Abstract

During holographic recording in Bi4Ti3O12 a primary charge grating is compensated for by a slow grating. In the dark or by homogeneous illumination afterward, the diffraction efficiency becomes larger than the maximum value measured in the writing mode. The ratio between the efficiencies depends strongly on the writing beam's intensity and on the grating spacing. Turning on an intense beam additionally in the reading mode temporarily erases the slow compensation grating. Electron–hole or ionic compensation combined with a two-center model for the charge transport is used to account for the observed phenomena.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. J. Amodei and D. L. Staebler, “Holographic pattern fixing in electro-optic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 5406 (1971).
  2. G. Montemezzani and P. Günter, “Thermal hologram fixing in pure and doped KNbO3 crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2323 (1990).
  3. X. Tong, M. Zhang, and A. Yariv, “Thermal fixing of volume holograms in potassium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3966 (1996).
  4. J. P. Herriau and J. P. Huignard, “Hologram fixing at room temperature in photorefractive Bi12SiO20 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 1140 (1986).
  5. L. Arizmendi, “Thermal fixing of holographic grating in Bi12SiO20,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 423 (1988).
  6. M. Miteva and L. Nikolova, “Oscillation behaviour of diffracted light on uniform illumination of holograms in photorefractive Bi12TiO12 crystals,” Opt. Commun. 67, 192 (1988).
  7. E. Rickermann, S. Riehemann, K. Buse, D. Dirksen, and G. von Bally, “Diffraction efficiency enhancement of holographic gratings in Bi12Ti0.76V0.24O20 crystals after recording,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 2299 (1996).
  8. X. Yue, J. Xu, F. Mersch, R. Rupp, and E. Krätzig, “Photorefractive properties of Bi4Ti3O12,” Phys. Rev. B 55, 9495 (1997).
  9. D. Kirillov and J. Feinberg, “Fixable complementary gratings in photorefractive BaTiO3,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1520 (1991).
  10. S. G. Odoulov, A. N. Shumelyuk, U. Hellwig, R. A. Rupp, A. A. Grabar, and I. M. Stoyka, “Photorefraction in tin hypothiodiphosphate in the near infrared,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 2352 (1996).
  11. X. Yue, S. Mendricks, Y. Hu, H. Hesse, and D. Kip, “Photorefractive effect in doped Pb5Ge3O11 and in (Pb1−xBax)5Ge3O11,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3473 (1998).
  12. X. Yue, F. Mersch, R. Rupp, U. Hellwig, and M. Simon, “Holographic recording and beam coupling in ferroelectric Bi4Ti3O12,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 8967 (1996).
  13. X. Yue, F. Mersch, R. A. Rupp, and E. Krätzig, “Absorption gratings in ferroelectric Bi4Ti3O12,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 65, 505 (1997).
  14. G. Montemezzani, M. Zgonik, and P. Günter, “Photorefractive charge compensation at elevated temperatures and application to KNbO3,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 171 (1993).
  15. P. Tayebati and D. Mahgerefteh, “Theory of the photorefractive effect for Bi12SiO20 and BaTiO3 with shallow traps,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 1053 (1991).
  16. G. Montemezzani, M. Ingold, H. Looser, and P. Günter, “Multiple photorefractive gratings in Ce-doped LiNb3 and KNbO3 crystal,” Ferroelectrics 92, 281 (1989).
  17. K. Buse, “Light-induced charge transport processes in photorefractive crystals. I. Models and experimental methods,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 64, 273 (1997).
  18. X. Yue, K. Buse, F. Mersch, R. A. Rupp, and E. Krätzig, “Diffraction efficiency enhancement of photorefractive gratings in Bi4Ti3O12 at low temperatures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 142 (1998).
  19. M. C. Bashaw, T.-P. Ma, and R. C. Barker, “Comparison of single- and two-species models of electron–hole transport in photorefractive media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 1666 (1992).
  20. R. Orlowski and E. Krätzig, “Holographic method for the determination of photoinduced electron and hole transport in electro-optic crystals,” Solid State Commun. 27, 1351 (1978).
  21. K. Buse, J. Frejlich, G. Kuper, and E. Krätzig, “Dark build-up of holograms in BaTiO3 after recording,” Appl. Phys. A: Solids Surf. 57, 437 (1993).
  22. A. L. Smirl, K. Bohnert, G. C. Valley, R. A. Mullen, and T. F. Boggess, “Formation, decay, and erasure of photorefractive gratings written in barium titanate by picosecond pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 606 (1989).
  23. P. Tayebati, “Effect of shallow traps on electron–hole competition in semi-insulating photorefractive materials,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 415 (1992).

1998

X. Yue, S. Mendricks, Y. Hu, H. Hesse, and D. Kip, “Photorefractive effect in doped Pb5Ge3O11 and in (Pb1−xBax)5Ge3O11,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3473 (1998).

X. Yue, K. Buse, F. Mersch, R. A. Rupp, and E. Krätzig, “Diffraction efficiency enhancement of photorefractive gratings in Bi4Ti3O12 at low temperatures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 142 (1998).

1997

X. Yue, J. Xu, F. Mersch, R. Rupp, and E. Krätzig, “Photorefractive properties of Bi4Ti3O12,” Phys. Rev. B 55, 9495 (1997).

K. Buse, “Light-induced charge transport processes in photorefractive crystals. I. Models and experimental methods,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 64, 273 (1997).

X. Yue, F. Mersch, R. A. Rupp, and E. Krätzig, “Absorption gratings in ferroelectric Bi4Ti3O12,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 65, 505 (1997).

1996

X. Yue, F. Mersch, R. Rupp, U. Hellwig, and M. Simon, “Holographic recording and beam coupling in ferroelectric Bi4Ti3O12,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 8967 (1996).

X. Tong, M. Zhang, and A. Yariv, “Thermal fixing of volume holograms in potassium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3966 (1996).

E. Rickermann, S. Riehemann, K. Buse, D. Dirksen, and G. von Bally, “Diffraction efficiency enhancement of holographic gratings in Bi12Ti0.76V0.24O20 crystals after recording,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 2299 (1996).

S. G. Odoulov, A. N. Shumelyuk, U. Hellwig, R. A. Rupp, A. A. Grabar, and I. M. Stoyka, “Photorefraction in tin hypothiodiphosphate in the near infrared,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 2352 (1996).

1993

G. Montemezzani, M. Zgonik, and P. Günter, “Photorefractive charge compensation at elevated temperatures and application to KNbO3,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 171 (1993).

K. Buse, J. Frejlich, G. Kuper, and E. Krätzig, “Dark build-up of holograms in BaTiO3 after recording,” Appl. Phys. A: Solids Surf. 57, 437 (1993).

1992

1991

1990

1989

A. L. Smirl, K. Bohnert, G. C. Valley, R. A. Mullen, and T. F. Boggess, “Formation, decay, and erasure of photorefractive gratings written in barium titanate by picosecond pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 606 (1989).

G. Montemezzani, M. Ingold, H. Looser, and P. Günter, “Multiple photorefractive gratings in Ce-doped LiNb3 and KNbO3 crystal,” Ferroelectrics 92, 281 (1989).

1988

L. Arizmendi, “Thermal fixing of holographic grating in Bi12SiO20,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 423 (1988).

M. Miteva and L. Nikolova, “Oscillation behaviour of diffracted light on uniform illumination of holograms in photorefractive Bi12TiO12 crystals,” Opt. Commun. 67, 192 (1988).

1986

J. P. Herriau and J. P. Huignard, “Hologram fixing at room temperature in photorefractive Bi12SiO20 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 1140 (1986).

1978

R. Orlowski and E. Krätzig, “Holographic method for the determination of photoinduced electron and hole transport in electro-optic crystals,” Solid State Commun. 27, 1351 (1978).

1971

J. J. Amodei and D. L. Staebler, “Holographic pattern fixing in electro-optic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 5406 (1971).

Amodei, J. J.

J. J. Amodei and D. L. Staebler, “Holographic pattern fixing in electro-optic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 5406 (1971).

Arizmendi, L.

L. Arizmendi, “Thermal fixing of holographic grating in Bi12SiO20,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 423 (1988).

Barker, R. C.

Bashaw, M. C.

Boggess, T. F.

Bohnert, K.

Buse, K.

X. Yue, K. Buse, F. Mersch, R. A. Rupp, and E. Krätzig, “Diffraction efficiency enhancement of photorefractive gratings in Bi4Ti3O12 at low temperatures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 142 (1998).

K. Buse, “Light-induced charge transport processes in photorefractive crystals. I. Models and experimental methods,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 64, 273 (1997).

E. Rickermann, S. Riehemann, K. Buse, D. Dirksen, and G. von Bally, “Diffraction efficiency enhancement of holographic gratings in Bi12Ti0.76V0.24O20 crystals after recording,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 2299 (1996).

K. Buse, J. Frejlich, G. Kuper, and E. Krätzig, “Dark build-up of holograms in BaTiO3 after recording,” Appl. Phys. A: Solids Surf. 57, 437 (1993).

Dirksen, D.

Feinberg, J.

Frejlich, J.

K. Buse, J. Frejlich, G. Kuper, and E. Krätzig, “Dark build-up of holograms in BaTiO3 after recording,” Appl. Phys. A: Solids Surf. 57, 437 (1993).

Grabar, A. A.

Günter, P.

Hellwig, U.

X. Yue, F. Mersch, R. Rupp, U. Hellwig, and M. Simon, “Holographic recording and beam coupling in ferroelectric Bi4Ti3O12,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 8967 (1996).

S. G. Odoulov, A. N. Shumelyuk, U. Hellwig, R. A. Rupp, A. A. Grabar, and I. M. Stoyka, “Photorefraction in tin hypothiodiphosphate in the near infrared,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 2352 (1996).

Herriau, J. P.

J. P. Herriau and J. P. Huignard, “Hologram fixing at room temperature in photorefractive Bi12SiO20 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 1140 (1986).

Hesse, H.

X. Yue, S. Mendricks, Y. Hu, H. Hesse, and D. Kip, “Photorefractive effect in doped Pb5Ge3O11 and in (Pb1−xBax)5Ge3O11,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3473 (1998).

Hu, Y.

X. Yue, S. Mendricks, Y. Hu, H. Hesse, and D. Kip, “Photorefractive effect in doped Pb5Ge3O11 and in (Pb1−xBax)5Ge3O11,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3473 (1998).

Huignard, J. P.

J. P. Herriau and J. P. Huignard, “Hologram fixing at room temperature in photorefractive Bi12SiO20 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 1140 (1986).

Ingold, M.

G. Montemezzani, M. Ingold, H. Looser, and P. Günter, “Multiple photorefractive gratings in Ce-doped LiNb3 and KNbO3 crystal,” Ferroelectrics 92, 281 (1989).

Kip, D.

X. Yue, S. Mendricks, Y. Hu, H. Hesse, and D. Kip, “Photorefractive effect in doped Pb5Ge3O11 and in (Pb1−xBax)5Ge3O11,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3473 (1998).

Kirillov, D.

Krätzig, E.

X. Yue, K. Buse, F. Mersch, R. A. Rupp, and E. Krätzig, “Diffraction efficiency enhancement of photorefractive gratings in Bi4Ti3O12 at low temperatures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 142 (1998).

X. Yue, J. Xu, F. Mersch, R. Rupp, and E. Krätzig, “Photorefractive properties of Bi4Ti3O12,” Phys. Rev. B 55, 9495 (1997).

X. Yue, F. Mersch, R. A. Rupp, and E. Krätzig, “Absorption gratings in ferroelectric Bi4Ti3O12,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 65, 505 (1997).

K. Buse, J. Frejlich, G. Kuper, and E. Krätzig, “Dark build-up of holograms in BaTiO3 after recording,” Appl. Phys. A: Solids Surf. 57, 437 (1993).

R. Orlowski and E. Krätzig, “Holographic method for the determination of photoinduced electron and hole transport in electro-optic crystals,” Solid State Commun. 27, 1351 (1978).

Kuper, G.

K. Buse, J. Frejlich, G. Kuper, and E. Krätzig, “Dark build-up of holograms in BaTiO3 after recording,” Appl. Phys. A: Solids Surf. 57, 437 (1993).

Looser, H.

G. Montemezzani, M. Ingold, H. Looser, and P. Günter, “Multiple photorefractive gratings in Ce-doped LiNb3 and KNbO3 crystal,” Ferroelectrics 92, 281 (1989).

Ma, T.-P.

Mahgerefteh, D.

Mendricks, S.

X. Yue, S. Mendricks, Y. Hu, H. Hesse, and D. Kip, “Photorefractive effect in doped Pb5Ge3O11 and in (Pb1−xBax)5Ge3O11,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3473 (1998).

Mersch, F.

X. Yue, K. Buse, F. Mersch, R. A. Rupp, and E. Krätzig, “Diffraction efficiency enhancement of photorefractive gratings in Bi4Ti3O12 at low temperatures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 142 (1998).

X. Yue, J. Xu, F. Mersch, R. Rupp, and E. Krätzig, “Photorefractive properties of Bi4Ti3O12,” Phys. Rev. B 55, 9495 (1997).

X. Yue, F. Mersch, R. A. Rupp, and E. Krätzig, “Absorption gratings in ferroelectric Bi4Ti3O12,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 65, 505 (1997).

X. Yue, F. Mersch, R. Rupp, U. Hellwig, and M. Simon, “Holographic recording and beam coupling in ferroelectric Bi4Ti3O12,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 8967 (1996).

Miteva, M.

M. Miteva and L. Nikolova, “Oscillation behaviour of diffracted light on uniform illumination of holograms in photorefractive Bi12TiO12 crystals,” Opt. Commun. 67, 192 (1988).

Montemezzani, G.

Mullen, R. A.

Nikolova, L.

M. Miteva and L. Nikolova, “Oscillation behaviour of diffracted light on uniform illumination of holograms in photorefractive Bi12TiO12 crystals,” Opt. Commun. 67, 192 (1988).

Odoulov, S. G.

Orlowski, R.

R. Orlowski and E. Krätzig, “Holographic method for the determination of photoinduced electron and hole transport in electro-optic crystals,” Solid State Commun. 27, 1351 (1978).

Rickermann, E.

Riehemann, S.

Rupp, R.

X. Yue, J. Xu, F. Mersch, R. Rupp, and E. Krätzig, “Photorefractive properties of Bi4Ti3O12,” Phys. Rev. B 55, 9495 (1997).

X. Yue, F. Mersch, R. Rupp, U. Hellwig, and M. Simon, “Holographic recording and beam coupling in ferroelectric Bi4Ti3O12,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 8967 (1996).

Rupp, R. A.

X. Yue, K. Buse, F. Mersch, R. A. Rupp, and E. Krätzig, “Diffraction efficiency enhancement of photorefractive gratings in Bi4Ti3O12 at low temperatures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 142 (1998).

X. Yue, F. Mersch, R. A. Rupp, and E. Krätzig, “Absorption gratings in ferroelectric Bi4Ti3O12,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 65, 505 (1997).

S. G. Odoulov, A. N. Shumelyuk, U. Hellwig, R. A. Rupp, A. A. Grabar, and I. M. Stoyka, “Photorefraction in tin hypothiodiphosphate in the near infrared,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 2352 (1996).

Shumelyuk, A. N.

Simon, M.

X. Yue, F. Mersch, R. Rupp, U. Hellwig, and M. Simon, “Holographic recording and beam coupling in ferroelectric Bi4Ti3O12,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 8967 (1996).

Smirl, A. L.

Staebler, D. L.

J. J. Amodei and D. L. Staebler, “Holographic pattern fixing in electro-optic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 5406 (1971).

Stoyka, I. M.

Tayebati, P.

Tong, X.

X. Tong, M. Zhang, and A. Yariv, “Thermal fixing of volume holograms in potassium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3966 (1996).

Valley, G. C.

von Bally, G.

Xu, J.

X. Yue, J. Xu, F. Mersch, R. Rupp, and E. Krätzig, “Photorefractive properties of Bi4Ti3O12,” Phys. Rev. B 55, 9495 (1997).

Yariv, A.

X. Tong, M. Zhang, and A. Yariv, “Thermal fixing of volume holograms in potassium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3966 (1996).

Yue, X.

X. Yue, S. Mendricks, Y. Hu, H. Hesse, and D. Kip, “Photorefractive effect in doped Pb5Ge3O11 and in (Pb1−xBax)5Ge3O11,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3473 (1998).

X. Yue, K. Buse, F. Mersch, R. A. Rupp, and E. Krätzig, “Diffraction efficiency enhancement of photorefractive gratings in Bi4Ti3O12 at low temperatures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 142 (1998).

X. Yue, J. Xu, F. Mersch, R. Rupp, and E. Krätzig, “Photorefractive properties of Bi4Ti3O12,” Phys. Rev. B 55, 9495 (1997).

X. Yue, F. Mersch, R. A. Rupp, and E. Krätzig, “Absorption gratings in ferroelectric Bi4Ti3O12,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 65, 505 (1997).

X. Yue, F. Mersch, R. Rupp, U. Hellwig, and M. Simon, “Holographic recording and beam coupling in ferroelectric Bi4Ti3O12,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 8967 (1996).

Zgonik, M.

Zhang, M.

X. Tong, M. Zhang, and A. Yariv, “Thermal fixing of volume holograms in potassium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3966 (1996).

Appl. Phys. A: Solids Surf.

K. Buse, J. Frejlich, G. Kuper, and E. Krätzig, “Dark build-up of holograms in BaTiO3 after recording,” Appl. Phys. A: Solids Surf. 57, 437 (1993).

Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt.

X. Yue, F. Mersch, R. A. Rupp, and E. Krätzig, “Absorption gratings in ferroelectric Bi4Ti3O12,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 65, 505 (1997).

K. Buse, “Light-induced charge transport processes in photorefractive crystals. I. Models and experimental methods,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 64, 273 (1997).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

X. Tong, M. Zhang, and A. Yariv, “Thermal fixing of volume holograms in potassium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3966 (1996).

J. P. Herriau and J. P. Huignard, “Hologram fixing at room temperature in photorefractive Bi12SiO20 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 1140 (1986).

J. J. Amodei and D. L. Staebler, “Holographic pattern fixing in electro-optic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 5406 (1971).

Ferroelectrics

G. Montemezzani, M. Ingold, H. Looser, and P. Günter, “Multiple photorefractive gratings in Ce-doped LiNb3 and KNbO3 crystal,” Ferroelectrics 92, 281 (1989).

J. Appl. Phys.

X. Yue, S. Mendricks, Y. Hu, H. Hesse, and D. Kip, “Photorefractive effect in doped Pb5Ge3O11 and in (Pb1−xBax)5Ge3O11,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3473 (1998).

L. Arizmendi, “Thermal fixing of holographic grating in Bi12SiO20,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 423 (1988).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

X. Yue, K. Buse, F. Mersch, R. A. Rupp, and E. Krätzig, “Diffraction efficiency enhancement of photorefractive gratings in Bi4Ti3O12 at low temperatures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 142 (1998).

A. L. Smirl, K. Bohnert, G. C. Valley, R. A. Mullen, and T. F. Boggess, “Formation, decay, and erasure of photorefractive gratings written in barium titanate by picosecond pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 606 (1989).

P. Tayebati and D. Mahgerefteh, “Theory of the photorefractive effect for Bi12SiO20 and BaTiO3 with shallow traps,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 1053 (1991).

P. Tayebati, “Effect of shallow traps on electron–hole competition in semi-insulating photorefractive materials,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 415 (1992).

M. C. Bashaw, T.-P. Ma, and R. C. Barker, “Comparison of single- and two-species models of electron–hole transport in photorefractive media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 1666 (1992).

E. Rickermann, S. Riehemann, K. Buse, D. Dirksen, and G. von Bally, “Diffraction efficiency enhancement of holographic gratings in Bi12Ti0.76V0.24O20 crystals after recording,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 2299 (1996).

S. G. Odoulov, A. N. Shumelyuk, U. Hellwig, R. A. Rupp, A. A. Grabar, and I. M. Stoyka, “Photorefraction in tin hypothiodiphosphate in the near infrared,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 2352 (1996).

G. Montemezzani, M. Zgonik, and P. Günter, “Photorefractive charge compensation at elevated temperatures and application to KNbO3,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 171 (1993).

G. Montemezzani and P. Günter, “Thermal hologram fixing in pure and doped KNbO3 crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2323 (1990).

Opt. Commun.

M. Miteva and L. Nikolova, “Oscillation behaviour of diffracted light on uniform illumination of holograms in photorefractive Bi12TiO12 crystals,” Opt. Commun. 67, 192 (1988).

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. B

X. Yue, F. Mersch, R. Rupp, U. Hellwig, and M. Simon, “Holographic recording and beam coupling in ferroelectric Bi4Ti3O12,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 8967 (1996).

X. Yue, J. Xu, F. Mersch, R. Rupp, and E. Krätzig, “Photorefractive properties of Bi4Ti3O12,” Phys. Rev. B 55, 9495 (1997).

Solid State Commun.

R. Orlowski and E. Krätzig, “Holographic method for the determination of photoinduced electron and hole transport in electro-optic crystals,” Solid State Commun. 27, 1351 (1978).

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