Abstract

We report the experimental observation and analysis of optical second-harmonic generation in the 3R and 2H polytypes of molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) by a fundamental excitation wavelength of 1064 nm. We include an extension from the literature to account for multiple reflections of the fundamental, anisotropic optical constants, and strong absorption of the second harmonic to deduce the second-order nonlinear dielectric susceptibilities. We observe a bulk nonlinearity of |d21|=500±200 pm/V for 3R-MoS2. The absence of a signal from 2H-MoS2, a centrosymmetric stacking polytype, is consistent with |deff|<5×10-2 pm/V.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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  1. E. Fortin and F. Raga, Phys. Rev. B 11, 905 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. R. Beal and H. P. Hughes, J. Phys. C 12, 881 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  3. B. L. Evans and P. A. Young, Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 284, 402 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. A. Neville and B. L. Evans, Phys. Status Solidi B 73, 597 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. V. Kasowski, Phys. Rev. Lett. 30, 1175 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. R. Khan and G. J. Goldsmith, Nuovo Cimento D, 665 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. B. Roxlo, R. R. Chianelli, H. W. Deckman, A. F. Ruppert, and P. P. Wong, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 5, 555 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. A. Wilson and A. D. Yoffe, Adv. Phys. 18, 193 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. R. Chianelli, Catal. Rev. Sci. Eng. 26, 361 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. Topsoe, Surface Properties and Catalysis by Non-Metals: Oxides, Sulfides, and Other Transition Metals (Reidel, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1983).
  11. O. Weiser and S. Landa, Sulfide Catalysts: Their Properties and Applications (Pergamon, Oxford, 1973).
  12. H. Tributsch, Faraday Discuss. Chem. Soc. 70, 371 (1981).
  13. P. D. Fleishauer, Thin Solid Films 154, 309 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. S. Whittingham and A. J. Jacobson, eds., Intercalation Chemistry (Academic, New York, 1982).
  15. R. Coehoorn, C. Haas, J. Dijkstra, C. J. F. Flipse, R. A. deGroot, and A. Wold, Phys. Rev. B 35, 6195 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  17. C. B. Roxlo, M. Daage, A. F. Ruppert, and R. R. Chianelli, J. Catal. 100, 176 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  18. P. D. Persans, E. Lu, J. Haus, G. A. Wagoner, and A. F. Ruppert, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 195, 591 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  19. W. M. R. Divigalpitiya, R. F. Frindt, and S. R. Morrison, J. Mater. Res. 6, 1103 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. P. Wilcoxon, P. P. Newcomer, and G. A. Samara, J. Appl. Phys. 81, 7934 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  21. J. Jerphagnon and S. K. Kurtz, J. Appl. Phys. 41, 1667 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  22. D. Chemla and P. Kupecek, Rev. Phys. Appl. 6, 31 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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1997 (1)

J. P. Wilcoxon, P. P. Newcomer, and G. A. Samara, J. Appl. Phys. 81, 7934 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1991 (2)

1990 (1)

P. D. Persans, E. Lu, J. Haus, G. A. Wagoner, and A. F. Ruppert, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 195, 591 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

F. Krausz, E. Wintner, and G. Leising, Phys. Rev. B 39, 3701 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. Neher, A. Wolf, C. Bubeck, and G. Wegner, Chem. Phys. Lett. 163, 116 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987 (3)

P. D. Fleishauer, Thin Solid Films 154, 309 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. Coehoorn, C. Haas, J. Dijkstra, C. J. F. Flipse, R. A. deGroot, and A. Wold, Phys. Rev. B 35, 6195 (1987).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Roxlo, R. R. Chianelli, H. W. Deckman, A. F. Ruppert, and P. P. Wong, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 5, 555 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

C. B. Roxlo, M. Daage, A. F. Ruppert, and R. R. Chianelli, J. Catal. 100, 176 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

R. R. Chianelli, Catal. Rev. Sci. Eng. 26, 361 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

M. R. Khan and G. J. Goldsmith, Nuovo Cimento D, 665 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

H. Tributsch, Faraday Discuss. Chem. Soc. 70, 371 (1981).

1979 (1)

A. R. Beal and H. P. Hughes, J. Phys. C 12, 881 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

S. H. El-Mahalawy and B. L. Evans, Phys. Status Solidi B 86, 151 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

R. A. Neville and B. L. Evans, Phys. Status Solidi B 73, 597 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

E. Fortin and F. Raga, Phys. Rev. B 11, 905 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

R. V. Kasowski, Phys. Rev. Lett. 30, 1175 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

D. Chemla and P. Kupecek, Rev. Phys. Appl. 6, 31 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

J. Jerphagnon and S. K. Kurtz, J. Appl. Phys. 41, 1667 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

J. A. Wilson and A. D. Yoffe, Adv. Phys. 18, 193 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

B. L. Evans and P. A. Young, Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 284, 402 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1962 (1)

P. D. Maker, R. W. Terhune, M. Nisenhoff, and C. M. Savage, Phys. Rev. Lett. 8, 21 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Ainger, F. W.

Beal, A. R.

A. R. Beal and H. P. Hughes, J. Phys. C 12, 881 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Bhalla, A. S.

Bubeck, C.

D. Neher, A. Wolf, C. Bubeck, and G. Wegner, Chem. Phys. Lett. 163, 116 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Chemla, D.

D. Chemla and P. Kupecek, Rev. Phys. Appl. 6, 31 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Chianelli, R. R.

C. B. Roxlo, R. R. Chianelli, H. W. Deckman, A. F. Ruppert, and P. P. Wong, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 5, 555 (1987).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Roxlo, M. Daage, A. F. Ruppert, and R. R. Chianelli, J. Catal. 100, 176 (1986).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Chianelli, Catal. Rev. Sci. Eng. 26, 361 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Coehoorn, R.

R. Coehoorn, C. Haas, J. Dijkstra, C. J. F. Flipse, R. A. deGroot, and A. Wold, Phys. Rev. B 35, 6195 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Cross, L. E.

Daage, M.

C. B. Roxlo, M. Daage, A. F. Ruppert, and R. R. Chianelli, J. Catal. 100, 176 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Damjanovic, D.

Deckman, H. W.

C. B. Roxlo, R. R. Chianelli, H. W. Deckman, A. F. Ruppert, and P. P. Wong, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 5, 555 (1987).
[CrossRef]

deGroot, R. A.

R. Coehoorn, C. Haas, J. Dijkstra, C. J. F. Flipse, R. A. deGroot, and A. Wold, Phys. Rev. B 35, 6195 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Dijkstra, J.

R. Coehoorn, C. Haas, J. Dijkstra, C. J. F. Flipse, R. A. deGroot, and A. Wold, Phys. Rev. B 35, 6195 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Divigalpitiya, W. M. R.

W. M. R. Divigalpitiya, R. F. Frindt, and S. R. Morrison, J. Mater. Res. 6, 1103 (1991).
[CrossRef]

El-Mahalawy, S. H.

S. H. El-Mahalawy and B. L. Evans, Phys. Status Solidi B 86, 151 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Evans, B. L.

S. H. El-Mahalawy and B. L. Evans, Phys. Status Solidi B 86, 151 (1978).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Neville and B. L. Evans, Phys. Status Solidi B 73, 597 (1976).
[CrossRef]

B. L. Evans and P. A. Young, Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 284, 402 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Fleishauer, P. D.

P. D. Fleishauer, Thin Solid Films 154, 309 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Flipse, C. J. F.

R. Coehoorn, C. Haas, J. Dijkstra, C. J. F. Flipse, R. A. deGroot, and A. Wold, Phys. Rev. B 35, 6195 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Fortin, E.

E. Fortin and F. Raga, Phys. Rev. B 11, 905 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Frindt, R. F.

W. M. R. Divigalpitiya, R. F. Frindt, and S. R. Morrison, J. Mater. Res. 6, 1103 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Goldsmith, G. J.

M. R. Khan and G. J. Goldsmith, Nuovo Cimento D, 665 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Haas, C.

R. Coehoorn, C. Haas, J. Dijkstra, C. J. F. Flipse, R. A. deGroot, and A. Wold, Phys. Rev. B 35, 6195 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Haus, J.

P. D. Persans, E. Lu, J. Haus, G. A. Wagoner, and A. F. Ruppert, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 195, 591 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hayden, L. M.

Herman, W. N.

Hughes, H. P.

A. R. Beal and H. P. Hughes, J. Phys. C 12, 881 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Jerphagnon, J.

J. Jerphagnon and S. K. Kurtz, J. Appl. Phys. 41, 1667 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Kasowski, R. V.

R. V. Kasowski, Phys. Rev. Lett. 30, 1175 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Khan, M. R.

M. R. Khan and G. J. Goldsmith, Nuovo Cimento D, 665 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Krausz, F.

F. Krausz, E. Wintner, and G. Leising, Phys. Rev. B 39, 3701 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kupecek, P.

D. Chemla and P. Kupecek, Rev. Phys. Appl. 6, 31 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Kurtz, S. K.

J. Jerphagnon and S. K. Kurtz, J. Appl. Phys. 41, 1667 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Leising, G.

F. Krausz, E. Wintner, and G. Leising, Phys. Rev. B 39, 3701 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

Lu, E.

P. D. Persans, E. Lu, J. Haus, G. A. Wagoner, and A. F. Ruppert, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 195, 591 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Maker, P. D.

P. D. Maker, R. W. Terhune, M. Nisenhoff, and C. M. Savage, Phys. Rev. Lett. 8, 21 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Morrison, S. R.

W. M. R. Divigalpitiya, R. F. Frindt, and S. R. Morrison, J. Mater. Res. 6, 1103 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Neher, D.

D. Neher, A. Wolf, C. Bubeck, and G. Wegner, Chem. Phys. Lett. 163, 116 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Neville, R. A.

R. A. Neville and B. L. Evans, Phys. Status Solidi B 73, 597 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Newcomer, P. P.

J. P. Wilcoxon, P. P. Newcomer, and G. A. Samara, J. Appl. Phys. 81, 7934 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nisenhoff, M.

P. D. Maker, R. W. Terhune, M. Nisenhoff, and C. M. Savage, Phys. Rev. Lett. 8, 21 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Persans, P. D.

P. D. Persans, E. Lu, J. Haus, G. A. Wagoner, and A. F. Ruppert, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 195, 591 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Raga, F.

E. Fortin and F. Raga, Phys. Rev. B 11, 905 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Roxlo, C. B.

C. B. Roxlo, R. R. Chianelli, H. W. Deckman, A. F. Ruppert, and P. P. Wong, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 5, 555 (1987).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Roxlo, M. Daage, A. F. Ruppert, and R. R. Chianelli, J. Catal. 100, 176 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Ruppert, A. F.

P. D. Persans, E. Lu, J. Haus, G. A. Wagoner, and A. F. Ruppert, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 195, 591 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Roxlo, R. R. Chianelli, H. W. Deckman, A. F. Ruppert, and P. P. Wong, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 5, 555 (1987).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Roxlo, M. Daage, A. F. Ruppert, and R. R. Chianelli, J. Catal. 100, 176 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Samara, G. A.

J. P. Wilcoxon, P. P. Newcomer, and G. A. Samara, J. Appl. Phys. 81, 7934 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Savage, C. M.

P. D. Maker, R. W. Terhune, M. Nisenhoff, and C. M. Savage, Phys. Rev. Lett. 8, 21 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Terhune, R. W.

P. D. Maker, R. W. Terhune, M. Nisenhoff, and C. M. Savage, Phys. Rev. Lett. 8, 21 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Tributsch, H.

H. Tributsch, Faraday Discuss. Chem. Soc. 70, 371 (1981).

Vedam, K.

Wagoner, G. A.

P. D. Persans, E. Lu, J. Haus, G. A. Wagoner, and A. F. Ruppert, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 195, 591 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wegner, G.

D. Neher, A. Wolf, C. Bubeck, and G. Wegner, Chem. Phys. Lett. 163, 116 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Wilcoxon, J. P.

J. P. Wilcoxon, P. P. Newcomer, and G. A. Samara, J. Appl. Phys. 81, 7934 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, J. A.

J. A. Wilson and A. D. Yoffe, Adv. Phys. 18, 193 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Wintner, E.

F. Krausz, E. Wintner, and G. Leising, Phys. Rev. B 39, 3701 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Wold, A.

R. Coehoorn, C. Haas, J. Dijkstra, C. J. F. Flipse, R. A. deGroot, and A. Wold, Phys. Rev. B 35, 6195 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, A.

D. Neher, A. Wolf, C. Bubeck, and G. Wegner, Chem. Phys. Lett. 163, 116 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Wong, P. P.

C. B. Roxlo, R. R. Chianelli, H. W. Deckman, A. F. Ruppert, and P. P. Wong, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 5, 555 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Yoffe, A. D.

J. A. Wilson and A. D. Yoffe, Adv. Phys. 18, 193 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Young, P. A.

B. L. Evans and P. A. Young, Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 284, 402 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Phys. (1)

J. A. Wilson and A. D. Yoffe, Adv. Phys. 18, 193 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Catal. Rev. Sci. Eng. (1)

R. R. Chianelli, Catal. Rev. Sci. Eng. 26, 361 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

D. Neher, A. Wolf, C. Bubeck, and G. Wegner, Chem. Phys. Lett. 163, 116 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Faraday Discuss. Chem. Soc. (1)

H. Tributsch, Faraday Discuss. Chem. Soc. 70, 371 (1981).

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

J. P. Wilcoxon, P. P. Newcomer, and G. A. Samara, J. Appl. Phys. 81, 7934 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Jerphagnon and S. K. Kurtz, J. Appl. Phys. 41, 1667 (1970).
[CrossRef]

J. Catal. (1)

C. B. Roxlo, M. Daage, A. F. Ruppert, and R. R. Chianelli, J. Catal. 100, 176 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Res. (1)

W. M. R. Divigalpitiya, R. F. Frindt, and S. R. Morrison, J. Mater. Res. 6, 1103 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. C (1)

A. R. Beal and H. P. Hughes, J. Phys. C 12, 881 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (1)

C. B. Roxlo, R. R. Chianelli, H. W. Deckman, A. F. Ruppert, and P. P. Wong, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 5, 555 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. (1)

P. D. Persans, E. Lu, J. Haus, G. A. Wagoner, and A. F. Ruppert, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 195, 591 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Nuovo Cimento D (1)

M. R. Khan and G. J. Goldsmith, Nuovo Cimento D, 665 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (3)

R. Coehoorn, C. Haas, J. Dijkstra, C. J. F. Flipse, R. A. deGroot, and A. Wold, Phys. Rev. B 35, 6195 (1987).
[CrossRef]

E. Fortin and F. Raga, Phys. Rev. B 11, 905 (1975).
[CrossRef]

F. Krausz, E. Wintner, and G. Leising, Phys. Rev. B 39, 3701 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

P. D. Maker, R. W. Terhune, M. Nisenhoff, and C. M. Savage, Phys. Rev. Lett. 8, 21 (1962).
[CrossRef]

R. V. Kasowski, Phys. Rev. Lett. 30, 1175 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi B (2)

S. H. El-Mahalawy and B. L. Evans, Phys. Status Solidi B 86, 151 (1978).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Neville and B. L. Evans, Phys. Status Solidi B 73, 597 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A (1)

B. L. Evans and P. A. Young, Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 284, 402 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Phys. Appl. (1)

D. Chemla and P. Kupecek, Rev. Phys. Appl. 6, 31 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

P. D. Fleishauer, Thin Solid Films 154, 309 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

M. S. Whittingham and A. J. Jacobson, eds., Intercalation Chemistry (Academic, New York, 1982).

H. Topsoe, Surface Properties and Catalysis by Non-Metals: Oxides, Sulfides, and Other Transition Metals (Reidel, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1983).

O. Weiser and S. Landa, Sulfide Catalysts: Their Properties and Applications (Pergamon, Oxford, 1973).

S. K. Kurtz, J. Jerphagnon, and M. M. Choy, in “Landolt–Bornstein: Numerical Data and Functional Relationships in Science and Technology,” New Series, K. H. Hellwege and A. M. Hellwege, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1979), Group III, Volume 11, p. 671.

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Figures (1)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Solid curve, transmission second-harmonic signal for an 10-μm-thick 3R-MoS2 crystal plotted against incident angle. Dashed curve, second-harmonic signal calculated with relations (2)–(7) and with (nωo4.3, nωe2.4) plotted as a function of incident angle. Loss that is due to either absorption or scattering is included with the reduction factor S=0.5, as discussed in the text.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Summary of Relevant Optical Constants for 2H and 3R MoS2

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

P2ω=128π3cA [tω]4[t2ω]2n2ω2c2ω2 Pfω22πDλ2deff2×exp[-2(δω+δ2ω)] sin2 Ψ+sinh2 χΨ2+χ2,
P2ω128π3cA (tω)4(t2ω)2n2ω2c2ω2 Pω2deff2×1/4(nω-n2ω)2+(n2ωκ2ω/c2ω)2=K Pω2deff2A.
P2ω=K Pω2deff2A 11+C2-2C cos(2ϕ)2,
ϕ=2πneffλDeffcos θt,
neff=cos θtnωo2+sin θtnωe2-1/2
θt=tan-1A1-Bsin θ,
deff2={(d15 cos2 θt+d33 sin2 θt)sin θt-[d16 cos θt-(d15+d31)sin θt]cos2 θt}2.

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