Abstract

Surface-localized electromagnetic fields can induce strong reorientation of liquid crystals (LC’s), thus making it possible to observe a whole new class of opto-electronic phenomena. We show the feasibility of reorientation of a LC by a spatially inhomogeneous electric field localized on a photorefractive substrate. The modulation of the space-charge density in the plane of the photorefractive substrate generates a component of the electric field, which is normal to the LC layer. The drift of ions enforced by that field can result in a surface-charge modulation pattern that can become permanent owing to adsorption of ions at the boundaries of the LC cell. The obtained results present large fundamental and practical interest for the visualization of surface-localized electric fields and the development of new principles of optical information processing and storage.

[Optical Society of America ]

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  1. B. Y. Zhang , R. Burzynski , S. Ghosal , and M. K. Casstevens , Photorefractive polymers and composites , Adv. Mater. ADVMEW 8 , 111 ( 1996
    [CrossRef]
  2. E. V. Rudenko and A. V. Sukhov , Photoinduced electrical conductivity and photorefraction in a nematic liquid crystal , JETP Lett. JTPLA2 59 , 142 ( 1994
  3. E. V. Rudenko and A. V. Sukhov , Optically induced spatial charge separation in a nematic and the resultant orientational nonlinearity , JETP JTPHES 78 , 875 ( 1994
  4. I. C. Khoo and H. Li. Y. Liang , Observation of orientational photorefractive effects in nematic liquid crystals , Opt. Lett. OPLEDP 19 , 1723 ( 1994
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. I. C. Khoo , Orientational photorefractive effects in nematic liquid crystals , IEEE J. Quantum Electron. IEJQA7 32 , 525 ( 1996
    [CrossRef]
  6. I. C. Khoo , Holographic grating formation in dye- and fullerene C 60 -doped nematic liquid-crystal film , Opt. Lett. OPLEDP 20 , 2137 ( 1995
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. G. P. Wiederrecht , B. A. Yoon , and M. R. Wasielewski , High photorefractive gain in nematic liquid crystals doped with electron donor and acceptor molecules , Science SCIEAS 270 , 1794 ( 1995
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. P. Wiederrecht , B. A. Yoon , and M. R. Wasielewski , Photorefractive liquid crystals , Adv. Mater. ADVMEW 8 , 535 ( 1996
    [CrossRef]
  9. G. P. Wiederrecht , B. A. Yoon , W. A. Svec , and M. R. Wasielewski , Photorefractivity in nematic liquid crystals containing electron donor acceptor molecules that undergo intramolecular charge separation , J. Am. Chem. Soc. JACSAT 119 , 3358 ( 1997
    [CrossRef]
  10. I. C. Khoo , B. D. Guenther , M. V. Wood , P. Chen , and M.-Y. Shih , Coherent beam amplification with a photorefractive liquid crystal , Opt. Lett. OPLEDP 22 , 1229 ( 1997
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. A. Golemme , B. L. Volodin , B. Kippelen , and N. Peyghambarian , Photorefractive polymer-dispersed liquid crystals , Opt. Lett. OPLEDP 22 , 1226 ( 1997
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. B. Ya. Zel dovich and N. V. Tabiryan , Orientational effect of a surface light wave on liquid crystals , JETP Lett. JTPLA2 36 , 179 ( 1982
  13. L. S. Aslanyan , N. V. Tabiryan , and Yu. S. Chilingaryan , Nonlinear self-action of plasmons in liquid crystals (Special Issue) , Sov. J. Contemp. Phys. (Armenian Academy of Sciences) ZZZZZZ 19 33 ( 1984
  14. N. V. Tabiryan , B. Ya. Zel dovich , and A. V. Sukhov , The Orientational Optical Nonlinearity of Liquid Crystals (Special Issue) , Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. MCLCA5 136 ( 1986
    [CrossRef]
  15. N. V. Tabiryan , Light-induced Freedericks transition in turbid layers of nematic liquid crystals , Opt. Spectrosc. OPSUA3 58 , 697 ( 1985
  16. A. Yariv , S. Orlov , G. Rakuljic , and V. Leyva , Holographic fixing, readout, and storage dynamics in photorefractive materials , Opt. Lett. OPLEDP 20 , 1334 ( 1995
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. H. J. Coles and R. Simoni , High resolution laser-addressed liquid crystal polymer storage displays , Polymer POLMAG 26 , 1801 ( 1985
    [CrossRef]
  18. S. B. Kippelen , N. Peyghambarian , S. R. Lyon , A. B. Padias , and H. K. Hell , Jr. , Dual grating formation through photorefractivity and photoisomerization in azo-dye-doped polymers , Opt. Lett. OPLEDP 19 , 68 ( 1994
  19. H. J. Eichler , G. Heppke , R. Macdonald , and H. Schmid , Storage of erasable laser induced holographic gratings in low molar mass cholesteric liquid crystals , Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. MCLCA5 223 , 159 ( 1992
    [CrossRef]
  20. W. M. Gibbons , P. J. Shannon , S.-T. Sun , and B. J. Swetlin , Surface-mediated alignment of nematic liquid crystals with polarized laser light , Nature (London) NATUAS 351 , 49 ( 1991
    [CrossRef]
  21. A. G. Chen and D. J. Brady , Surface-stabilized holography in an azo-dye doped nematic liquid crystal , Appl. Phys. Lett. APPLAB 62 , 2920 ( 1993
    [CrossRef]
  22. D. Voloshchenko , A. Khyzhnyak , Yu. A. Reznikov , and V. Reshetnyak , Control of an easy-axis on nematic-polymer interface by light action to nematic bulk , Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 JAPNDE 34 , 566 ( 1995
    [CrossRef]
  23. F. Simoni , O. Francescangeli , Y. Reznikov , and S. Slussarenko , Dye-doped liquid crystals as high-resolution recording media , Opt. Lett. OPLEDP 22 , 549 ( 1997
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aslanyan, L. S

L. S. Aslanyan , N. V. Tabiryan , and Yu. S. Chilingaryan , Nonlinear self-action of plasmons in liquid crystals (Special Issue) , Sov. J. Contemp. Phys. (Armenian Academy of Sciences) ZZZZZZ 19 33 ( 1984

Chen, A. G

A. G. Chen and D. J. Brady , Surface-stabilized holography in an azo-dye doped nematic liquid crystal , Appl. Phys. Lett. APPLAB 62 , 2920 ( 1993
[CrossRef]

Chilingaryan, Yu. S

L. S. Aslanyan , N. V. Tabiryan , and Yu. S. Chilingaryan , Nonlinear self-action of plasmons in liquid crystals (Special Issue) , Sov. J. Contemp. Phys. (Armenian Academy of Sciences) ZZZZZZ 19 33 ( 1984

Coles, H. J

H. J. Coles and R. Simoni , High resolution laser-addressed liquid crystal polymer storage displays , Polymer POLMAG 26 , 1801 ( 1985
[CrossRef]

Francescangeli, O

Gibbons, W. M

W. M. Gibbons , P. J. Shannon , S.-T. Sun , and B. J. Swetlin , Surface-mediated alignment of nematic liquid crystals with polarized laser light , Nature (London) NATUAS 351 , 49 ( 1991
[CrossRef]

Golemme, A

Hell, H. K

Khyzhnyak, A

D. Voloshchenko , A. Khyzhnyak , Yu. A. Reznikov , and V. Reshetnyak , Control of an easy-axis on nematic-polymer interface by light action to nematic bulk , Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 JAPNDE 34 , 566 ( 1995
[CrossRef]

Kippelen, S. B

Macdonald, R

H. J. Eichler , G. Heppke , R. Macdonald , and H. Schmid , Storage of erasable laser induced holographic gratings in low molar mass cholesteric liquid crystals , Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. MCLCA5 223 , 159 ( 1992
[CrossRef]

Reshetnyak, V

D. Voloshchenko , A. Khyzhnyak , Yu. A. Reznikov , and V. Reshetnyak , Control of an easy-axis on nematic-polymer interface by light action to nematic bulk , Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 JAPNDE 34 , 566 ( 1995
[CrossRef]

Reznikov, Y

Reznikov, Yu. A

D. Voloshchenko , A. Khyzhnyak , Yu. A. Reznikov , and V. Reshetnyak , Control of an easy-axis on nematic-polymer interface by light action to nematic bulk , Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 JAPNDE 34 , 566 ( 1995
[CrossRef]

Shannon, P. J

W. M. Gibbons , P. J. Shannon , S.-T. Sun , and B. J. Swetlin , Surface-mediated alignment of nematic liquid crystals with polarized laser light , Nature (London) NATUAS 351 , 49 ( 1991
[CrossRef]

Shih, M.-Y

Simoni, R

H. J. Coles and R. Simoni , High resolution laser-addressed liquid crystal polymer storage displays , Polymer POLMAG 26 , 1801 ( 1985
[CrossRef]

Slussarenko, S

Sun, S.-T

W. M. Gibbons , P. J. Shannon , S.-T. Sun , and B. J. Swetlin , Surface-mediated alignment of nematic liquid crystals with polarized laser light , Nature (London) NATUAS 351 , 49 ( 1991
[CrossRef]

Svec, W. A

G. P. Wiederrecht , B. A. Yoon , W. A. Svec , and M. R. Wasielewski , Photorefractivity in nematic liquid crystals containing electron donor acceptor molecules that undergo intramolecular charge separation , J. Am. Chem. Soc. JACSAT 119 , 3358 ( 1997
[CrossRef]

Swetlin, B. J

W. M. Gibbons , P. J. Shannon , S.-T. Sun , and B. J. Swetlin , Surface-mediated alignment of nematic liquid crystals with polarized laser light , Nature (London) NATUAS 351 , 49 ( 1991
[CrossRef]

Tabiryan, N. V

B. Ya. Zel dovich and N. V. Tabiryan , Orientational effect of a surface light wave on liquid crystals , JETP Lett. JTPLA2 36 , 179 ( 1982

Voloshchenko, D

D. Voloshchenko , A. Khyzhnyak , Yu. A. Reznikov , and V. Reshetnyak , Control of an easy-axis on nematic-polymer interface by light action to nematic bulk , Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 JAPNDE 34 , 566 ( 1995
[CrossRef]

Yoon, B. A

G. P. Wiederrecht , B. A. Yoon , and M. R. Wasielewski , High photorefractive gain in nematic liquid crystals doped with electron donor and acceptor molecules , Science SCIEAS 270 , 1794 ( 1995
[CrossRef]

Other (23)

B. Y. Zhang , R. Burzynski , S. Ghosal , and M. K. Casstevens , Photorefractive polymers and composites , Adv. Mater. ADVMEW 8 , 111 ( 1996
[CrossRef]

E. V. Rudenko and A. V. Sukhov , Photoinduced electrical conductivity and photorefraction in a nematic liquid crystal , JETP Lett. JTPLA2 59 , 142 ( 1994

E. V. Rudenko and A. V. Sukhov , Optically induced spatial charge separation in a nematic and the resultant orientational nonlinearity , JETP JTPHES 78 , 875 ( 1994

G. P. Wiederrecht , B. A. Yoon , and M. R. Wasielewski , High photorefractive gain in nematic liquid crystals doped with electron donor and acceptor molecules , Science SCIEAS 270 , 1794 ( 1995
[CrossRef]

G. P. Wiederrecht , B. A. Yoon , and M. R. Wasielewski , Photorefractive liquid crystals , Adv. Mater. ADVMEW 8 , 535 ( 1996
[CrossRef]

G. P. Wiederrecht , B. A. Yoon , W. A. Svec , and M. R. Wasielewski , Photorefractivity in nematic liquid crystals containing electron donor acceptor molecules that undergo intramolecular charge separation , J. Am. Chem. Soc. JACSAT 119 , 3358 ( 1997
[CrossRef]

B. Ya. Zel dovich and N. V. Tabiryan , Orientational effect of a surface light wave on liquid crystals , JETP Lett. JTPLA2 36 , 179 ( 1982

L. S. Aslanyan , N. V. Tabiryan , and Yu. S. Chilingaryan , Nonlinear self-action of plasmons in liquid crystals (Special Issue) , Sov. J. Contemp. Phys. (Armenian Academy of Sciences) ZZZZZZ 19 33 ( 1984

N. V. Tabiryan , B. Ya. Zel dovich , and A. V. Sukhov , The Orientational Optical Nonlinearity of Liquid Crystals (Special Issue) , Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. MCLCA5 136 ( 1986
[CrossRef]

N. V. Tabiryan , Light-induced Freedericks transition in turbid layers of nematic liquid crystals , Opt. Spectrosc. OPSUA3 58 , 697 ( 1985

I. C. Khoo , Orientational photorefractive effects in nematic liquid crystals , IEEE J. Quantum Electron. IEJQA7 32 , 525 ( 1996
[CrossRef]

H. J. Coles and R. Simoni , High resolution laser-addressed liquid crystal polymer storage displays , Polymer POLMAG 26 , 1801 ( 1985
[CrossRef]

H. J. Eichler , G. Heppke , R. Macdonald , and H. Schmid , Storage of erasable laser induced holographic gratings in low molar mass cholesteric liquid crystals , Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. MCLCA5 223 , 159 ( 1992
[CrossRef]

W. M. Gibbons , P. J. Shannon , S.-T. Sun , and B. J. Swetlin , Surface-mediated alignment of nematic liquid crystals with polarized laser light , Nature (London) NATUAS 351 , 49 ( 1991
[CrossRef]

A. G. Chen and D. J. Brady , Surface-stabilized holography in an azo-dye doped nematic liquid crystal , Appl. Phys. Lett. APPLAB 62 , 2920 ( 1993
[CrossRef]

D. Voloshchenko , A. Khyzhnyak , Yu. A. Reznikov , and V. Reshetnyak , Control of an easy-axis on nematic-polymer interface by light action to nematic bulk , Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 JAPNDE 34 , 566 ( 1995
[CrossRef]

S. B. Kippelen , N. Peyghambarian , S. R. Lyon , A. B. Padias , and H. K. Hell , Jr. , Dual grating formation through photorefractivity and photoisomerization in azo-dye-doped polymers , Opt. Lett. OPLEDP 19 , 68 ( 1994

I. C. Khoo and H. Li. Y. Liang , Observation of orientational photorefractive effects in nematic liquid crystals , Opt. Lett. OPLEDP 19 , 1723 ( 1994
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Yariv , S. Orlov , G. Rakuljic , and V. Leyva , Holographic fixing, readout, and storage dynamics in photorefractive materials , Opt. Lett. OPLEDP 20 , 1334 ( 1995
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. C. Khoo , Holographic grating formation in dye- and fullerene C 60 -doped nematic liquid-crystal film , Opt. Lett. OPLEDP 20 , 2137 ( 1995
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Simoni , O. Francescangeli , Y. Reznikov , and S. Slussarenko , Dye-doped liquid crystals as high-resolution recording media , Opt. Lett. OPLEDP 22 , 549 ( 1997
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Golemme , B. L. Volodin , B. Kippelen , and N. Peyghambarian , Photorefractive polymer-dispersed liquid crystals , Opt. Lett. OPLEDP 22 , 1226 ( 1997
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. C. Khoo , B. D. Guenther , M. V. Wood , P. Chen , and M.-Y. Shih , Coherent beam amplification with a photorefractive liquid crystal , Opt. Lett. OPLEDP 22 , 1229 ( 1997
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The principal scheme of an experimental situation. A photorefractive crystal of a thickness d serves as one of the substrates for a liquid-crystal (LC) layer of the thickness L. The z axis of a Cartesian coordinate system is directed along the normal to the cell boundaries. The space-charge density in the photorefractive substrate is modulated along the x axis by interfering light beams, which leads to an electric field that, though attenuating in the LC, can reorient the LC. θ is the peak reorientation angle achieved at the center of the LC cell.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The increase of the threshold electric field for nematic-LC (NLC) reorientation as a function of attenuation. The thick curve presents the numerical solution of the problem, and the thin line is its fit with ES/EF1+0.7αL.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The profile of the director reorientation amplitude for different values of qL: The strongly asymmetric curve corresponds to qL=10; the symmetric curve corresponds to qL=1.

Equations (32)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

2θx2+2θz2=-Δ4πK[(Ex2-Ez2)sin θ cos θ+ExEz cos 2θ],
Ex=0,Ez=Ez0 exp(-αz),
d2θdz2=Δ8πK Ez02 exp(-2αz)sin 2θ.
d2θdζ2+1ζ dθdζ+θ=0
ζ=Ez0EF π exp(-αz)αL,
EF=1L 4π3KΔ1/2
θ(ζ)=c1J0(ζ)+c2Y0(ζ),
J0παL ESEFY0π exp(-αL)αL ESEF
=J0π exp(-αL)αL ESEFY0παL ESEF.
ESEF(1+0.5αL).
Ex=Ex0 sin qx,Ez=Ez0 exp(-αz).
2θqx2+2θqz2=-Δ4πK Ex0Ez0 exp(-αz)sin qx.
θq=-ΔEx0Ez04πK(α2-q2)×sinh qzsinh qL [exp(-qL)-exp(-αL)]+exp(-αz)-exp(-qz)sin qx.
θq=0-1α2 zL [1-exp(-αL)]+exp(-αz)-1.
θq=ΔEx0Ez04πKq2 h(qL, z)sin qx,
h(qL, z)=12 qz exp(-qz)-qL exp(-qL) sinh qzsinh qL.
ρ=ρm cos qx.
Exx+Ezz=4π ρm cos qx,
Ezx=Exz,
2Exx2+2Exz2=-4π qρm sin qx.
Ex=Em(z)sin qx,
ExLC=E0 exp(-qz)sin qx,
EzLC=E0 exp(-qz)cos qx,
E0=4πρmq×exp(qd)(LC+)+exp(-qd)(LC-)-2LCexp(qd)(LC+)2-exp(-qd)(LC-)2.
E02πρmdLC
E02πρmq [1-exp(-qd)].
E0=2πσmLC,
θq=BEPEF2 h(qL, z)sin qx,
EP=2π3(qL)3 ρmL [1-exp(-qd)].
σmenμEzt,
E02πσmLCqLEF,
tkBTLC2π2e2nD EfEz qL.

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