Abstract

Images of the charge distribution at the surface of a photorefractive Bi12SiO20 crystal were obtained by electrostatic force detection with an atomic force microscope. The images show charge gratings with periods of 1.6 and 0.23 μm written by two intersecting laser beams at 514 nm. In addition, they reveal a microstructure in the charge distribution that is caused by surface inhomogeneities. Grating profiles obtained at different writing fluences permit the study of saturation processes. The polarity of the charge carriers was determined by measurement of the phase shift between the light grating and the charge grating.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. A. Rupp and E. Krätzig, Phys. Status Solidi A 72, K5 (1982).
    [Crossref]
  2. S. C. Som, S. K. Ghorai, and A. Satpathi, Opt. Quantum Electron. 25, 241 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  3. S. Chiku, T. Horiuchi, T. Shiosaki, and K. Matsushige, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, 5408 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  4. M. Hipp, J. Mertz, J. Mlynek, and O. Marti, in Photons and Local Probes, O. Marti and R. Möller, eds. (Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1995).
  5. B. D. Terris, J. E. Stern, D. Rugar, and H. J. Mamin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 2669 (1989).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. R. Guckenberger, M. Heim, G. Cevc, H. F. Knapp, W. Wiegräbe, and A. Hillebrand, Science 266, 1538 (1994).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. The BSO crystal was grown at the Institute for Atomic Physics, Bucharest, Romania.
  8. C. Schönenberger, Phys. Rev. B 45, 3861 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  9. E. Soergel, W. Krieger, and V. Vlad, Appl. Phys. A 66, 337 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  10. J.-P. Huignard and F. Micheron, Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 591 (1976);G. C. Valley, Appl. Opt. 22, 3160 (1983).
    [Crossref]
  11. G. C. Valley and M. B. Klein, Opt. Eng. 22, 704 (1983);L. Arizmendi, J. M. Cabrera, and F. Agnello, Int. J. Optoelectron. 7, 149 (1992).
    [Crossref]

1998 (1)

E. Soergel, W. Krieger, and V. Vlad, Appl. Phys. A 66, 337 (1998).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

S. Chiku, T. Horiuchi, T. Shiosaki, and K. Matsushige, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, 5408 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

R. Guckenberger, M. Heim, G. Cevc, H. F. Knapp, W. Wiegräbe, and A. Hillebrand, Science 266, 1538 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

S. C. Som, S. K. Ghorai, and A. Satpathi, Opt. Quantum Electron. 25, 241 (1993).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

C. Schönenberger, Phys. Rev. B 45, 3861 (1992).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

B. D. Terris, J. E. Stern, D. Rugar, and H. J. Mamin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 2669 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1983 (1)

G. C. Valley and M. B. Klein, Opt. Eng. 22, 704 (1983);L. Arizmendi, J. M. Cabrera, and F. Agnello, Int. J. Optoelectron. 7, 149 (1992).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

R. A. Rupp and E. Krätzig, Phys. Status Solidi A 72, K5 (1982).
[Crossref]

1976 (1)

J.-P. Huignard and F. Micheron, Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 591 (1976);G. C. Valley, Appl. Opt. 22, 3160 (1983).
[Crossref]

Cevc, G.

R. Guckenberger, M. Heim, G. Cevc, H. F. Knapp, W. Wiegräbe, and A. Hillebrand, Science 266, 1538 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chiku, S.

S. Chiku, T. Horiuchi, T. Shiosaki, and K. Matsushige, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, 5408 (1995).
[Crossref]

Ghorai, S. K.

S. C. Som, S. K. Ghorai, and A. Satpathi, Opt. Quantum Electron. 25, 241 (1993).
[Crossref]

Guckenberger, R.

R. Guckenberger, M. Heim, G. Cevc, H. F. Knapp, W. Wiegräbe, and A. Hillebrand, Science 266, 1538 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heim, M.

R. Guckenberger, M. Heim, G. Cevc, H. F. Knapp, W. Wiegräbe, and A. Hillebrand, Science 266, 1538 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hillebrand, A.

R. Guckenberger, M. Heim, G. Cevc, H. F. Knapp, W. Wiegräbe, and A. Hillebrand, Science 266, 1538 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hipp, M.

M. Hipp, J. Mertz, J. Mlynek, and O. Marti, in Photons and Local Probes, O. Marti and R. Möller, eds. (Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1995).

Horiuchi, T.

S. Chiku, T. Horiuchi, T. Shiosaki, and K. Matsushige, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, 5408 (1995).
[Crossref]

Huignard, J.-P.

J.-P. Huignard and F. Micheron, Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 591 (1976);G. C. Valley, Appl. Opt. 22, 3160 (1983).
[Crossref]

Klein, M. B.

G. C. Valley and M. B. Klein, Opt. Eng. 22, 704 (1983);L. Arizmendi, J. M. Cabrera, and F. Agnello, Int. J. Optoelectron. 7, 149 (1992).
[Crossref]

Knapp, H. F.

R. Guckenberger, M. Heim, G. Cevc, H. F. Knapp, W. Wiegräbe, and A. Hillebrand, Science 266, 1538 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krätzig, E.

R. A. Rupp and E. Krätzig, Phys. Status Solidi A 72, K5 (1982).
[Crossref]

Krieger, W.

E. Soergel, W. Krieger, and V. Vlad, Appl. Phys. A 66, 337 (1998).
[Crossref]

Mamin, H. J.

B. D. Terris, J. E. Stern, D. Rugar, and H. J. Mamin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 2669 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marti, O.

M. Hipp, J. Mertz, J. Mlynek, and O. Marti, in Photons and Local Probes, O. Marti and R. Möller, eds. (Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1995).

Matsushige, K.

S. Chiku, T. Horiuchi, T. Shiosaki, and K. Matsushige, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, 5408 (1995).
[Crossref]

Mertz, J.

M. Hipp, J. Mertz, J. Mlynek, and O. Marti, in Photons and Local Probes, O. Marti and R. Möller, eds. (Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1995).

Micheron, F.

J.-P. Huignard and F. Micheron, Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 591 (1976);G. C. Valley, Appl. Opt. 22, 3160 (1983).
[Crossref]

Mlynek, J.

M. Hipp, J. Mertz, J. Mlynek, and O. Marti, in Photons and Local Probes, O. Marti and R. Möller, eds. (Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1995).

Rugar, D.

B. D. Terris, J. E. Stern, D. Rugar, and H. J. Mamin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 2669 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rupp, R. A.

R. A. Rupp and E. Krätzig, Phys. Status Solidi A 72, K5 (1982).
[Crossref]

Satpathi, A.

S. C. Som, S. K. Ghorai, and A. Satpathi, Opt. Quantum Electron. 25, 241 (1993).
[Crossref]

Schönenberger, C.

C. Schönenberger, Phys. Rev. B 45, 3861 (1992).
[Crossref]

Shiosaki, T.

S. Chiku, T. Horiuchi, T. Shiosaki, and K. Matsushige, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, 5408 (1995).
[Crossref]

Soergel, E.

E. Soergel, W. Krieger, and V. Vlad, Appl. Phys. A 66, 337 (1998).
[Crossref]

Som, S. C.

S. C. Som, S. K. Ghorai, and A. Satpathi, Opt. Quantum Electron. 25, 241 (1993).
[Crossref]

Stern, J. E.

B. D. Terris, J. E. Stern, D. Rugar, and H. J. Mamin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 2669 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Terris, B. D.

B. D. Terris, J. E. Stern, D. Rugar, and H. J. Mamin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 2669 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Valley, G. C.

G. C. Valley and M. B. Klein, Opt. Eng. 22, 704 (1983);L. Arizmendi, J. M. Cabrera, and F. Agnello, Int. J. Optoelectron. 7, 149 (1992).
[Crossref]

Vlad, V.

E. Soergel, W. Krieger, and V. Vlad, Appl. Phys. A 66, 337 (1998).
[Crossref]

Wiegräbe, W.

R. Guckenberger, M. Heim, G. Cevc, H. F. Knapp, W. Wiegräbe, and A. Hillebrand, Science 266, 1538 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. A (1)

E. Soergel, W. Krieger, and V. Vlad, Appl. Phys. A 66, 337 (1998).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J.-P. Huignard and F. Micheron, Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 591 (1976);G. C. Valley, Appl. Opt. 22, 3160 (1983).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Chiku, T. Horiuchi, T. Shiosaki, and K. Matsushige, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, 5408 (1995).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

G. C. Valley and M. B. Klein, Opt. Eng. 22, 704 (1983);L. Arizmendi, J. M. Cabrera, and F. Agnello, Int. J. Optoelectron. 7, 149 (1992).
[Crossref]

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. C. Som, S. K. Ghorai, and A. Satpathi, Opt. Quantum Electron. 25, 241 (1993).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

C. Schönenberger, Phys. Rev. B 45, 3861 (1992).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

B. D. Terris, J. E. Stern, D. Rugar, and H. J. Mamin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 2669 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Status Solidi A (1)

R. A. Rupp and E. Krätzig, Phys. Status Solidi A 72, K5 (1982).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

R. Guckenberger, M. Heim, G. Cevc, H. F. Knapp, W. Wiegräbe, and A. Hillebrand, Science 266, 1538 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (2)

The BSO crystal was grown at the Institute for Atomic Physics, Bucharest, Romania.

M. Hipp, J. Mertz, J. Mlynek, and O. Marti, in Photons and Local Probes, O. Marti and R. Möller, eds. (Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1995).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for the measurement of electrostatic forces with the AFM. DC, direct current.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Optical setup for the generation of charge gratings in a photorefractive sample. M1, M2, mirrors; M, optional mirror; BS, beam splitter; VA, variable attenuator. (b) Enlarged view of the total-internal-reflection geometry.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Three-dimensional view of a stored charge grating on a BSO crystal (image size, 8 μm×10 μm; scan duration, 20 min). The line scan at the bottom is an average over the first 20 lines of the image. El. stat., electrostatic.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Topography and simultaneously recorded electrostatic force image (b) before and (c) after writing a charge grating. The circles mark identical positions on the crystal (image size, 10 μm×10 μm).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Electrostatic force gradient image and (b) simultaneously recorded topography of the BSO crystal (image size, 1.9 μm×1.9 μm).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Electrostatic force images of gratings written at three different laser intensities during 100 ms. (b) Line scans obtained by averaging over the corresponding images in (a).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Simultaneous recording of the evanescent field signal and the charge signal as a function of time. A voltage ramp applied to the piezo of mirror 2 moves the light grating across the crystal.

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