Abstract

We report femtosecond time-to-space transformation by means of a potassium niobate nonlinear optical crystal inside a femtosecond pulse shaper. We achieve an upconversion efficiency higher than 50%, a more than 500-fold increase as compared with previous results. We also present theoretical guidelines for estimating the efficiency of such time-to-space converters.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. M. Weiner, J. P. Heritage, and E. M. Kirschner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 1563 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. M. Weiner, Prog. Quantum Electron. 19, 161 (1995), and the references cited therein.
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. C. Nuss, M. Li, T. H. Chiu, A. M. Weiner, and A. Partovi, Opt. Lett. 19, 664 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. P. C. Sun, Y. T. Mazurenko, W. S. C. Chang, P. L. Yu, and Y. Fainman, Opt. Lett. 20, 1728 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Ema, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, and F. Shimizu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2799 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y. T. Mazurenko, S. E. Putilin, A. G. Spiro, A. G. Beliaev, V. E. Yashin, and S. A. Chizhov, Opt. Lett. 21, 1753 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. P. C. Sun, Y. T. Mazurenko, and Y. Fainman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1159 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. See, for example, J.-C. Baumert and P. Günter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 554 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  9. U. Ellenberger, R. Weber, J. E. Balmer, B. Zysset, D. Ellgehausen, and G. Mizell, Appl. Opt. 31, 7563 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. Y. Lu, Q. Zhao, Y. Li, H. He, Q. Zou, Z. Lu, and Z. Gang, Opt. Lett. 32, 713 (1993).
  11. E. S. Polzik and H. G. Kimble, Opt. Lett. 16, 1400 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. I. Biaggio, P. Kerkoc, L. S. Wu, P. Günter, and B. Zyssett, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 507 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. N. Thurston, J. P. Heritage, A. M. Weiner, and W. J. Tomlinson, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 682 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  14. See, for example, Nonlinear Optics, P. G. Harper and B. S. Wherrett, eds. (Academic, New York, 1977).
  15. M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. Beyer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631 (1992).
    [CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

1995 (2)

P. C. Sun, Y. T. Mazurenko, W. S. C. Chang, P. L. Yu, and Y. Fainman, Opt. Lett. 20, 1728 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Weiner, Prog. Quantum Electron. 19, 161 (1995), and the references cited therein.
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1993 (1)

1992 (3)

1991 (2)

E. S. Polzik and H. G. Kimble, Opt. Lett. 16, 1400 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Ema, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, and F. Shimizu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2799 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

1987 (1)

See, for example, J.-C. Baumert and P. Günter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 554 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

R. N. Thurston, J. P. Heritage, A. M. Weiner, and W. J. Tomlinson, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 682 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Balmer, J. E.

Baumert, J.-C.

See, for example, J.-C. Baumert and P. Günter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 554 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Beliaev, A. G.

Beyer, R.

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. Beyer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Biaggio, I.

Chang, W. S. C.

Chiu, T. H.

Chizhov, S. A.

Ellenberger, U.

Ellgehausen, D.

Ema, K.

K. Ema, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, and F. Shimizu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2799 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Fainman, Y.

Fejer, M. M.

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. Beyer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gang, Z.

Günter, P.

I. Biaggio, P. Kerkoc, L. S. Wu, P. Günter, and B. Zyssett, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

See, for example, J.-C. Baumert and P. Günter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 554 (1987).
[CrossRef]

He, H.

Heritage, J. P.

A. M. Weiner, J. P. Heritage, and E. M. Kirschner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 1563 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. N. Thurston, J. P. Heritage, A. M. Weiner, and W. J. Tomlinson, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 682 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Jundt, D. H.

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. Beyer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kerkoc, P.

Kimble, H. G.

Kirschner, E. M.

Kuwata-Gonokami, M.

K. Ema, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, and F. Shimizu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2799 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Li, M.

Li, Y.

Lu, Y.

Lu, Z.

Magel, G. A.

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. Beyer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Mazurenko, Y. T.

Mizell, G.

Nuss, M. C.

Partovi, A.

Polzik, E. S.

Putilin, S. E.

Shimizu, F.

K. Ema, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, and F. Shimizu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2799 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Spiro, A. G.

Sun, P. C.

Thurston, R. N.

R. N. Thurston, J. P. Heritage, A. M. Weiner, and W. J. Tomlinson, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 682 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Tomlinson, W. J.

R. N. Thurston, J. P. Heritage, A. M. Weiner, and W. J. Tomlinson, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 682 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Weber, R.

Weiner, A. M.

A. M. Weiner, Prog. Quantum Electron. 19, 161 (1995), and the references cited therein.
[CrossRef]

M. C. Nuss, M. Li, T. H. Chiu, A. M. Weiner, and A. Partovi, Opt. Lett. 19, 664 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Weiner, J. P. Heritage, and E. M. Kirschner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 1563 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. N. Thurston, J. P. Heritage, A. M. Weiner, and W. J. Tomlinson, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 682 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Wu, L. S.

Yashin, V. E.

Yu, P. L.

Zhao, Q.

Zou, Q.

Zysset, B.

Zyssett, B.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

K. Ema, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, and F. Shimizu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2799 (1991).
[CrossRef]

See, for example, J.-C. Baumert and P. Günter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 554 (1987).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

R. N. Thurston, J. P. Heritage, A. M. Weiner, and W. J. Tomlinson, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 682 (1986).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. Beyer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Prog. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. M. Weiner, Prog. Quantum Electron. 19, 161 (1995), and the references cited therein.
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

See, for example, Nonlinear Optics, P. G. Harper and B. S. Wherrett, eds. (Academic, New York, 1977).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the experimental setup for time-to-space conversion. G, 600 lines/mm diffraction grating; L1, L2, Fourier transform lenses; Es, signal beam; Er, reference beam; NLC, KNbO3 nonlinear crystal.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Images of the SFM blue beams for the interaction of (a) two identical pulses, and (b) one short pulse with two time-delayed signal pulses.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Variation of the blue power and the displacement of the blue spots as the time delay between the signal and the reference pulses is changed.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Variation of the conversion efficiency as a function of the average power of the reference pulse.

Equations (15)

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ΔxΔt=f2cd cos θdf1λcλSUMλc=f2cd cos θd2f1λc,
T=2ln2winλccd cos θin.
η=PSUMPs=ωSUM2ωs sin2(ΓLeff)sin2(ΓLeff),
Γ=2ωsωSUMdeff2IrnsnrnSUMc301/2.
w0=f1λc cos θinπwin cos θd.
Ir=22Urπw02N2tp=22Urtpπw02T2,
ΓLeff=42ωsωSUMdeff2UrtpLeff2n3c30πw02T21/2,
η=sin2(ΓLeff)=sin290.5π2deff2Urtpbn2cλc30T21/2.
|Er|2 exp(-2x2/weff2)exp(-2y2/w02),
2 ln 2 weff=xνB=λ2f1cd cos θdB.
Btp=2 ln 2π0.44.
weff=2 ln 2π λ2f1cd cos θd NT.
weff=w0N2.
Aeff=π2w0weff,
Aeff=Nπw0222.

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