Abstract

Optical phase-conjugation properties of the backward-stimulated radiation from a two-photon-pumped frequency-upconversion lasing medium are studied. The gain medium is a new dye solution pumped with 11-ns and 1064-nm laser pulses; a highly directional and phase-conjugate backward-stimulated emission at 616-nm wavelength could be obtained with a net conversion efficiency of 10%. The spectral, temporal, and output–input characteristics of this kind of stimulated emission are presented in detail. The phase-conjugation properties of the backward-stimulated emission have been demonstrated by both the far-field (beam-divergence) measurement and the near-field (image-reconstruction) measurement. The wave-front reconstruction behavior is not perfect, especially under a larger aberration influence.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. D. M. Bloom and G. C. Bjorklund, “Conjugate wave front generation and image reconstruction by four-wave mixing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 592–594 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Yariv and D. M. Pepper, “Amplified refraction, phase conjugation, and oscillation in degenerate four-wave mixing,” Opt. Lett. 1, 16–18 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. G. Steel, R. C. Lind, J. F. Lam, and C. R. Giuliano, “Polarization-rotation and thermal-motion studies via resonant degenerate four-wave mixing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 376–379 (1979).
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    [CrossRef]
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  9. O. Yu. Nosach, V. I. Popovichev, V. V. Ragul’skii, and F. S. Faizullov, “Cancellation of phase distortions in an amplifying medium with a ‘Brillouin mirror’,” JETP Lett. 16, 435–438 (1972).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  13. A. Yariv, “Compensation for atmospheric degradation of optical beam transmission by nonlinear optical mixing,” Opt. Commun. 21, 49–50 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  14. P. V. Avizonis, F. A. Hopf, W. D. Bamberger, S. F. Jacobs, A. Tomita, and K. H. Womack, “Optical phase conjugation in a lithium-niobate crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 435–437 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  15. N. C. Griffen and C. V. Heer, “Focusing and phase conjugation of photon echoes in Na vapor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 865–866 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. Fujita, H. Nakasuka, H. Nakanishi, and M. Matsuoka, “Backward echo in two-level systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 974–977 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. O. White, M. Cronin-Golomb, B. Fischer, and A. Yariv, “Coherent oscillation by self-induced grating in the photorefractive crystal BaTiO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 450–452 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. Feinberg, “Self-pumped, continuous phase-conjugator using internal reflection,” Opt. Lett. 7, 486–488 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. M. Cronin-Golomb, B. Fischer, J. O. White, and A. Yariv, “Passive phase conjugate mirror based on self-induced oscillation in an optical ring cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 919–921 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  20. W. Rapp and B. Gronau, “Laser emission from two xanthene dyes via double-photon excitation,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 8, 529–531 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  21. M. R. Topp and P. M. Rentzepis, “Picosecond stimulated emission in a fluorescent solution following two-photon absorption,” Phys. Rev. A 3, 358–364 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  22. A. S. Kwok, A. Serpenguzel, W. F. Hsieh, R. K. Chang, and J. B. Gillespie, “Two-photon pumped lasing in microdroplets,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1435–1437 (1992).
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  23. A. Mukherjee, “Two-photon pumped upconversion lasing in dye doped polymer waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 3423–3425 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  24. G. S. He, C. F. Zhao, J. D. Bhawalkar, and P. N. Prasad, “Two-photon pumped cavity lasing in novel dye doped bulk matrix rods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3703–3705 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  25. G. S. He, J. D. Bhawalkar, C. F. Zhao, C. K. Park, and P. N. Prasad, “Two-photon pumped cavity lasing in a dye-solution-filled hollow-fiber system,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2393–2395 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  26. G. S. He, J. D. Bhawalkar, C. F. Zhao, and P. N. Prasad, “Properties of two-photon pumped cavity lasing in novel dye doped solid matrices,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 749–755 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  27. G. S. He, J. D. Bhawalkar, C. F. Zhao, C. K. Park, and P. N. Prasad, “Upconversion dye-doped polymer fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3549–3551 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  28. G. S. He, Y. Cui, J. D. Bhawalkar, P. N. Prasad, and D. D. Bhawalkar, “Intracavity upconversion lasing within a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Commun. 133, 175–179 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  29. G. S. He, L. Yuan, Y. Cui, M. Li, and P. N. Prasad, “Studies of two-photon pumped frequency-upconverted lasing properties of a new dye material,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2529–2537 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  30. G. He, N. Cheng, P. Prasad, D. Liu, and S. Liu, “Phase-conjugation properties of two-photon-pumped backward-stimulated emission. II. Theoretical studies,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1086–1095 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  31. L. W. Tutt and T. F. Boggess, “A review of optical limiting mechanisms and devices using organics, fullerenes, semiconductors and other materials,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 17, 299–338 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  32. G. S. He, G. C. Xu, P. N. Prasad, B. A. Reinhardt, J. C. Bhatt, R. McKellar, and A. G. Dillard, “Two-photon absorption and optical-limiting properties of novel organic compounds,” Opt. Lett. 20, 435–437 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. G. S. He, Y. Cui, M. Yoshida, and P. N. Prasad, “Phase-conjugate backward stimulated emission from a two-photon-pumped lasing medium,” Opt. Lett. 22, 10–12 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. V. G. Koptev, A. M. Lazaruk, I. P. Petrovich, and A. S. Rubanov, “Wavefront inversion in superradiance,” JETP Lett. 28, 434–437 (1978).

1998 (1)

1997 (3)

G. S. He, Y. Cui, M. Yoshida, and P. N. Prasad, “Phase-conjugate backward stimulated emission from a two-photon-pumped lasing medium,” Opt. Lett. 22, 10–12 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. S. He, Y. Cui, J. D. Bhawalkar, P. N. Prasad, and D. D. Bhawalkar, “Intracavity upconversion lasing within a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Commun. 133, 175–179 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, L. Yuan, Y. Cui, M. Li, and P. N. Prasad, “Studies of two-photon pumped frequency-upconverted lasing properties of a new dye material,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2529–2537 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

G. S. He, J. D. Bhawalkar, C. F. Zhao, and P. N. Prasad, “Properties of two-photon pumped cavity lasing in novel dye doped solid matrices,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 749–755 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, J. D. Bhawalkar, C. F. Zhao, C. K. Park, and P. N. Prasad, “Upconversion dye-doped polymer fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3549–3551 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (3)

1993 (2)

L. W. Tutt and T. F. Boggess, “A review of optical limiting mechanisms and devices using organics, fullerenes, semiconductors and other materials,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 17, 299–338 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Mukherjee, “Two-photon pumped upconversion lasing in dye doped polymer waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 3423–3425 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

1983 (1)

M. Cronin-Golomb, B. Fischer, J. O. White, and A. Yariv, “Passive phase conjugate mirror based on self-induced oscillation in an optical ring cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 919–921 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (2)

J. Feinberg, “Self-pumped, continuous phase-conjugator using internal reflection,” Opt. Lett. 7, 486–488 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. O. White, M. Cronin-Golomb, B. Fischer, and A. Yariv, “Coherent oscillation by self-induced grating in the photorefractive crystal BaTiO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 450–452 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1979 (2)

M. Fujita, H. Nakasuka, H. Nakanishi, and M. Matsuoka, “Backward echo in two-level systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 974–977 (1979).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Steel, R. C. Lind, J. F. Lam, and C. R. Giuliano, “Polarization-rotation and thermal-motion studies via resonant degenerate four-wave mixing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 376–379 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978 (6)

A. Yariv, “Phase conjugate optics and real-time holography,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 14, 650–660 (1978).
[CrossRef]

A. I. Sokolovskaya, G. L. Brekhovskikh, and A. D. Kudryavtseva, “Light beam wavefront reconstruction and real volume image reconstruction of the object at the stimulated Raman scattering,” Opt. Commun. 24, 74–76 (1978).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Kudriavtseva, A. L. Sokolovskaia, J. Gazengel, N. P. Xuan, and G. Rivoire, “Reconstruction of the laser wave-front by stimulated scattering in the pico-second range,” Opt. Commun. 26, 446–448 (1978).
[CrossRef]

N. C. Griffen and C. V. Heer, “Focusing and phase conjugation of photon echoes in Na vapor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 865–866 (1978).
[CrossRef]

V. Wang and C. R. Giuliano, “Correction of phase aberrations via stimulated Brillouin scattering,” Opt. Lett. 2, 4–6 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. G. Koptev, A. M. Lazaruk, I. P. Petrovich, and A. S. Rubanov, “Wavefront inversion in superradiance,” JETP Lett. 28, 434–437 (1978).

1977 (5)

A. Yariv and D. M. Pepper, “Amplified refraction, phase conjugation, and oscillation in degenerate four-wave mixing,” Opt. Lett. 1, 16–18 (1977).
[CrossRef]

A. Yariv, “Compensation for atmospheric degradation of optical beam transmission by nonlinear optical mixing,” Opt. Commun. 21, 49–50 (1977).
[CrossRef]

P. V. Avizonis, F. A. Hopf, W. D. Bamberger, S. F. Jacobs, A. Tomita, and K. H. Womack, “Optical phase conjugation in a lithium-niobate crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 435–437 (1977).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Hellwarth, “Generation of time reversal wavefronts by nonlinear refraction,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 67, 1–3 (1977).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Bloom and G. C. Bjorklund, “Conjugate wave front generation and image reconstruction by four-wave mixing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 592–594 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1972 (2)

B. Ya. Zel’dovich, V. I. Popovichev, V. V. Ragul’skii, and F. S. Faizullov, “Connection between the wave fronts of the reflected and exciting light in stimulated Mandel’shtam–Brillouin scattering,” JETP Lett. 15, 109–112 (1972).

O. Yu. Nosach, V. I. Popovichev, V. V. Ragul’skii, and F. S. Faizullov, “Cancellation of phase distortions in an amplifying medium with a ‘Brillouin mirror’,” JETP Lett. 16, 435–438 (1972).

1971 (2)

W. Rapp and B. Gronau, “Laser emission from two xanthene dyes via double-photon excitation,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 8, 529–531 (1971).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Topp and P. M. Rentzepis, “Picosecond stimulated emission in a fluorescent solution following two-photon absorption,” Phys. Rev. A 3, 358–364 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Avizonis, P. V.

P. V. Avizonis, F. A. Hopf, W. D. Bamberger, S. F. Jacobs, A. Tomita, and K. H. Womack, “Optical phase conjugation in a lithium-niobate crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 435–437 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Bamberger, W. D.

P. V. Avizonis, F. A. Hopf, W. D. Bamberger, S. F. Jacobs, A. Tomita, and K. H. Womack, “Optical phase conjugation in a lithium-niobate crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 435–437 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Bhatt, J. C.

Bhawalkar, D. D.

G. S. He, Y. Cui, J. D. Bhawalkar, P. N. Prasad, and D. D. Bhawalkar, “Intracavity upconversion lasing within a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Commun. 133, 175–179 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bhawalkar, J. D.

G. S. He, Y. Cui, J. D. Bhawalkar, P. N. Prasad, and D. D. Bhawalkar, “Intracavity upconversion lasing within a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Commun. 133, 175–179 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, J. D. Bhawalkar, C. F. Zhao, C. K. Park, and P. N. Prasad, “Upconversion dye-doped polymer fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3549–3551 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, J. D. Bhawalkar, C. F. Zhao, and P. N. Prasad, “Properties of two-photon pumped cavity lasing in novel dye doped solid matrices,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 749–755 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, J. D. Bhawalkar, C. F. Zhao, C. K. Park, and P. N. Prasad, “Two-photon pumped cavity lasing in a dye-solution-filled hollow-fiber system,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2393–2395 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, C. F. Zhao, J. D. Bhawalkar, and P. N. Prasad, “Two-photon pumped cavity lasing in novel dye doped bulk matrix rods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3703–3705 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bjorklund, G. C.

D. M. Bloom and G. C. Bjorklund, “Conjugate wave front generation and image reconstruction by four-wave mixing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 592–594 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Bloom, D. M.

D. M. Bloom and G. C. Bjorklund, “Conjugate wave front generation and image reconstruction by four-wave mixing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 592–594 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Boggess, T. F.

L. W. Tutt and T. F. Boggess, “A review of optical limiting mechanisms and devices using organics, fullerenes, semiconductors and other materials,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 17, 299–338 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Brekhovskikh, G. L.

A. I. Sokolovskaya, G. L. Brekhovskikh, and A. D. Kudryavtseva, “Light beam wavefront reconstruction and real volume image reconstruction of the object at the stimulated Raman scattering,” Opt. Commun. 24, 74–76 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Chang, R. K.

Cheng, N.

Cronin-Golomb, M.

M. Cronin-Golomb, B. Fischer, J. O. White, and A. Yariv, “Passive phase conjugate mirror based on self-induced oscillation in an optical ring cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 919–921 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. O. White, M. Cronin-Golomb, B. Fischer, and A. Yariv, “Coherent oscillation by self-induced grating in the photorefractive crystal BaTiO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 450–452 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Cui, Y.

G. S. He, L. Yuan, Y. Cui, M. Li, and P. N. Prasad, “Studies of two-photon pumped frequency-upconverted lasing properties of a new dye material,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2529–2537 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, Y. Cui, J. D. Bhawalkar, P. N. Prasad, and D. D. Bhawalkar, “Intracavity upconversion lasing within a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Commun. 133, 175–179 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, Y. Cui, M. Yoshida, and P. N. Prasad, “Phase-conjugate backward stimulated emission from a two-photon-pumped lasing medium,” Opt. Lett. 22, 10–12 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dillard, A. G.

Faizullov, F. S.

O. Yu. Nosach, V. I. Popovichev, V. V. Ragul’skii, and F. S. Faizullov, “Cancellation of phase distortions in an amplifying medium with a ‘Brillouin mirror’,” JETP Lett. 16, 435–438 (1972).

B. Ya. Zel’dovich, V. I. Popovichev, V. V. Ragul’skii, and F. S. Faizullov, “Connection between the wave fronts of the reflected and exciting light in stimulated Mandel’shtam–Brillouin scattering,” JETP Lett. 15, 109–112 (1972).

Feinberg, J.

Fischer, B.

M. Cronin-Golomb, B. Fischer, J. O. White, and A. Yariv, “Passive phase conjugate mirror based on self-induced oscillation in an optical ring cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 919–921 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. O. White, M. Cronin-Golomb, B. Fischer, and A. Yariv, “Coherent oscillation by self-induced grating in the photorefractive crystal BaTiO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 450–452 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Fujita, M.

M. Fujita, H. Nakasuka, H. Nakanishi, and M. Matsuoka, “Backward echo in two-level systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 974–977 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Gazengel, J.

A. D. Kudriavtseva, A. L. Sokolovskaia, J. Gazengel, N. P. Xuan, and G. Rivoire, “Reconstruction of the laser wave-front by stimulated scattering in the pico-second range,” Opt. Commun. 26, 446–448 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Gillespie, J. B.

Giuliano, C. R.

D. G. Steel, R. C. Lind, J. F. Lam, and C. R. Giuliano, “Polarization-rotation and thermal-motion studies via resonant degenerate four-wave mixing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 376–379 (1979).
[CrossRef]

V. Wang and C. R. Giuliano, “Correction of phase aberrations via stimulated Brillouin scattering,” Opt. Lett. 2, 4–6 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Griffen, N. C.

N. C. Griffen and C. V. Heer, “Focusing and phase conjugation of photon echoes in Na vapor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 865–866 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Gronau, B.

W. Rapp and B. Gronau, “Laser emission from two xanthene dyes via double-photon excitation,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 8, 529–531 (1971).
[CrossRef]

He, G.

He, G. S.

G. S. He, Y. Cui, M. Yoshida, and P. N. Prasad, “Phase-conjugate backward stimulated emission from a two-photon-pumped lasing medium,” Opt. Lett. 22, 10–12 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. S. He, L. Yuan, Y. Cui, M. Li, and P. N. Prasad, “Studies of two-photon pumped frequency-upconverted lasing properties of a new dye material,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2529–2537 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, Y. Cui, J. D. Bhawalkar, P. N. Prasad, and D. D. Bhawalkar, “Intracavity upconversion lasing within a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Commun. 133, 175–179 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, J. D. Bhawalkar, C. F. Zhao, C. K. Park, and P. N. Prasad, “Upconversion dye-doped polymer fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3549–3551 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, J. D. Bhawalkar, C. F. Zhao, and P. N. Prasad, “Properties of two-photon pumped cavity lasing in novel dye doped solid matrices,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 749–755 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, C. F. Zhao, J. D. Bhawalkar, and P. N. Prasad, “Two-photon pumped cavity lasing in novel dye doped bulk matrix rods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3703–3705 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, J. D. Bhawalkar, C. F. Zhao, C. K. Park, and P. N. Prasad, “Two-photon pumped cavity lasing in a dye-solution-filled hollow-fiber system,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2393–2395 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, G. C. Xu, P. N. Prasad, B. A. Reinhardt, J. C. Bhatt, R. McKellar, and A. G. Dillard, “Two-photon absorption and optical-limiting properties of novel organic compounds,” Opt. Lett. 20, 435–437 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heer, C. V.

N. C. Griffen and C. V. Heer, “Focusing and phase conjugation of photon echoes in Na vapor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 865–866 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Hellwarth, R. W.

R. W. Hellwarth, “Generation of time reversal wavefronts by nonlinear refraction,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 67, 1–3 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Hopf, F. A.

P. V. Avizonis, F. A. Hopf, W. D. Bamberger, S. F. Jacobs, A. Tomita, and K. H. Womack, “Optical phase conjugation in a lithium-niobate crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 435–437 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, W. F.

Jacobs, S. F.

P. V. Avizonis, F. A. Hopf, W. D. Bamberger, S. F. Jacobs, A. Tomita, and K. H. Womack, “Optical phase conjugation in a lithium-niobate crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 435–437 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Koptev, V. G.

V. G. Koptev, A. M. Lazaruk, I. P. Petrovich, and A. S. Rubanov, “Wavefront inversion in superradiance,” JETP Lett. 28, 434–437 (1978).

Kudriavtseva, A. D.

A. D. Kudriavtseva, A. L. Sokolovskaia, J. Gazengel, N. P. Xuan, and G. Rivoire, “Reconstruction of the laser wave-front by stimulated scattering in the pico-second range,” Opt. Commun. 26, 446–448 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Kudryavtseva, A. D.

A. I. Sokolovskaya, G. L. Brekhovskikh, and A. D. Kudryavtseva, “Light beam wavefront reconstruction and real volume image reconstruction of the object at the stimulated Raman scattering,” Opt. Commun. 24, 74–76 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Kwok, A. S.

Lam, J. F.

D. G. Steel, R. C. Lind, J. F. Lam, and C. R. Giuliano, “Polarization-rotation and thermal-motion studies via resonant degenerate four-wave mixing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 376–379 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Lazaruk, A. M.

V. G. Koptev, A. M. Lazaruk, I. P. Petrovich, and A. S. Rubanov, “Wavefront inversion in superradiance,” JETP Lett. 28, 434–437 (1978).

Li, M.

G. S. He, L. Yuan, Y. Cui, M. Li, and P. N. Prasad, “Studies of two-photon pumped frequency-upconverted lasing properties of a new dye material,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2529–2537 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lind, R. C.

D. G. Steel, R. C. Lind, J. F. Lam, and C. R. Giuliano, “Polarization-rotation and thermal-motion studies via resonant degenerate four-wave mixing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 376–379 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Liu, D.

Liu, S.

Matsuoka, M.

M. Fujita, H. Nakasuka, H. Nakanishi, and M. Matsuoka, “Backward echo in two-level systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 974–977 (1979).
[CrossRef]

McKellar, R.

Mukherjee, A.

A. Mukherjee, “Two-photon pumped upconversion lasing in dye doped polymer waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 3423–3425 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nakanishi, H.

M. Fujita, H. Nakasuka, H. Nakanishi, and M. Matsuoka, “Backward echo in two-level systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 974–977 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Nakasuka, H.

M. Fujita, H. Nakasuka, H. Nakanishi, and M. Matsuoka, “Backward echo in two-level systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 974–977 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Nosach, O. Yu.

O. Yu. Nosach, V. I. Popovichev, V. V. Ragul’skii, and F. S. Faizullov, “Cancellation of phase distortions in an amplifying medium with a ‘Brillouin mirror’,” JETP Lett. 16, 435–438 (1972).

Park, C. K.

G. S. He, J. D. Bhawalkar, C. F. Zhao, C. K. Park, and P. N. Prasad, “Upconversion dye-doped polymer fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3549–3551 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, J. D. Bhawalkar, C. F. Zhao, C. K. Park, and P. N. Prasad, “Two-photon pumped cavity lasing in a dye-solution-filled hollow-fiber system,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2393–2395 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pepper, D. M.

Petrovich, I. P.

V. G. Koptev, A. M. Lazaruk, I. P. Petrovich, and A. S. Rubanov, “Wavefront inversion in superradiance,” JETP Lett. 28, 434–437 (1978).

Popovichev, V. I.

B. Ya. Zel’dovich, V. I. Popovichev, V. V. Ragul’skii, and F. S. Faizullov, “Connection between the wave fronts of the reflected and exciting light in stimulated Mandel’shtam–Brillouin scattering,” JETP Lett. 15, 109–112 (1972).

O. Yu. Nosach, V. I. Popovichev, V. V. Ragul’skii, and F. S. Faizullov, “Cancellation of phase distortions in an amplifying medium with a ‘Brillouin mirror’,” JETP Lett. 16, 435–438 (1972).

Prasad, P.

Prasad, P. N.

G. S. He, Y. Cui, M. Yoshida, and P. N. Prasad, “Phase-conjugate backward stimulated emission from a two-photon-pumped lasing medium,” Opt. Lett. 22, 10–12 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. S. He, Y. Cui, J. D. Bhawalkar, P. N. Prasad, and D. D. Bhawalkar, “Intracavity upconversion lasing within a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Commun. 133, 175–179 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, L. Yuan, Y. Cui, M. Li, and P. N. Prasad, “Studies of two-photon pumped frequency-upconverted lasing properties of a new dye material,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2529–2537 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, J. D. Bhawalkar, C. F. Zhao, C. K. Park, and P. N. Prasad, “Upconversion dye-doped polymer fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3549–3551 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, J. D. Bhawalkar, C. F. Zhao, and P. N. Prasad, “Properties of two-photon pumped cavity lasing in novel dye doped solid matrices,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 749–755 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, J. D. Bhawalkar, C. F. Zhao, C. K. Park, and P. N. Prasad, “Two-photon pumped cavity lasing in a dye-solution-filled hollow-fiber system,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2393–2395 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, C. F. Zhao, J. D. Bhawalkar, and P. N. Prasad, “Two-photon pumped cavity lasing in novel dye doped bulk matrix rods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3703–3705 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, G. C. Xu, P. N. Prasad, B. A. Reinhardt, J. C. Bhatt, R. McKellar, and A. G. Dillard, “Two-photon absorption and optical-limiting properties of novel organic compounds,” Opt. Lett. 20, 435–437 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ragul’skii, V. V.

B. Ya. Zel’dovich, V. I. Popovichev, V. V. Ragul’skii, and F. S. Faizullov, “Connection between the wave fronts of the reflected and exciting light in stimulated Mandel’shtam–Brillouin scattering,” JETP Lett. 15, 109–112 (1972).

O. Yu. Nosach, V. I. Popovichev, V. V. Ragul’skii, and F. S. Faizullov, “Cancellation of phase distortions in an amplifying medium with a ‘Brillouin mirror’,” JETP Lett. 16, 435–438 (1972).

Rapp, W.

W. Rapp and B. Gronau, “Laser emission from two xanthene dyes via double-photon excitation,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 8, 529–531 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Reinhardt, B. A.

Rentzepis, P. M.

M. R. Topp and P. M. Rentzepis, “Picosecond stimulated emission in a fluorescent solution following two-photon absorption,” Phys. Rev. A 3, 358–364 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Rivoire, G.

A. D. Kudriavtseva, A. L. Sokolovskaia, J. Gazengel, N. P. Xuan, and G. Rivoire, “Reconstruction of the laser wave-front by stimulated scattering in the pico-second range,” Opt. Commun. 26, 446–448 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Rubanov, A. S.

V. G. Koptev, A. M. Lazaruk, I. P. Petrovich, and A. S. Rubanov, “Wavefront inversion in superradiance,” JETP Lett. 28, 434–437 (1978).

Serpenguzel, A.

Sokolovskaia, A. L.

A. D. Kudriavtseva, A. L. Sokolovskaia, J. Gazengel, N. P. Xuan, and G. Rivoire, “Reconstruction of the laser wave-front by stimulated scattering in the pico-second range,” Opt. Commun. 26, 446–448 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Sokolovskaya, A. I.

A. I. Sokolovskaya, G. L. Brekhovskikh, and A. D. Kudryavtseva, “Light beam wavefront reconstruction and real volume image reconstruction of the object at the stimulated Raman scattering,” Opt. Commun. 24, 74–76 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Steel, D. G.

D. G. Steel, R. C. Lind, J. F. Lam, and C. R. Giuliano, “Polarization-rotation and thermal-motion studies via resonant degenerate four-wave mixing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 376–379 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Tomita, A.

P. V. Avizonis, F. A. Hopf, W. D. Bamberger, S. F. Jacobs, A. Tomita, and K. H. Womack, “Optical phase conjugation in a lithium-niobate crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 435–437 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Topp, M. R.

M. R. Topp and P. M. Rentzepis, “Picosecond stimulated emission in a fluorescent solution following two-photon absorption,” Phys. Rev. A 3, 358–364 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Tutt, L. W.

L. W. Tutt and T. F. Boggess, “A review of optical limiting mechanisms and devices using organics, fullerenes, semiconductors and other materials,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 17, 299–338 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wang, V.

White, J. O.

M. Cronin-Golomb, B. Fischer, J. O. White, and A. Yariv, “Passive phase conjugate mirror based on self-induced oscillation in an optical ring cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 919–921 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. O. White, M. Cronin-Golomb, B. Fischer, and A. Yariv, “Coherent oscillation by self-induced grating in the photorefractive crystal BaTiO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 450–452 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Womack, K. H.

P. V. Avizonis, F. A. Hopf, W. D. Bamberger, S. F. Jacobs, A. Tomita, and K. H. Womack, “Optical phase conjugation in a lithium-niobate crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 435–437 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Xu, G. C.

Xuan, N. P.

A. D. Kudriavtseva, A. L. Sokolovskaia, J. Gazengel, N. P. Xuan, and G. Rivoire, “Reconstruction of the laser wave-front by stimulated scattering in the pico-second range,” Opt. Commun. 26, 446–448 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

M. Cronin-Golomb, B. Fischer, J. O. White, and A. Yariv, “Passive phase conjugate mirror based on self-induced oscillation in an optical ring cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 919–921 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. O. White, M. Cronin-Golomb, B. Fischer, and A. Yariv, “Coherent oscillation by self-induced grating in the photorefractive crystal BaTiO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 450–452 (1982).
[CrossRef]

A. Yariv, “Phase conjugate optics and real-time holography,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 14, 650–660 (1978).
[CrossRef]

A. Yariv and D. M. Pepper, “Amplified refraction, phase conjugation, and oscillation in degenerate four-wave mixing,” Opt. Lett. 1, 16–18 (1977).
[CrossRef]

A. Yariv, “Compensation for atmospheric degradation of optical beam transmission by nonlinear optical mixing,” Opt. Commun. 21, 49–50 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, M.

Yuan, L.

G. S. He, L. Yuan, Y. Cui, M. Li, and P. N. Prasad, “Studies of two-photon pumped frequency-upconverted lasing properties of a new dye material,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2529–2537 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zel’dovich, B. Ya.

B. Ya. Zel’dovich, V. I. Popovichev, V. V. Ragul’skii, and F. S. Faizullov, “Connection between the wave fronts of the reflected and exciting light in stimulated Mandel’shtam–Brillouin scattering,” JETP Lett. 15, 109–112 (1972).

Zhao, C. F.

G. S. He, J. D. Bhawalkar, C. F. Zhao, C. K. Park, and P. N. Prasad, “Upconversion dye-doped polymer fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3549–3551 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, J. D. Bhawalkar, C. F. Zhao, and P. N. Prasad, “Properties of two-photon pumped cavity lasing in novel dye doped solid matrices,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 749–755 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, C. F. Zhao, J. D. Bhawalkar, and P. N. Prasad, “Two-photon pumped cavity lasing in novel dye doped bulk matrix rods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3703–3705 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, J. D. Bhawalkar, C. F. Zhao, C. K. Park, and P. N. Prasad, “Two-photon pumped cavity lasing in a dye-solution-filled hollow-fiber system,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2393–2395 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (9)

D. M. Bloom and G. C. Bjorklund, “Conjugate wave front generation and image reconstruction by four-wave mixing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 592–594 (1977).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Steel, R. C. Lind, J. F. Lam, and C. R. Giuliano, “Polarization-rotation and thermal-motion studies via resonant degenerate four-wave mixing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 376–379 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. O. White, M. Cronin-Golomb, B. Fischer, and A. Yariv, “Coherent oscillation by self-induced grating in the photorefractive crystal BaTiO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 450–452 (1982).
[CrossRef]

M. Cronin-Golomb, B. Fischer, J. O. White, and A. Yariv, “Passive phase conjugate mirror based on self-induced oscillation in an optical ring cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 919–921 (1983).
[CrossRef]

P. V. Avizonis, F. A. Hopf, W. D. Bamberger, S. F. Jacobs, A. Tomita, and K. H. Womack, “Optical phase conjugation in a lithium-niobate crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 435–437 (1977).
[CrossRef]

N. C. Griffen and C. V. Heer, “Focusing and phase conjugation of photon echoes in Na vapor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 865–866 (1978).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, J. D. Bhawalkar, C. F. Zhao, C. K. Park, and P. N. Prasad, “Upconversion dye-doped polymer fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3549–3551 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Mukherjee, “Two-photon pumped upconversion lasing in dye doped polymer waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 3423–3425 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, C. F. Zhao, J. D. Bhawalkar, and P. N. Prasad, “Two-photon pumped cavity lasing in novel dye doped bulk matrix rods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3703–3705 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

W. Rapp and B. Gronau, “Laser emission from two xanthene dyes via double-photon excitation,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 8, 529–531 (1971).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

G. S. He, J. D. Bhawalkar, C. F. Zhao, and P. N. Prasad, “Properties of two-photon pumped cavity lasing in novel dye doped solid matrices,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 749–755 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Yariv, “Phase conjugate optics and real-time holography,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 14, 650–660 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

G. S. He, L. Yuan, Y. Cui, M. Li, and P. N. Prasad, “Studies of two-photon pumped frequency-upconverted lasing properties of a new dye material,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2529–2537 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

R. W. Hellwarth, “Generation of time reversal wavefronts by nonlinear refraction,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 67, 1–3 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

JETP Lett. (3)

V. G. Koptev, A. M. Lazaruk, I. P. Petrovich, and A. S. Rubanov, “Wavefront inversion in superradiance,” JETP Lett. 28, 434–437 (1978).

B. Ya. Zel’dovich, V. I. Popovichev, V. V. Ragul’skii, and F. S. Faizullov, “Connection between the wave fronts of the reflected and exciting light in stimulated Mandel’shtam–Brillouin scattering,” JETP Lett. 15, 109–112 (1972).

O. Yu. Nosach, V. I. Popovichev, V. V. Ragul’skii, and F. S. Faizullov, “Cancellation of phase distortions in an amplifying medium with a ‘Brillouin mirror’,” JETP Lett. 16, 435–438 (1972).

Opt. Commun. (4)

A. I. Sokolovskaya, G. L. Brekhovskikh, and A. D. Kudryavtseva, “Light beam wavefront reconstruction and real volume image reconstruction of the object at the stimulated Raman scattering,” Opt. Commun. 24, 74–76 (1978).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Kudriavtseva, A. L. Sokolovskaia, J. Gazengel, N. P. Xuan, and G. Rivoire, “Reconstruction of the laser wave-front by stimulated scattering in the pico-second range,” Opt. Commun. 26, 446–448 (1978).
[CrossRef]

A. Yariv, “Compensation for atmospheric degradation of optical beam transmission by nonlinear optical mixing,” Opt. Commun. 21, 49–50 (1977).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, Y. Cui, J. D. Bhawalkar, P. N. Prasad, and D. D. Bhawalkar, “Intracavity upconversion lasing within a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Commun. 133, 175–179 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (7)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

M. R. Topp and P. M. Rentzepis, “Picosecond stimulated emission in a fluorescent solution following two-photon absorption,” Phys. Rev. A 3, 358–364 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

M. Fujita, H. Nakasuka, H. Nakanishi, and M. Matsuoka, “Backward echo in two-level systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 974–977 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Quantum Electron. (1)

L. W. Tutt and T. F. Boggess, “A review of optical limiting mechanisms and devices using organics, fullerenes, semiconductors and other materials,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 17, 299–338 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

R. A. Fisher, Ed., Optical Phase Conjugation (Academic, New York, 1983).

R. L. Abrams and R. C. Lind, “Degenerate-four-wave mixing in absorbing media,” Opt. Lett. 2, 94–96 (1978); 3, 205 (1978).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Linear absorption spectra of a 1-mm-path-length ASPI-dye solution in benzyl alcohol with a concentration of d0 =0.0004 M/L [curve (a)] and of a 1-mm-path-length pure benzyl alcohol sample [curve (b)]. The molecular chemical structure of ASPI is shown in the top-right corner.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setups for demonstrating the phase-conjugation properties of the frequency-upconverted backward-stimulated emission: (a) configuration for far-field measurement and (b) configuration for image-reconstruction measurement.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Normalized spectral distributions of the single-photon-induced (at 532 nm) fluorescence [curve (a)], the two-photon-induced (at 1064 nm) fluorescence [curve (b)], and of the two-photon-pumped (at 1064 nm) backward-stimulated emission [curves (c)–(e)] at various pump energy levels. The spectral resolution was 6 nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Temporal profile of the input 1064-nm pump pulse; (b) temporal profiles of the 616-nm backward-stimulated emission at various pump levels. The temporal resolution was 1–1.5 ns.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Energy of the backward-stimulated emission from a 1-cm path-length ASPI-filled cuvette as a function of the input-pump-pulse energy.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Normalized far-field intensity distribution profiles for (a) the input IR pump beam and (b) the transmitted pump beam passed through a glass vial filled with pure benzyl alcohol.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Normalized far-field intensity distribution profiles for (a) the forward-stimulated emission from a glass vial filled with ASPI solution in benzyl alcohol and (b) the backward-stimulated emission from the same gain sample.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Normalized far-field intensity distribution profiles for (a) the input IR pump beam passed through a glass Petri dish as the aberration plate and for (b) the backward-stimulated emission from the dye-solution-filled glass vial and passed through the same aberration plate.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Near-field images of (a), 1064-nm input-pump beam; (b), the backward-stimulated Brillouin scattering from an acetone filled glass vial; (c) and (d), the forward- and backward-stimulated emission from a dye-solution-filled glass vial; (e) and (f), the forward- and backward-stimulated Raman scattering from a benzene-filled glass vial.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

T(I0)=[ln(1+I0Lβ)]/I0Lβ,
β=σ2NAd0×10-3,
Δ(I0)=E0[1-T(I0)],
E=-a+bΔ(I0)=-a+bE0[1-T0(I)].

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