S. Guy, M. F. Joubert, and B. Jacquier, “Photon avalanche and the mean-field approximation,” Phys. Rev. B 55, 8240–8248 (1997).

[CrossRef]

F. Auzel, “Multiphonon absorption and photon avalanche criterion in erbium doped materials,” Acta Phys. Pol. A 90, 7–19 (1996).

Ph. Goldner and F. Pellé, “Photon avalanche fluorescence and lasers,” Opt. Mater. 5, 239–249 (1996).

[CrossRef]

F. Auzel and Y. Chen, “Multiphonon pumping in Er^{3+} ZBLAN bulk and fiber, the first step for the photon avalanche process,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 184, 57–60 (1995).

[CrossRef]

F. Auzel and Y. Chen, “Photon avalanche luminescence of Er^{3+} ions in LiYF_{4} crystal,” J. Lumin. 65, 45–56 (1995).

[CrossRef]

Y. Chen and F. Auzel, “Room-temperature photon-avalanche up-conversion in an erbium-doped fluoride fiber,” J. Phys. D 27, 1–5 (1994).

M. F. Joubert, S. Guy, and B. Jacquier, “Model of the photon-avalanche effect,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 10031–10037 (1993).

[CrossRef]

W. Lenth and R. M. Macfarlane, “Excitation mechanisms for upconversion lasers,” J. Lumin. 45, 346–350 (1990).

[CrossRef]

C. M. Lawson, R. C. Powell, and W. K. Zwicker, “Transient grating investigation of exciton diffusion and fluorescence quenching in Nd_{x}La_{1−x}P_{5}O_{14} crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 26, 4836–4844 (1982).

[CrossRef]

J. S. Chivian, W. E. Case, and D. D. Eden, “The photon avalanche: a new phenomenon in Pr^{3+}-based infrared quantum counters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 124–125 (1979).

[CrossRef]

F. Auzel, “Materials and devices using double-pumped phosphors with energy transfer,” Proc. IEEE 61, 758–786 (1973).

[CrossRef]

F. Auzel, “Multiphonon absorption and photon avalanche criterion in erbium doped materials,” Acta Phys. Pol. A 90, 7–19 (1996).

F. Auzel and Y. Chen, “Photon avalanche luminescence of Er^{3+} ions in LiYF_{4} crystal,” J. Lumin. 65, 45–56 (1995).

[CrossRef]

F. Auzel and Y. Chen, “Multiphonon pumping in Er^{3+} ZBLAN bulk and fiber, the first step for the photon avalanche process,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 184, 57–60 (1995).

[CrossRef]

Y. Chen and F. Auzel, “Room-temperature photon-avalanche up-conversion in an erbium-doped fluoride fiber,” J. Phys. D 27, 1–5 (1994).

F. Auzel, “Materials and devices using double-pumped phosphors with energy transfer,” Proc. IEEE 61, 758–786 (1973).

[CrossRef]

A. W. Kueny, W. E. Case, and M. E. Koch, “Nonlinear-optical absorption through photon avalanche,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 639–642 (1989).

[CrossRef]

J. S. Chivian, W. E. Case, and D. D. Eden, “The photon avalanche: a new phenomenon in Pr^{3+}-based infrared quantum counters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 124–125 (1979).

[CrossRef]

F. Auzel and Y. Chen, “Multiphonon pumping in Er^{3+} ZBLAN bulk and fiber, the first step for the photon avalanche process,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 184, 57–60 (1995).

[CrossRef]

F. Auzel and Y. Chen, “Photon avalanche luminescence of Er^{3+} ions in LiYF_{4} crystal,” J. Lumin. 65, 45–56 (1995).

[CrossRef]

Y. Chen and F. Auzel, “Room-temperature photon-avalanche up-conversion in an erbium-doped fluoride fiber,” J. Phys. D 27, 1–5 (1994).

J. S. Chivian, W. E. Case, and D. D. Eden, “The photon avalanche: a new phenomenon in Pr^{3+}-based infrared quantum counters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 124–125 (1979).

[CrossRef]

J. S. Chivian, W. E. Case, and D. D. Eden, “The photon avalanche: a new phenomenon in Pr^{3+}-based infrared quantum counters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 124–125 (1979).

[CrossRef]

Ph. Goldner and F. Pellé, “Photon avalanche fluorescence and lasers,” Opt. Mater. 5, 239–249 (1996).

[CrossRef]

S. Guy, M. F. Joubert, and B. Jacquier, “Photon avalanche and the mean-field approximation,” Phys. Rev. B 55, 8240–8248 (1997).

[CrossRef]

M. F. Joubert, S. Guy, and B. Jacquier, “Model of the photon-avalanche effect,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 10031–10037 (1993).

[CrossRef]

S. Guy, M. F. Joubert, and B. Jacquier, “Photon avalanche and the mean-field approximation,” Phys. Rev. B 55, 8240–8248 (1997).

[CrossRef]

M. F. Joubert, S. Guy, and B. Jacquier, “Model of the photon-avalanche effect,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 10031–10037 (1993).

[CrossRef]

S. Guy, M. F. Joubert, and B. Jacquier, “Photon avalanche and the mean-field approximation,” Phys. Rev. B 55, 8240–8248 (1997).

[CrossRef]

M. F. Joubert, S. Guy, and B. Jacquier, “Model of the photon-avalanche effect,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 10031–10037 (1993).

[CrossRef]

C. M. Lawson, R. C. Powell, and W. K. Zwicker, “Transient grating investigation of exciton diffusion and fluorescence quenching in Nd_{x}La_{1−x}P_{5}O_{14} crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 26, 4836–4844 (1982).

[CrossRef]

W. Lenth and R. M. Macfarlane, “Excitation mechanisms for upconversion lasers,” J. Lumin. 45, 346–350 (1990).

[CrossRef]

W. Lenth and R. M. Macfarlane, “Excitation mechanisms for upconversion lasers,” J. Lumin. 45, 346–350 (1990).

[CrossRef]

Ph. Goldner and F. Pellé, “Photon avalanche fluorescence and lasers,” Opt. Mater. 5, 239–249 (1996).

[CrossRef]

C. M. Lawson, R. C. Powell, and W. K. Zwicker, “Transient grating investigation of exciton diffusion and fluorescence quenching in Nd_{x}La_{1−x}P_{5}O_{14} crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 26, 4836–4844 (1982).

[CrossRef]

C. M. Lawson, R. C. Powell, and W. K. Zwicker, “Transient grating investigation of exciton diffusion and fluorescence quenching in Nd_{x}La_{1−x}P_{5}O_{14} crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 26, 4836–4844 (1982).

[CrossRef]

F. Auzel, “Multiphonon absorption and photon avalanche criterion in erbium doped materials,” Acta Phys. Pol. A 90, 7–19 (1996).

J. S. Chivian, W. E. Case, and D. D. Eden, “The photon avalanche: a new phenomenon in Pr^{3+}-based infrared quantum counters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 124–125 (1979).

[CrossRef]

W. Lenth and R. M. Macfarlane, “Excitation mechanisms for upconversion lasers,” J. Lumin. 45, 346–350 (1990).

[CrossRef]

F. Auzel and Y. Chen, “Photon avalanche luminescence of Er^{3+} ions in LiYF_{4} crystal,” J. Lumin. 65, 45–56 (1995).

[CrossRef]

F. Auzel and Y. Chen, “Multiphonon pumping in Er^{3+} ZBLAN bulk and fiber, the first step for the photon avalanche process,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 184, 57–60 (1995).

[CrossRef]

Y. Chen and F. Auzel, “Room-temperature photon-avalanche up-conversion in an erbium-doped fluoride fiber,” J. Phys. D 27, 1–5 (1994).

Ph. Goldner and F. Pellé, “Photon avalanche fluorescence and lasers,” Opt. Mater. 5, 239–249 (1996).

[CrossRef]

M. F. Joubert, S. Guy, and B. Jacquier, “Model of the photon-avalanche effect,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 10031–10037 (1993).

[CrossRef]

S. Guy, M. F. Joubert, and B. Jacquier, “Photon avalanche and the mean-field approximation,” Phys. Rev. B 55, 8240–8248 (1997).

[CrossRef]

C. M. Lawson, R. C. Powell, and W. K. Zwicker, “Transient grating investigation of exciton diffusion and fluorescence quenching in Nd_{x}La_{1−x}P_{5}O_{14} crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 26, 4836–4844 (1982).

[CrossRef]

F. Auzel, “Materials and devices using double-pumped phosphors with energy transfer,” Proc. IEEE 61, 758–786 (1973).

[CrossRef]

D. L. Huber, in Laser Spectroscopy of Solids, W. M. Yen and P. M. Selzer, eds., Vol. 49 of Topics in Applied Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1986), p. 87.

M. J. Adams, An Introduction to Optical Waveguides (Wiley, New York, 1981), Chap. 7.

H. Scheife, T. Sandrock, E. Heumann, and G. Huber, “Pr, Yb-doped upconversion fibre laser exceeding 1 W of cw output in the red spectral range,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, Vol. 10 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 313–315.