoengineering of optical resonances,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 288, 243–247 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Averitt, D. Sarkar, and N. J. Halas, “Plasmon resonance shifts of Au-coated Au2S nanoshells: insight into multicomponent nanoparticle growth,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4217–4220 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hartland, G. V.

J. Hodak, I. Martini, and G. V. Hartland, “Ultrafast study of electron-phonon coupling in colloidal gold particles,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 284, 135–141 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Haus, J. W.

H. S. Zhou, I. Honma, H. Komiyama, and J. W. Haus, “Controlled synthesis and quantum-size effect in gold-coated nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 12, 052–12, 056 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hodak, J.

J. Hodak, I. Martini, and G. V. Hartland, “Ultrafast study of electron-phonon coupling in colloidal gold particles,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 284, 135–141 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Honma, I.

H. S. Zhou, I. Honma, H. Komiyama, and J. W. Haus, “Controlled synthesis and quantum-size effect in gold-coated nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 12, 052–12, 056 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Höpfel, R. A.

D. Steinmüller-Nethl, R. A. Höpfel, E. Gornik, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Femtosecond relaxation of localized plasma excitations in Ag islands,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 389–392 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ippen, E. P.

C.-K. Sun, F. Vallée, L. H. Acioli, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Femtosecond-tunable measurement of electron thermalization in gold,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 15, 337–15, 348 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C.-K. Sun, F. Vallée, L. Acioli, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Femtosecond investigation of electron thermalization in gold,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 12, 365–12, 368 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ishida, H.

Kaganov, M. I.

M. I. Kaganov, I. M. Lifshitz, and L. V. Tanatarov, “Relaxation between electrons and the crystalline lattice,” Sov. Phys. JETP 4, 173–178 (1957) [Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 31, 232–237 (1956)].

Kapeliovich, B. L.

S. I. Anisimov, B. L. Kapeliovich, and T. L. Perel’man, “Electron emission from metal surfaces exposed to ultrashort laser pulses,” Sov. Phys. JETP 39, 375–377 (1974) [Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 66, 776–781 (1974)].

Khoury, J. T.

S. L. Logunov, T. S. Ahmadi, M. A. El-Sayed, J. T. Khoury, and R. L. Whetten, “Electron dynamics of passivated gold nanocrystals probed by subpicosecond transient absorption spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. 101, 3713–3719 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Klar, T.

T. Klar, M. Perner, S. Grosse, G. von Plessen, W. Spirkl, and J. Feldmann, “Surface-plasmon resonances in single metallic nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4249–4252 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Klein-Wiele, J.-H.

J.-H. Klein-Wiele, P. Simon, and H.-G. Rubahn, “Size-dependent plasmon lifetimes and electron–phonon coupling time constants for surface bound Na clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 45–48 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kofman, R.

M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, A. Stella, P. Tognini, P. Cheyssac, and R. Kofman, “Ultrafast electronic dynamics in solid and liquid gallium nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3575–3578 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Komiyama, H.

H. S. Zhou, I. Honma, H. Komiyama, and J. W. Haus, “Controlled synthesis and quantum-size effect in gold-coated nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 12, 052–12, 056 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lagendijk, A.

R. H. M. Groeneveld, R. Sprik, and A. Lagendijk, “Femtosecond spectroscopy of electron–electron and electron–phonon energy relaxation in Ag and Au,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 11, 433–11, 445 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Leitner, A.

D. Steinmüller-Nethl, R. A. Höpfel, E. Gornik, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Femtosecond relaxation of localized plasma excitations in Ag islands,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 389–392 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lemmer, U.

M. Perner, P. Bost, U. Lemmer, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, U. Becker, M. Mennig, M. Schmitt, and H. Schmidt, “Optically induced damping of the surface plasmon resonance in gold colloids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2192–2195 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lifshitz, I. M.

M. I. Kaganov, I. M. Lifshitz, and L. V. Tanatarov, “Relaxation between electrons and the crystalline lattice,” Sov. Phys. JETP 4, 173–178 (1957) [Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 31, 232–237 (1956)].

Logunov, S. L.

S. L. Logunov, T. S. Ahmadi, M. A. El-Sayed, J. T. Khoury, and R. L. Whetten, “Electron dynamics of passivated gold nanocrystals probed by subpicosecond transient absorption spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. 101, 3713–3719 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lynch, D. W.

R. Rosei and D. W. Lynch, “Thermomodulation spectra of Al, Au, and Cu,” Phys. Rev. B 5, 3883–3894 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Manykin, E. A.

E. A. Manykin, P. P. Poluéktov, and Y. G. Rubezhnyĭ, “Theory of absorption of electromagnetic waves by small particles,” Sov. Phys. JETP 43, 1105–1109 (1976) [Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 70, 2117–2126 (1976)].

Martini, I.

J. Hodak, I. Martini, and G. V. Hartland, “Ultrafast study of electron-phonon coupling in colloidal gold particles,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 284, 135–141 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mennig, M.

M. Perner, P. Bost, U. Lemmer, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, U. Becker, M. Mennig, M. Schmitt, and H. Schmidt, “Optically induced damping of the surface plasmon resonance in gold colloids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2192–2195 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Merle, J.-C.

J.-Y. Bigot, J.-C. Merle, O. Cregut, and A. Daunois, “Electron dynamics in copper metallic nanoparticles probed with femtosecond optical pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4702–4705 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nepijko, S. A.

S. A. Gorban, S. A. Nepijko, and P. M. Tomchuk, “Electron–phonon interaction in small metal islands deposited on an insulating substrate,” Int. J. Electron. 70, 485–490 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Nisoli, M.

M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, A. Stella, P. Tognini, P. Cheyssac, and R. Kofman, “Ultrafast electronic dynamics in solid and liquid gallium nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3575–3578 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ohta, K.

Oldenburg, S. J.

S. J. Oldenburg, R. D. Averitt, S. L. Westcott, and N. J. Halas, “Nanoengineering of optical resonances,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 288, 243–247 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Perakis, I. E.

T. V. Shahbazyan, I. E. Perakis, and J.-Y. Bigot, “Size-dependent surface plasmon dynamics in metal nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3120–3123 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Perel’man, T. L.

S. I. Anisimov, B. L. Kapeliovich, and T. L. Perel’man, “Electron emission from metal surfaces exposed to ultrashort laser pulses,” Sov. Phys. JETP 39, 375–377 (1974) [Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 66, 776–781 (1974)].

Perner, M.

T. Klar, M. Perner, S. Grosse, G. von Plessen, W. Spirkl, and J. Feldmann, “Surface-plasmon resonances in single metallic nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4249–4252 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Perner, P. Bost, U. Lemmer, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, U. Becker, M. Mennig, M. Schmitt, and H. Schmidt, “Optically induced damping of the surface plasmon resonance in gold colloids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2192–2195 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Poluéktov, P. P.

E. A. Manykin, P. P. Poluéktov, and Y. G. Rubezhnyĭ, “Theory of absorption of electromagnetic waves by small particles,” Sov. Phys. JETP 43, 1105–1109 (1976) [Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 70, 2117–2126 (1976)].

Prybyla, J. A.

J. A. Prybyla, H. W. K. Tom, and G. D. Aumiller, “Femtosecond time-resolved surface reaction: desorption of Co from Cu(111) in <325 fsec,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 503–506 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roberti, T. W.

T. W. Roberti, B. A. Smith, and J. Z. Zhang, “Ultrafast electron dynamics at the liquid–metal interface: femtosecond studies using surface plasmons in aqueous silver colloid,” J. Chem. Phys. 102, 3860–3866 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rosei, R.

M. Guerrisi, R. Rosei, and P. Winsemius, “Splitting of the interband absorption edge in Au,” Phys. Rev. B 12, 557–563 (1975).
[CrossRef]

R. Rosei, “Temperature modulation of the optical transitions involving the Fermi surface in Ag: theory,” Phys. Rev. B 10, 474–483 (1974).
[CrossRef]

R. Rosei, F. Antonangeli, and U. M. Grassano, “d bands position and width in gold from very low temperature thermomodulation measurements,” Surf. Sci. 37, 689–699 (1973).
[CrossRef]

R. Rosei and D. W. Lynch, “Thermomodulation spectra of Al, Au, and Cu,” Phys. Rev. B 5, 3883–3894 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Rubahn, H.-G.

J.-H. Klein-Wiele, P. Simon, and H.-G. Rubahn, “Size-dependent plasmon lifetimes and electron–phonon coupling time constants for surface bound Na clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 45–48 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rubezhnyi?, Y. G.

E. A. Manykin, P. P. Poluéktov, and Y. G. Rubezhnyĭ, “Theory of absorption of electromagnetic waves by small particles,” Sov. Phys. JETP 43, 1105–1109 (1976) [Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 70, 2117–2126 (1976)].

Sarkar, D.

R. D. Averitt, D. Sarkar, and N. J. Halas, “Plasmon resonance shifts of Au-coated Au2S nanoshells: insight into multicomponent nanoparticle growth,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4217–4220 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, H.

M. Perner, P. Bost, U. Lemmer, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, U. Becker, M. Mennig, M. Schmitt, and H. Schmidt, “Optically induced damping of the surface plasmon resonance in gold colloids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2192–2195 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schmitt, M.

M. Perner, P. Bost, U. Lemmer, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, U. Becker, M. Mennig, M. Schmitt, and H. Schmidt, “Optically induced damping of the surface plasmon resonance in gold colloids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2192–2195 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Scouler, W. J.

W. J. Scouler, “Temperature-modulated reflectance of gold from 2 to 10 eV,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 18, 445–448 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Seraphin, B. O.

N. E. Christensen and B. O. Seraphin, “Relativistic band calculation and the optical properties of gold,” Phys. Rev. B 4, 3321–3344 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Shahbazyan, T. V.

T. V. Shahbazyan, I. E. Perakis, and J.-Y. Bigot, “Size-dependent surface plasmon dynamics in metal nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3120–3123 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sherman, N. K.

P. B. Corkum, F. Brunel, N. K. Sherman, and T. Srinivasan-Rao, “Thermal response of metals to ultrashort-pulse laser excitation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2886–2889 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simon, P.

J.-H. Klein-Wiele, P. Simon, and H.-G. Rubahn, “Size-dependent plasmon lifetimes and electron–phonon coupling time constants for surface bound Na clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 45–48 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Smith, B. A.

T. W. Roberti, B. A. Smith, and J. Z. Zhang, “Ultrafast electron dynamics at the liquid–metal interface: femtosecond studies using surface plasmons in aqueous silver colloid,” J. Chem. Phys. 102, 3860–3866 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Spirkl, W.

T. Klar, M. Perner, S. Grosse, G. von Plessen, W. Spirkl, and J. Feldmann, “Surface-plasmon resonances in single metallic nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4249–4252 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sprik, R.

R. H. M. Groeneveld, R. Sprik, and A. Lagendijk, “Femtosecond spectroscopy of electron–electron and electron–phonon energy relaxation in Ag and Au,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 11, 433–11, 445 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Srinivasan-Rao, T.

P. B. Corkum, F. Brunel, N. K. Sherman, and T. Srinivasan-Rao, “Thermal response of metals to ultrashort-pulse laser excitation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2886–2889 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stagira, S.

M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, A. Stella, P. Tognini, P. Cheyssac, and R. Kofman, “Ultrafast electronic dynamics in solid and liquid gallium nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3575–3578 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Steinmüller-Nethl, D.

D. Steinmüller-Nethl, R. A. Höpfel, E. Gornik, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Femtosecond relaxation of localized plasma excitations in Ag islands,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 389–392 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stella, A.

M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, A. Stella, P. Tognini, P. Cheyssac, and R. Kofman, “Ultrafast electronic dynamics in solid and liquid gallium nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3575–3578 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Storz, R.

W. S. Fann, R. Storz, H. W. K. Tom, and J. Bokor, “Direct measurement of nonequilibrium electron-energy distributions in subpicosecond laser-heated gold films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2834–2837 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. S. Fann, R. Storz, H. W. K. Tom, and J. Bokor, “Electron thermalization in gold,” Phys. Rev. B 46, 13, 592–13, 595 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sun, C.-K.

C.-K. Sun, F. Vallée, L. H. Acioli, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Femtosecond-tunable measurement of electron thermalization in gold,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 15, 337–15, 348 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C.-K. Sun, F. Vallée, L. Acioli, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Femtosecond investigation of electron thermalization in gold,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 12, 365–12, 368 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tanatarov, L. V.

M. I. Kaganov, I. M. Lifshitz, and L. V. Tanatarov, “Relaxation between electrons and the crystalline lattice,” Sov. Phys. JETP 4, 173–178 (1957) [Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 31, 232–237 (1956)].

Tognini, P.

M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, A. Stella, P. Tognini, P. Cheyssac, and R. Kofman, “Ultrafast electronic dynamics in solid and liquid gallium nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3575–3578 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tom, H. W. K.

W. S. Fann, R. Storz, H. W. K. Tom, and J. Bokor, “Direct measurement of nonequilibrium electron-energy distributions in subpicosecond laser-heated gold films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2834–2837 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Prybyla, H. W. K. Tom, and G. D. Aumiller, “Femtosecond time-resolved surface reaction: desorption of Co from Cu(111) in <325 fsec,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 503–506 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. S. Fann, R. Storz, H. W. K. Tom, and J. Bokor, “Electron thermalization in gold,” Phys. Rev. B 46, 13, 592–13, 595 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Tomchuk, P. M.

E. D. Belotskii and P. M. Tomchuk, “Surface electron–phonon energy exchange in small metallic particles,” Int. J. Electron. 73, 955–957 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Gorban, S. A. Nepijko, and P. M. Tomchuk, “Electron–phonon interaction in small metal islands deposited on an insulating substrate,” Int. J. Electron. 70, 485–490 (1991).
[CrossRef]

E. D. Belotskii and P. M. Tomchuk, “Electron–phonon interaction and hot electrons in small metal islands,” Surf. Sci. 239, 143–155 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Vallée, F.

C.-K. Sun, F. Vallée, L. H. Acioli, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Femtosecond-tunable measurement of electron thermalization in gold,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 15, 337–15, 348 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C.-K. Sun, F. Vallée, L. Acioli, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Femtosecond investigation of electron thermalization in gold,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 12, 365–12, 368 (1993).
[CrossRef]

von Plessen, G.

T. Klar, M. Perner, S. Grosse, G. von Plessen, W. Spirkl, and J. Feldmann, “Surface-plasmon resonances in single metallic nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4249–4252 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Perner, P. Bost, U. Lemmer, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, U. Becker, M. Mennig, M. Schmitt, and H. Schmidt, “Optically induced damping of the surface plasmon resonance in gold colloids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2192–2195 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Westcott, S. L.

R. D. Averitt, S. L. Westcott, and N. J. Halas, “The linear optical properties of gold nanoshells,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 1824–1832 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Averitt, S. L. Westcott, and N. J. Halas, “Ultrafast electron dynamics in gold nanoshells,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 10, 203–10, 206 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Oldenburg, R. D. Averitt, S. L. Westcott, and N. J. Halas, “Nanoengineering of optical resonances,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 288, 243–247 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Whetten, R. L.

S. L. Logunov, T. S. Ahmadi, M. A. El-Sayed, J. T. Khoury, and R. L. Whetten, “Electron dynamics of passivated gold nanocrystals probed by subpicosecond transient absorption spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. 101, 3713–3719 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Winsemius, P.

M. Guerrisi, R. Rosei, and P. Winsemius, “Splitting of the interband absorption edge in Au,” Phys. Rev. B 12, 557–563 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J. Z.

J. Z. Zhang, “Ultrafast studies of electron dynamics in semiconductor and metal colloidal nanoparticles: effects of size and surface,” Acc. Chem. Res. 30, 423–429 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Roberti, B. A. Smith, and J. Z. Zhang, “Ultrafast electron dynamics at the liquid–metal interface: femtosecond studies using surface plasmons in aqueous silver colloid,” J. Chem. Phys. 102, 3860–3866 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, H. S.

H. S. Zhou, I. Honma, H. Komiyama, and J. W. Haus, “Controlled synthesis and quantum-size effect in gold-coated nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 12, 052–12, 056 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Acc. Chem. Res. (1)

J. Z. Zhang, “Ultrafast studies of electron dynamics in semiconductor and metal colloidal nanoparticles: effects of size and surface,” Acc. Chem. Res. 30, 423–429 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

Chem. Phys. Lett. (2)

J. Hodak, I. Martini, and G. V. Hartland, “Ultrafast study of electron-phonon coupling in colloidal gold particles,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 284, 135–141 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Oldenburg, R. D. Averitt, S. L. Westcott, and N. J. Halas, “Nanoengineering of optical resonances,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 288, 243–247 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Electron. (2)

S. A. Gorban, S. A. Nepijko, and P. M. Tomchuk, “Electron–phonon interaction in small metal islands deposited on an insulating substrate,” Int. J. Electron. 70, 485–490 (1991).
[CrossRef]

E. D. Belotskii and P. M. Tomchuk, “Surface electron–phonon energy exchange in small metallic particles,” Int. J. Electron. 73, 955–957 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

T. W. Roberti, B. A. Smith, and J. Z. Zhang, “Ultrafast electron dynamics at the liquid–metal interface: femtosecond studies using surface plasmons in aqueous silver colloid,” J. Chem. Phys. 102, 3860–3866 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. Chem. (1)

S. L. Logunov, T. S. Ahmadi, M. A. El-Sayed, J. T. Khoury, and R. L. Whetten, “Electron dynamics of passivated gold nanocrystals probed by subpicosecond transient absorption spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. 101, 3713–3719 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (10)

M. Guerrisi, R. Rosei, and P. Winsemius, “Splitting of the interband absorption edge in Au,” Phys. Rev. B 12, 557–563 (1975).
[CrossRef]

R. H. M. Groeneveld, R. Sprik, and A. Lagendijk, “Femtosecond spectroscopy of electron–electron and electron–phonon energy relaxation in Ag and Au,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 11, 433–11, 445 (1995).
[CrossRef]

N. E. Christensen and B. O. Seraphin, “Relativistic band calculation and the optical properties of gold,” Phys. Rev. B 4, 3321–3344 (1971).
[CrossRef]

R. Rosei and D. W. Lynch, “Thermomodulation spectra of Al, Au, and Cu,” Phys. Rev. B 5, 3883–3894 (1972).
[CrossRef]

R. Rosei, “Temperature modulation of the optical transitions involving the Fermi surface in Ag: theory,” Phys. Rev. B 10, 474–483 (1974).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Fann, R. Storz, H. W. K. Tom, and J. Bokor, “Electron thermalization in gold,” Phys. Rev. B 46, 13, 592–13, 595 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C.-K. Sun, F. Vallée, L. Acioli, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Femtosecond investigation of electron thermalization in gold,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 12, 365–12, 368 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Averitt, S. L. Westcott, and N. J. Halas, “Ultrafast electron dynamics in gold nanoshells,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 10, 203–10, 206 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Zhou, I. Honma, H. Komiyama, and J. W. Haus, “Controlled synthesis and quantum-size effect in gold-coated nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 12, 052–12, 056 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C.-K. Sun, F. Vallée, L. H. Acioli, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Femtosecond-tunable measurement of electron thermalization in gold,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 15, 337–15, 348 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (13)

J.-H. Klein-Wiele, P. Simon, and H.-G. Rubahn, “Size-dependent plasmon lifetimes and electron–phonon coupling time constants for surface bound Na clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 45–48 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Klar, M. Perner, S. Grosse, G. von Plessen, W. Spirkl, and J. Feldmann, “Surface-plasmon resonances in single metallic nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4249–4252 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. V. Shahbazyan, I. E. Perakis, and J.-Y. Bigot, “Size-dependent surface plasmon dynamics in metal nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3120–3123 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J.-Y. Bigot, J.-C. Merle, O. Cregut, and A. Daunois, “Electron dynamics in copper metallic nanoparticles probed with femtosecond optical pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4702–4705 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Perner, P. Bost, U. Lemmer, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, U. Becker, M. Mennig, M. Schmitt, and H. Schmidt, “Optically induced damping of the surface plasmon resonance in gold colloids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2192–2195 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, A. Stella, P. Tognini, P. Cheyssac, and R. Kofman, “Ultrafast electronic dynamics in solid and liquid gallium nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3575–3578 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Eesley, “Observation of nonequilibrium electron heating in copper,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 2140–2143 (1983).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) UV–visible absorption spectrum of a gold nanoshell film. TEM analysis of this sample gives r2=20.7 nm, and calculations give r2-r1=3.3 nm, where r1 is the core radius. (b) Open circles, experimental transient bleaching at 805 nm; solid curve, autocorrelation at the sample point corresponding to 60-fs Gaussian pulses; thick dashed curve, fit of data from Eq. (1) convolved with a 60-fs pulse; thin dashed curve, exponential decay convolved with a 60-fs Gaussian pulse. (c) Expanded view of (b) and representation of the nanoshell geometry (inset).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a), (c) UV–visible absorption spectra of films corresponding to ΔT/T data in (b) and (d), respectively. From TEM analysis and calculations, (a) r2=21.6 nm and r2-r1=3.1 nm, (c) r2=20.9 nm and r2-r1=4.8 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a), (b) Open circles and error bars, measured maximum value of ΔT/T (at ∼300 fs) with increasing pump pulse fluence for the films of Figs. 1(a) and 2(c), respectively, measured at 840 nm (left axis). Solid lines, calculated electron temperature for the pump pulse fluence for the same films (right axis).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Average e-e collision time versus electron temperature in gold from Eq. (11). (b) Change in the average electron collision time with electron temperature assuming that only the e-e scattering changes. (c) View of (b) focusing on the typical electron temperatures for this experiment.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Gold band structure near the L point of the Brillouin zone. The d band and the conduction band are shown with Ef, k0 at L. The d-to-Fermi-level energy is given by ω0+ωf=2.38 eV. Both bands are assumed to be parabolic, with effective masses (m0=9.31×10-31 kg). mu=0.220m0, mu=0.251m0, ml=0.862m0, and ml=0.804m0, as determined from Ref. 24.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison of ΔD and ΔInt at Te=630 K. (a) Dotted curve, ΔIntIm; dashed curve, ΔIntRe. (b) Solid curves, ΔDIm; dotted–dashed curves, ΔDRe. (c) Expanded view of (a) and (b), showing that ΔIntRe is the largest change in the dielectric function of gold over the range where gold nanoshells absorb.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a), (b) Calculated maximum ΔT/T for the films in Figs. 1(a) and 2(c), respectively. The electron temperature is Te=630 K. Solid curves, total ΔT/T; dashed curves, contributions to ΔT/T from Δ2; dashed–dotted curves, contributions to ΔT/T from Δ2. Triangles, experimental points with a fluence corresponding approximately to Te=630 K.

Equations (26)

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ΔT/T=1-exp-tτrexp-tτd+Yoff,
Te=Tl°+Ue/Ce,
Te(ζ)=Tl°+[ζ(1-10-A)]2.3Amaxπw02σabsmax×43πn(r23-r13)32kb-1.
T=exp(-σabsNl)=exp-3n3lρ20λr23α,
ΔTT=-3n3lρ20λr23α2Δ2+α2Δ2,
Δ2=ΔDRe+ΔIntRe,
Δ2=ΔDIm+ΔIntIm.
DRe=1-νp2τ2ν2τ2+1,
DIm=νp2τν(ν2τ2+1),
ΔDRe=-2νp2τ(ν2τ2+1)2Δτ,
ΔDIm=νp2(1-ν2τ2)ν(ν2τ2+1)2Δτ.
1τ=1τe-p+1τe-e+1τe-i+1τe-s.
τe-e(E, Te)(-1)=K (πkbTe)2+(E-Ef)21+exp[(Ef-E)/kbTe],
τe-e-1=τe-e-1(E, Te)=E[f(E)<1]f(E)τe-e-1(E)dEE[f(E)<1]f(E)dE.
intIm(ω, T)=8π2e243m020|Plu|2(ω)2Jlu(ω, T)=κ(ω)2Jlu(ω, T),
Jlu(ω, Te)=Dlu(E, ω)[1-f(E, Te)]dE.
ΔintIm(ω, Te)=κ(ω)2ΔJlu(ω, T)=κ(ω)2
× (Δn)dEω-E-ωf-ω0-muml(E+ωf)1/2.
Δn=-ΔTe f(E, Te)Te.
Δn=f(E, Te1)-f(E, Te2),Te2>Te1.
ΔIntRe(ω1, Te)=2πP 0 ωΔintIm(ω, Te)ω2-ω12dω,
Nt=-αN-GCeN,
Ce(Te) Tet=-G(Te-Tl)+αN,
Cl Tlt=G(Te-Tl)+GCeN,
ΔTe[1-exp(-t/τr)]exp(-t/τd),
G=π2nms26τTl,

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