Abstract

Coherent collisions of (2+1)-dimensional spatial solitons in photorefractive media are studied. Phase-dependent switching of the spatial location of the output beams is demonstrated. The experimental results are in close agreement with a three-dimensional numerical calculation.

[Optical Society of America ]

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  1. T.-T. Shi and S. Chi , Nonlinear photonic switching by using the spatial soliton collision , Opt. Lett. OPLEDP 15 , 1123 1125 ( 1990
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. F. Reynaud and A. Barthelemy , Optically controlled interaction between two fundamental soliton beams , Europhys. Lett. EULEEJ 12 , 401 405 ( 1990
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. S. Aitchison , A. M. Weiner , Y. Silberberg , D. E. Leaird , M. K. Oliver , J. L. Jackel , and P. W. E. Smith , Experimental observation of spatial soliton interactions , Opt. Lett. OPLEDP 16 , 15 17 ( 1991
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. J. Stentz , M. Kauranen , J. J. Maki , G. P. Agrawal , and R. W. Boyd , Induced focusing and spatial wave breaking from cross-phase modulation in a self-defocusing medium , Opt. Lett. OPLEDP 17 , 19 21 ( 1992
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. V. Moloney , A. C. Newell , and A. B. Aceves , Spatial soliton optical switches: a soliton-based equivalent particle approach , Opt. Quantum Electron. OQELDI 24 , S1269 S1293 ( 1992
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. H. Enns , D. E. Edmundson , S. S. Rangnekar , and A. E. Kaplan , Optical switching between bistable soliton states: a theoretical review , Opt. Quantum Electron. OQELDI 24 , S1295 S1314 ( 1992
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. Luther-Davies and X. Yang , Steerable optical waveguides formed in self-defocusing media by using dark spatial solitons , Opt. Lett. OPLEDP 17 , 1755 1757 ( 1992
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. G. E. Torres-Cisneros , J. J. Sa nchez-Mondrago n , and V. A. Vysloukh , Asymmetric optical Y junctions and switching of weak beams by using bright spatial-soliton collisions , Opt. Lett. OPLEDP 18 , 1299 1301 ( 1993
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. McLeod , K. Wagner , and S. Blair , (3+1) -dimensional optical soliton dragging logic , Phys. Rev. A PLRAAN 52 , 3254 3278 ( 1995
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. M. D. Iturbe-Castillo , P. A. Ma rquez Aguilar , J. J. Sa nchez-Mondrago n , S. I. Stepanov , and V. Vysloukh , Spatial solitons in photorefractive Bi 12 TiO 20 with drift mechanism of nonlinearity , Appl. Phys. Lett. APPLAB 64 , 408 410 ( 1994
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Segev , G. C. Valley , B. Crosignani , P. DiPorto , and A. Yariv , Steady-state spatial screening solitons in photorefractive media with external applied field , Phys. Rev. Lett. PRLTAO 73 , 3211 3214 ( 1994
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. A. A. Zozulya , D. Z. Anderson , A. V. Mamaev , and M. Saffman , Self-focusing and soliton formation in media with anisotropic nonlocal material response , Europhys. Lett. EULEEJ 36 , 419 424 ( 1996
    [CrossRef]
  13. G. S. Garc a Quirino , M. D. Iturbe-Castillo , V. A. Vysloukh , J. J. Sa nchez Mondrago n , S. I. Stepanov , G. Lugo Mart nez , and G. E. Torres Cisneros , Observation of interaction forces between one-dimensional spatial solitons in photorefractive crystals , Opt. Lett. OPLEDP 22 , 154 156 ( 1997
    [CrossRef]
  14. W. Kro likowski and S. A. Holmstrom , Fusion and birth of spatial solitons upon collision , Opt. Lett. OPLEDP 22 , 369 371 ( 1997
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. H. Meng , G. Salamo , M.-F. Shih , and M. Segev , Coherent collisions of photorefractive solitons , Opt. Lett. OPLEDP 22 , 448 450 ( 1997
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. M.-F. Shih , Z. Chen , M. Segev , T. H. Coskun , and D. N. Christodoulides , Incoherent collisions between one-dimensional steady-state photorefractive screening solitons , Appl. Phys. Lett. APPLAB 69 , 4151 4153 ( 1996
    [CrossRef]
  17. M.-F. Shih and M. Segev , Incoherent collisions between two-dimensional bright steady-state photorefractive spatial screening solitons , Opt. Lett. OPLEDP 21 , 1538 1540 ( 1996
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. A. V. Mamaev , A. A. Zozulya , V. K. Mezentsev , D. Z. Anderson , and M. Saffman , Bound dipole solitary solutions in anisotropic nonlocal self-focusing media , Phys. Rev. A PLRAAN 56 , R1110 R1113 ( 1997
    [CrossRef]
  19. V. E. Zakharov and A. B. Shabat , Interaction between solitons in a stable medium , Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 64 , 1627 1639 (1973) Sov. Phys. JETP SPHJAR 37 , 823 828 ( 1973
  20. V. V. Voronov , I. R. Dorosh , Yu. S. Kuz minov , and N. V. Tkachenko , Photoinduced light scattering in cerium-doped barium strontium niobate crystals , Kvantovaya Elektron. (Moscow) 7 , 2313 2318 (1980) Sov. J. Quantum Electron. SJQEAF 10 , 1346 1349 ( 1980
    [CrossRef]
  21. A. A. Esayan , A. A. Zozulya , and V. T. Tikhonchuk , Self-curvature of a light beam in a photorefractive crystal , Kratk. Soobshch. Fis. 5 , 45 47 (1990) Sov. Phys. Lebedev. Inst. Rep. SPLRD6 5 , 62 65 ( 1990
  22. W. Kro likowski , N. Akhmediev , B. Luther-Davies , and M. Cronin-Golomb , Self-bending photorefractive solitons , Phys. Rev. E PLEEE8 54 , 5761 5765 ( 1996
    [CrossRef]
  23. A. A. Zozulya and D. Z. Anderson , Propagation of an optical beam in a photorefractive medium in the presence of a photogalvanic nonlinearity or an externally applied electric field , Phys. Rev. A PLRAAN 51 , 1520 1531 ( 1995
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. A. V. Mamaev , M. Saffman , D. Z. Anderson , and A. A. Zozulya , Propagation of light beams in anisotropic nonlinear media: from symmetry breaking to spatial turbulence , Phys. Rev. A PLRAAN 54 , 870 879 ( 1996
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. A. A. Zozulya , D. Z. Anderson , A. V. Mamaev , and M. Saffman , Solitary attractors and low-order filamentation in anisotropic self-focusing media , Phys. Rev. A PLRAAN 57 , 522 534 ( 1998
    [CrossRef]

Esayan, A. A

A. A. Esayan , A. A. Zozulya , and V. T. Tikhonchuk , Self-curvature of a light beam in a photorefractive crystal , Kratk. Soobshch. Fis. 5 , 45 47 (1990) Sov. Phys. Lebedev. Inst. Rep. SPLRD6 5 , 62 65 ( 1990

Garca Quirino, G. S

Lugo Martnez, G

Rangnekar, S. S

R. H. Enns , D. E. Edmundson , S. S. Rangnekar , and A. E. Kaplan , Optical switching between bistable soliton states: a theoretical review , Opt. Quantum Electron. OQELDI 24 , S1295 S1314 ( 1992
[CrossRef]

Shi, T.-T

Shih, M.-F

Torres Cisneros, G. E

Other (25)

J. V. Moloney , A. C. Newell , and A. B. Aceves , Spatial soliton optical switches: a soliton-based equivalent particle approach , Opt. Quantum Electron. OQELDI 24 , S1269 S1293 ( 1992
[CrossRef]

R. H. Enns , D. E. Edmundson , S. S. Rangnekar , and A. E. Kaplan , Optical switching between bistable soliton states: a theoretical review , Opt. Quantum Electron. OQELDI 24 , S1295 S1314 ( 1992
[CrossRef]

R. McLeod , K. Wagner , and S. Blair , (3+1) -dimensional optical soliton dragging logic , Phys. Rev. A PLRAAN 52 , 3254 3278 ( 1995
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Iturbe-Castillo , P. A. Ma rquez Aguilar , J. J. Sa nchez-Mondrago n , S. I. Stepanov , and V. Vysloukh , Spatial solitons in photorefractive Bi 12 TiO 20 with drift mechanism of nonlinearity , Appl. Phys. Lett. APPLAB 64 , 408 410 ( 1994
[CrossRef]

M. Segev , G. C. Valley , B. Crosignani , P. DiPorto , and A. Yariv , Steady-state spatial screening solitons in photorefractive media with external applied field , Phys. Rev. Lett. PRLTAO 73 , 3211 3214 ( 1994
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Zozulya , D. Z. Anderson , A. V. Mamaev , and M. Saffman , Self-focusing and soliton formation in media with anisotropic nonlocal material response , Europhys. Lett. EULEEJ 36 , 419 424 ( 1996
[CrossRef]

A. V. Mamaev , A. A. Zozulya , V. K. Mezentsev , D. Z. Anderson , and M. Saffman , Bound dipole solitary solutions in anisotropic nonlocal self-focusing media , Phys. Rev. A PLRAAN 56 , R1110 R1113 ( 1997
[CrossRef]

V. E. Zakharov and A. B. Shabat , Interaction between solitons in a stable medium , Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 64 , 1627 1639 (1973) Sov. Phys. JETP SPHJAR 37 , 823 828 ( 1973

V. V. Voronov , I. R. Dorosh , Yu. S. Kuz minov , and N. V. Tkachenko , Photoinduced light scattering in cerium-doped barium strontium niobate crystals , Kvantovaya Elektron. (Moscow) 7 , 2313 2318 (1980) Sov. J. Quantum Electron. SJQEAF 10 , 1346 1349 ( 1980
[CrossRef]

A. A. Esayan , A. A. Zozulya , and V. T. Tikhonchuk , Self-curvature of a light beam in a photorefractive crystal , Kratk. Soobshch. Fis. 5 , 45 47 (1990) Sov. Phys. Lebedev. Inst. Rep. SPLRD6 5 , 62 65 ( 1990

W. Kro likowski , N. Akhmediev , B. Luther-Davies , and M. Cronin-Golomb , Self-bending photorefractive solitons , Phys. Rev. E PLEEE8 54 , 5761 5765 ( 1996
[CrossRef]

A. A. Zozulya and D. Z. Anderson , Propagation of an optical beam in a photorefractive medium in the presence of a photogalvanic nonlinearity or an externally applied electric field , Phys. Rev. A PLRAAN 51 , 1520 1531 ( 1995
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Mamaev , M. Saffman , D. Z. Anderson , and A. A. Zozulya , Propagation of light beams in anisotropic nonlinear media: from symmetry breaking to spatial turbulence , Phys. Rev. A PLRAAN 54 , 870 879 ( 1996
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Zozulya , D. Z. Anderson , A. V. Mamaev , and M. Saffman , Solitary attractors and low-order filamentation in anisotropic self-focusing media , Phys. Rev. A PLRAAN 57 , 522 534 ( 1998
[CrossRef]

F. Reynaud and A. Barthelemy , Optically controlled interaction between two fundamental soliton beams , Europhys. Lett. EULEEJ 12 , 401 405 ( 1990
[CrossRef]

M.-F. Shih , Z. Chen , M. Segev , T. H. Coskun , and D. N. Christodoulides , Incoherent collisions between one-dimensional steady-state photorefractive screening solitons , Appl. Phys. Lett. APPLAB 69 , 4151 4153 ( 1996
[CrossRef]

T.-T. Shi and S. Chi , Nonlinear photonic switching by using the spatial soliton collision , Opt. Lett. OPLEDP 15 , 1123 1125 ( 1990
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Aitchison , A. M. Weiner , Y. Silberberg , D. E. Leaird , M. K. Oliver , J. L. Jackel , and P. W. E. Smith , Experimental observation of spatial soliton interactions , Opt. Lett. OPLEDP 16 , 15 17 ( 1991
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Stentz , M. Kauranen , J. J. Maki , G. P. Agrawal , and R. W. Boyd , Induced focusing and spatial wave breaking from cross-phase modulation in a self-defocusing medium , Opt. Lett. OPLEDP 17 , 19 21 ( 1992
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Luther-Davies and X. Yang , Steerable optical waveguides formed in self-defocusing media by using dark spatial solitons , Opt. Lett. OPLEDP 17 , 1755 1757 ( 1992
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. S. Garc a Quirino , M. D. Iturbe-Castillo , V. A. Vysloukh , J. J. Sa nchez Mondrago n , S. I. Stepanov , G. Lugo Mart nez , and G. E. Torres Cisneros , Observation of interaction forces between one-dimensional spatial solitons in photorefractive crystals , Opt. Lett. OPLEDP 22 , 154 156 ( 1997
[CrossRef]

W. Kro likowski and S. A. Holmstrom , Fusion and birth of spatial solitons upon collision , Opt. Lett. OPLEDP 22 , 369 371 ( 1997
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Meng , G. Salamo , M.-F. Shih , and M. Segev , Coherent collisions of photorefractive solitons , Opt. Lett. OPLEDP 22 , 448 450 ( 1997
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.-F. Shih and M. Segev , Incoherent collisions between two-dimensional bright steady-state photorefractive spatial screening solitons , Opt. Lett. OPLEDP 21 , 1538 1540 ( 1996
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. E. Torres-Cisneros , J. J. Sa nchez-Mondrago n , and V. A. Vysloukh , Asymmetric optical Y junctions and switching of weak beams by using bright spatial-soliton collisions , Opt. Lett. OPLEDP 18 , 1299 1301 ( 1993
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Phase-dependent soliton collisions with internal crossing angle θ=6.4 mrad. The leftmost column shows the input beams. Succeeding columns show output beams at the indicated value of the external voltage. Each frame depicts a 235 μm×235 μm region, and the z axis is horizontal.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Intensity distributions along the y axis for A+B (solid curve) and A-B (dashed curve) interactions. The curves represent an integral over the z dependence of the intensity.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Output beams for 0 (left-hand column) and 920 V (right-hand column), for internal crossing angle θ=5.7 mrad. Each frame depicts a 300 μm×300 μm region, and the z axis is horizontal.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Numerical results showing output intensity distributions for A+B and A-B interactions for an external field of 2000 V/cm and θ=6.4 mrad.

Equations (2)

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x-i2 2B(r)=i φz B(r),
2φ+ ln(1+|B|2)φ=z ln(1+|B|2),

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