Abstract

A detailed experimental study of the holographic gratings recorded in nonannealed amorphous As2S3 films by 514.5-nm light in the presence of 632.8-nm readout light is carried out. A strong influence of a continuous 632.8-nm readout is found. The dependences of the maximal first-order diffraction efficiency and the corresponding specific recording energy on the holographic grating period were studied in a wide range of periods from 0.40 to 70.0 μm for 2-yr-old films. The obtained results are discussed in terms of photoinduced structural changes, relaxational structural changes, photoinduced anisotropy, and photoinduced recharging of the localized states in the bandgap. The photoinduced sulphur related D-- and D+-center orientation mechanism is proposed to explain the stimulating action of 632.8-nm light.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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J. Teteris, Proc. SPIE 2968, 260 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Ozols, N. Nordman, and O. Nordman, Opt. Commun. 136, 365 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Teteris and O. Nordman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2498 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Ozols, N. Nordman, O. Nordman, and P. Riihola, Phys. Rev. B 55, 14236 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

H. Fritzsche, Solid State Commun. 99, 153 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Tyurin, A. Yu. Popov, V. E. Mandel, and V. M. Belous, Fiz. Tverd. Tela (Leningrad) 38, 379 (1996) (in Russian).

A. Ozols, O. Salminen, P. Riihola, and P. Mönkkönen, J. Appl. Phys. 79, 3397 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Iovu and E. G. Khanchevskaya, Phys. Status Solidi A 156, 375 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

O. Salminen, N. Nordman, P. Riihola, and A. Ozols, Opt. Commun. 116(5), 310–315 (1995).
[CrossRef]

O. Salminen, A. Ozols, P. Riihola, and P. Mönkkönen, J. Appl. Phys. 78, 718 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Hisakuni and K. Tanaka, Science 270, 974 (1995).
[CrossRef]

V. K. Tikhomirov and S. R. Elliot, Phys. Rev. B 51, 5538 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

V. M. Lyubin and V. K. Tikhomirov, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 171, 87 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Ozols, O. Salminen, and M. Reinfelde, J. Appl. Phys. 75, 3326 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Kolobov and G. J. Adriaenssens, Philos. Mag. B 69, 21 (1994).
[CrossRef]

O. I. Shpotyuk, Phys. Status Solidi B 183, 365 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

D. Ležal, K. Konak, S. Polakova, and B. Petrovska, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 161, 301 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. Michelotti, E. Fazio, F. Senesi, M. Bertolotti, V. Chumash, and A. Andriesh, Opt. Commun. 101, 74 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

V. K. Tikhomirov, Fiz. Tekh. Poluprovodn. 26, 1415 (1992) (in Russian).

K. Shimakawa, S. Inami, T. Kato, and S. R. Elliott, Phys. Rev. B 46, 10062 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Reinfelde, O. Salminen, and P. Ketolainen, Opt. Lett. 17, 1085 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991

V. M. Lyubin and V. K. Tikhomirov, JETP Lett. 51, 587 (1991).

G. Pfeiffer, M. A. Paesler, and S. C. Agarwal, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 130, 111 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Elliot, Nature 354, 445 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989

D. K. Tagantsev and S. V. Nemilov, Fiz. Khim. Stekla 15, 397 (1989) (in Russian).

1987

P. Augustov and A. Ozols, Latvijas PSR Zinātnu Akadēmijas Vēstis, Fiz. Tekh. Zin. Sērija 4, 21 (1987).

I. Manika and J. Teteris, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 90, 505 (1987).
[CrossRef]

G. Pfeiffer, M. A. Paesler, and J. M. Lee, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 97&98, 379 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986

B. Kumar and K. White, Thin Solid Films 135, L13 (1986).
[CrossRef]

M. Hamman and J. J. Santiago, Solid State Commun. 59, 725 (1986).
[CrossRef]

A. Z. Lowe, S. R. Elliot, and G. N. Greaves, Philos. Mag. B 54(6), 483 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1981

K. J. Rao and R. Mohan, Solid State Commun. 39, 1065 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980

D. J. Treacy, U. Strom, P. Klein, P. C. Taylor, and T. P. Martin, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 35–36, 1035 (1980).
[CrossRef]

K. Tanaka, Solid State Commun. 34, 201 (1980).
[CrossRef]

M. Iijima and S. Kurita, J. Appl. Phys. 51, 2103 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1969

H. Kogelnik, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Adriaenssens, G. J.

A. V. Kolobov and G. J. Adriaenssens, Philos. Mag. B 69, 21 (1994).
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Agarwal, S. C.

G. Pfeiffer, M. A. Paesler, and S. C. Agarwal, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 130, 111 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Andriesh, A.

F. Michelotti, E. Fazio, F. Senesi, M. Bertolotti, V. Chumash, and A. Andriesh, Opt. Commun. 101, 74 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Augustov, P.

P. Augustov and A. Ozols, Latvijas PSR Zinātnu Akadēmijas Vēstis, Fiz. Tekh. Zin. Sērija 4, 21 (1987).

Belous, V. M.

A. V. Tyurin, A. Yu. Popov, V. E. Mandel, and V. M. Belous, Fiz. Tverd. Tela (Leningrad) 38, 379 (1996) (in Russian).

Bertolotti, M.

F. Michelotti, E. Fazio, F. Senesi, M. Bertolotti, V. Chumash, and A. Andriesh, Opt. Commun. 101, 74 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chumash, V.

F. Michelotti, E. Fazio, F. Senesi, M. Bertolotti, V. Chumash, and A. Andriesh, Opt. Commun. 101, 74 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Elliot, S. R.

V. K. Tikhomirov and S. R. Elliot, Phys. Rev. B 51, 5538 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Elliot, Nature 354, 445 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. Z. Lowe, S. R. Elliot, and G. N. Greaves, Philos. Mag. B 54(6), 483 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Elliott, S. R.

K. Shimakawa, S. Inami, T. Kato, and S. R. Elliott, Phys. Rev. B 46, 10062 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Fazio, E.

F. Michelotti, E. Fazio, F. Senesi, M. Bertolotti, V. Chumash, and A. Andriesh, Opt. Commun. 101, 74 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Fritzsche, H.

H. Fritzsche, Solid State Commun. 99, 153 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Greaves, G. N.

A. Z. Lowe, S. R. Elliot, and G. N. Greaves, Philos. Mag. B 54(6), 483 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Hamman, M.

M. Hamman and J. J. Santiago, Solid State Commun. 59, 725 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Hisakuni, H.

H. Hisakuni and K. Tanaka, Science 270, 974 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Iijima, M.

M. Iijima and S. Kurita, J. Appl. Phys. 51, 2103 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Inami, S.

K. Shimakawa, S. Inami, T. Kato, and S. R. Elliott, Phys. Rev. B 46, 10062 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Iovu, M. S.

M. S. Iovu and E. G. Khanchevskaya, Phys. Status Solidi A 156, 375 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kato, T.

K. Shimakawa, S. Inami, T. Kato, and S. R. Elliott, Phys. Rev. B 46, 10062 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ketolainen, P.

Khanchevskaya, E. G.

M. S. Iovu and E. G. Khanchevskaya, Phys. Status Solidi A 156, 375 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Klein, P.

D. J. Treacy, U. Strom, P. Klein, P. C. Taylor, and T. P. Martin, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 35–36, 1035 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Kogelnik, H.

H. Kogelnik, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Kolobov, A. V.

A. V. Kolobov and G. J. Adriaenssens, Philos. Mag. B 69, 21 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Konak, K.

D. Ležal, K. Konak, S. Polakova, and B. Petrovska, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 161, 301 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, B.

B. Kumar and K. White, Thin Solid Films 135, L13 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Kurita, S.

M. Iijima and S. Kurita, J. Appl. Phys. 51, 2103 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. M.

G. Pfeiffer, M. A. Paesler, and J. M. Lee, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 97&98, 379 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Ležal, D.

D. Ležal, K. Konak, S. Polakova, and B. Petrovska, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 161, 301 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lowe, A. Z.

A. Z. Lowe, S. R. Elliot, and G. N. Greaves, Philos. Mag. B 54(6), 483 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Lyubin, V. M.

V. M. Lyubin and V. K. Tikhomirov, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 171, 87 (1994).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Lyubin and V. K. Tikhomirov, JETP Lett. 51, 587 (1991).

Mandel, V. E.

A. V. Tyurin, A. Yu. Popov, V. E. Mandel, and V. M. Belous, Fiz. Tverd. Tela (Leningrad) 38, 379 (1996) (in Russian).

Manika, I.

I. Manika and J. Teteris, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 90, 505 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Martin, T. P.

D. J. Treacy, U. Strom, P. Klein, P. C. Taylor, and T. P. Martin, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 35–36, 1035 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Michelotti, F.

F. Michelotti, E. Fazio, F. Senesi, M. Bertolotti, V. Chumash, and A. Andriesh, Opt. Commun. 101, 74 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mohan, R.

K. J. Rao and R. Mohan, Solid State Commun. 39, 1065 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Mönkkönen, P.

A. Ozols, O. Salminen, P. Riihola, and P. Mönkkönen, J. Appl. Phys. 79, 3397 (1996).
[CrossRef]

O. Salminen, A. Ozols, P. Riihola, and P. Mönkkönen, J. Appl. Phys. 78, 718 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nemilov, S. V.

D. K. Tagantsev and S. V. Nemilov, Fiz. Khim. Stekla 15, 397 (1989) (in Russian).

Nordman, N.

A. Ozols, N. Nordman, and O. Nordman, Opt. Commun. 136, 365 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Ozols, N. Nordman, O. Salminen, and P. Riihola, Proc. SPIE 2968, 282 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Ozols, N. Nordman, O. Nordman, and P. Riihola, Phys. Rev. B 55, 14236 (1997).
[CrossRef]

O. Salminen, N. Nordman, P. Riihola, and A. Ozols, Opt. Commun. 116(5), 310–315 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nordman, O.

A. Ozols, N. Nordman, and O. Nordman, Opt. Commun. 136, 365 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Teteris and O. Nordman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2498 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Ozols, N. Nordman, O. Nordman, and P. Riihola, Phys. Rev. B 55, 14236 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ozols, A.

A. Ozols, N. Nordman, O. Nordman, and P. Riihola, Phys. Rev. B 55, 14236 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Ozols, N. Nordman, and O. Nordman, Opt. Commun. 136, 365 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Ozols, N. Nordman, O. Salminen, and P. Riihola, Proc. SPIE 2968, 282 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Ozols, O. Salminen, P. Riihola, and P. Mönkkönen, J. Appl. Phys. 79, 3397 (1996).
[CrossRef]

O. Salminen, A. Ozols, P. Riihola, and P. Mönkkönen, J. Appl. Phys. 78, 718 (1995).
[CrossRef]

O. Salminen, N. Nordman, P. Riihola, and A. Ozols, Opt. Commun. 116(5), 310–315 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Ozols, O. Salminen, and M. Reinfelde, J. Appl. Phys. 75, 3326 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. Augustov and A. Ozols, Latvijas PSR Zinātnu Akadēmijas Vēstis, Fiz. Tekh. Zin. Sērija 4, 21 (1987).

Paesler, M. A.

G. Pfeiffer, M. A. Paesler, and S. C. Agarwal, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 130, 111 (1991).
[CrossRef]

G. Pfeiffer, M. A. Paesler, and J. M. Lee, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 97&98, 379 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Petrovska, B.

D. Ležal, K. Konak, S. Polakova, and B. Petrovska, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 161, 301 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Pfeiffer, G.

G. Pfeiffer, M. A. Paesler, and S. C. Agarwal, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 130, 111 (1991).
[CrossRef]

G. Pfeiffer, M. A. Paesler, and J. M. Lee, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 97&98, 379 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Polakova, S.

D. Ležal, K. Konak, S. Polakova, and B. Petrovska, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 161, 301 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Popov, A. Yu.

A. V. Tyurin, A. Yu. Popov, V. E. Mandel, and V. M. Belous, Fiz. Tverd. Tela (Leningrad) 38, 379 (1996) (in Russian).

Rao, K. J.

K. J. Rao and R. Mohan, Solid State Commun. 39, 1065 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Reinfelde, M.

A. Ozols, O. Salminen, and M. Reinfelde, J. Appl. Phys. 75, 3326 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Reinfelde, O. Salminen, and P. Ketolainen, Opt. Lett. 17, 1085 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Riihola, P.

A. Ozols, N. Nordman, O. Nordman, and P. Riihola, Phys. Rev. B 55, 14236 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Ozols, N. Nordman, O. Salminen, and P. Riihola, Proc. SPIE 2968, 282 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Ozols, O. Salminen, P. Riihola, and P. Mönkkönen, J. Appl. Phys. 79, 3397 (1996).
[CrossRef]

O. Salminen, A. Ozols, P. Riihola, and P. Mönkkönen, J. Appl. Phys. 78, 718 (1995).
[CrossRef]

O. Salminen, N. Nordman, P. Riihola, and A. Ozols, Opt. Commun. 116(5), 310–315 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Salminen, O.

A. Ozols, N. Nordman, O. Salminen, and P. Riihola, Proc. SPIE 2968, 282 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Ozols, O. Salminen, P. Riihola, and P. Mönkkönen, J. Appl. Phys. 79, 3397 (1996).
[CrossRef]

O. Salminen, A. Ozols, P. Riihola, and P. Mönkkönen, J. Appl. Phys. 78, 718 (1995).
[CrossRef]

O. Salminen, N. Nordman, P. Riihola, and A. Ozols, Opt. Commun. 116(5), 310–315 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Ozols, O. Salminen, and M. Reinfelde, J. Appl. Phys. 75, 3326 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Reinfelde, O. Salminen, and P. Ketolainen, Opt. Lett. 17, 1085 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Santiago, J. J.

M. Hamman and J. J. Santiago, Solid State Commun. 59, 725 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Senesi, F.

F. Michelotti, E. Fazio, F. Senesi, M. Bertolotti, V. Chumash, and A. Andriesh, Opt. Commun. 101, 74 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Shimakawa, K.

K. Shimakawa, S. Inami, T. Kato, and S. R. Elliott, Phys. Rev. B 46, 10062 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Shpotyuk, O. I.

O. I. Shpotyuk, Phys. Status Solidi B 183, 365 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Strom, U.

D. J. Treacy, U. Strom, P. Klein, P. C. Taylor, and T. P. Martin, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 35–36, 1035 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Tagantsev, D. K.

D. K. Tagantsev and S. V. Nemilov, Fiz. Khim. Stekla 15, 397 (1989) (in Russian).

Tanaka, K.

H. Hisakuni and K. Tanaka, Science 270, 974 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Tanaka, Solid State Commun. 34, 201 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, P. C.

D. J. Treacy, U. Strom, P. Klein, P. C. Taylor, and T. P. Martin, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 35–36, 1035 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Teteris, J.

J. Teteris, Proc. SPIE 2968, 260 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Teteris and O. Nordman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2498 (1997).
[CrossRef]

I. Manika and J. Teteris, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 90, 505 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Tikhomirov, V. K.

V. K. Tikhomirov and S. R. Elliot, Phys. Rev. B 51, 5538 (1995).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Lyubin and V. K. Tikhomirov, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 171, 87 (1994).
[CrossRef]

V. K. Tikhomirov, Fiz. Tekh. Poluprovodn. 26, 1415 (1992) (in Russian).

V. M. Lyubin and V. K. Tikhomirov, JETP Lett. 51, 587 (1991).

Treacy, D. J.

D. J. Treacy, U. Strom, P. Klein, P. C. Taylor, and T. P. Martin, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 35–36, 1035 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Tyurin, A. V.

A. V. Tyurin, A. Yu. Popov, V. E. Mandel, and V. M. Belous, Fiz. Tverd. Tela (Leningrad) 38, 379 (1996) (in Russian).

White, K.

B. Kumar and K. White, Thin Solid Films 135, L13 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Bell Syst. Tech. J.

H. Kogelnik, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Fiz. Khim. Stekla

D. K. Tagantsev and S. V. Nemilov, Fiz. Khim. Stekla 15, 397 (1989) (in Russian).

Fiz. Tekh. Poluprovodn.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Measuring setup: M’s, mirrors; BS, beam splitter; T, timer; PD, photodetector.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Maximal first-order diffraction efficiency η1 max versus the grating period Λ for four recording modes: mode 1, solid circles and solid curve; mode 2, hollow circles and dot-dash curve; mode 3, solid triangles and dashed curve; mode 4, hollow squares and dotted curve.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Specific recording energy Wmax defined by Eq. (4) versus the grating period Λ for four recording modes. The modes are marked as in Fig. 2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Curve 1 (filled squares and dashed curve): Maximal first-order diffraction efficiency η1 max for the subbandgap light recording at λ1=λ2=632.8 nm, I632.8=0.23 W/cm2 as a function of the grating period Λ. Values are taken from Ref. 32. Curve 2 (solid triangles and dotted curve): Corresponding (Curve 1) refractive-index changes Δn=2n1. Curve 3 (solid circles and solid curve): The η1 max versus Λ curve for PSC-based recording in the mode 4 (present work) is given as a comparison.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Recording Modes Used to Study the Influence of the 632.8-nm Readout Light on the Holographic Characteristics

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

2As30+S20photonω1As2++As2-+S20phononkTAs30+S3++As2-.
Δσ=d-dcΛ,
Δσ=Δσ1+Δσ2
Wmax=Emaxη1 max.
η1=(1-R1)(1-R2)(1-R3)exp-κ0dcos θi×sinh2 κ1d4 cos θi+sin2 πn1dλ2 cos θi.

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