S. Guy, M. F. Joubert, and B. Jacquier, “Photon avalanche and the mean-field approximation,” Phys. Rev. B 55, 8240–8248 (1997).

[CrossRef]

F. Auzel, “Multiphonon absorption and photon avalanche criterion in erbium doped materials,” Acta Phys. Pol. A 90, 7–19 (1996).

Ph. Goldner and F. Pellé, “Photon avalanche fluorescence and lasers,” Opt. Mater. 5, 239–249 (1996).

[CrossRef]

F. Auzel and Y. Chen, “Multiphonon pumping in Er^{3+} ZBLAN bulk and fiber, the first step for the photon avalanche process,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 184, 57–60 (1995).

[CrossRef]

F. Auzel and Y. Chen, “Photon avalanche luminescence of Er^{3+} ions in LiYF_{4} crystal,” J. Lumin. 65, 45–56 (1995).

[CrossRef]

Y. Chen and F. Auzel, “Room-temperature photon-avalanche up-conversion in an erbium-doped fluoride fiber,” J. Phys. D 27, 1–5 (1994).

M. F. Joubert, S. Guy, and B. Jacquier, “Model of the photon-avalanche effect,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 10031–10037 (1993).

[CrossRef]

W. Lenth and R. M. Macfarlane, “Excitation mechanisms for upconversion lasers,” J. Lumin. 45, 346–350 (1990).

[CrossRef]

C. M. Lawson, R. C. Powell, and W. K. Zwicker, “Transient grating investigation of exciton diffusion and fluorescence quenching in Nd_{x}La_{1−x}P_{5}O_{14} crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 26, 4836–4844 (1982).

[CrossRef]

J. S. Chivian, W. E. Case, and D. D. Eden, “The photon avalanche: a new phenomenon in Pr^{3+}-based infrared quantum counters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 124–125 (1979).

[CrossRef]

F. Auzel, “Materials and devices using double-pumped phosphors with energy transfer,” Proc. IEEE 61, 758–786 (1973).

[CrossRef]

F. Auzel, “Multiphonon absorption and photon avalanche criterion in erbium doped materials,” Acta Phys. Pol. A 90, 7–19 (1996).

F. Auzel and Y. Chen, “Multiphonon pumping in Er^{3+} ZBLAN bulk and fiber, the first step for the photon avalanche process,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 184, 57–60 (1995).

[CrossRef]

F. Auzel and Y. Chen, “Photon avalanche luminescence of Er^{3+} ions in LiYF_{4} crystal,” J. Lumin. 65, 45–56 (1995).

[CrossRef]

Y. Chen and F. Auzel, “Room-temperature photon-avalanche up-conversion in an erbium-doped fluoride fiber,” J. Phys. D 27, 1–5 (1994).

F. Auzel, “Materials and devices using double-pumped phosphors with energy transfer,” Proc. IEEE 61, 758–786 (1973).

[CrossRef]

A. W. Kueny, W. E. Case, and M. E. Koch, “Nonlinear-optical absorption through photon avalanche,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 639–642 (1989).

[CrossRef]

J. S. Chivian, W. E. Case, and D. D. Eden, “The photon avalanche: a new phenomenon in Pr^{3+}-based infrared quantum counters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 124–125 (1979).

[CrossRef]

F. Auzel and Y. Chen, “Photon avalanche luminescence of Er^{3+} ions in LiYF_{4} crystal,” J. Lumin. 65, 45–56 (1995).

[CrossRef]

F. Auzel and Y. Chen, “Multiphonon pumping in Er^{3+} ZBLAN bulk and fiber, the first step for the photon avalanche process,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 184, 57–60 (1995).

[CrossRef]

Y. Chen and F. Auzel, “Room-temperature photon-avalanche up-conversion in an erbium-doped fluoride fiber,” J. Phys. D 27, 1–5 (1994).

J. S. Chivian, W. E. Case, and D. D. Eden, “The photon avalanche: a new phenomenon in Pr^{3+}-based infrared quantum counters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 124–125 (1979).

[CrossRef]

J. S. Chivian, W. E. Case, and D. D. Eden, “The photon avalanche: a new phenomenon in Pr^{3+}-based infrared quantum counters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 124–125 (1979).

[CrossRef]

Ph. Goldner and F. Pellé, “Photon avalanche fluorescence and lasers,” Opt. Mater. 5, 239–249 (1996).

[CrossRef]

S. Guy, M. F. Joubert, and B. Jacquier, “Photon avalanche and the mean-field approximation,” Phys. Rev. B 55, 8240–8248 (1997).

[CrossRef]

M. F. Joubert, S. Guy, and B. Jacquier, “Model of the photon-avalanche effect,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 10031–10037 (1993).

[CrossRef]

S. Guy, M. F. Joubert, and B. Jacquier, “Photon avalanche and the mean-field approximation,” Phys. Rev. B 55, 8240–8248 (1997).

[CrossRef]

M. F. Joubert, S. Guy, and B. Jacquier, “Model of the photon-avalanche effect,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 10031–10037 (1993).

[CrossRef]

S. Guy, M. F. Joubert, and B. Jacquier, “Photon avalanche and the mean-field approximation,” Phys. Rev. B 55, 8240–8248 (1997).

[CrossRef]

M. F. Joubert, S. Guy, and B. Jacquier, “Model of the photon-avalanche effect,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 10031–10037 (1993).

[CrossRef]

C. M. Lawson, R. C. Powell, and W. K. Zwicker, “Transient grating investigation of exciton diffusion and fluorescence quenching in Nd_{x}La_{1−x}P_{5}O_{14} crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 26, 4836–4844 (1982).

[CrossRef]

W. Lenth and R. M. Macfarlane, “Excitation mechanisms for upconversion lasers,” J. Lumin. 45, 346–350 (1990).

[CrossRef]

W. Lenth and R. M. Macfarlane, “Excitation mechanisms for upconversion lasers,” J. Lumin. 45, 346–350 (1990).

[CrossRef]

Ph. Goldner and F. Pellé, “Photon avalanche fluorescence and lasers,” Opt. Mater. 5, 239–249 (1996).

[CrossRef]

C. M. Lawson, R. C. Powell, and W. K. Zwicker, “Transient grating investigation of exciton diffusion and fluorescence quenching in Nd_{x}La_{1−x}P_{5}O_{14} crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 26, 4836–4844 (1982).

[CrossRef]

C. M. Lawson, R. C. Powell, and W. K. Zwicker, “Transient grating investigation of exciton diffusion and fluorescence quenching in Nd_{x}La_{1−x}P_{5}O_{14} crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 26, 4836–4844 (1982).

[CrossRef]

F. Auzel, “Multiphonon absorption and photon avalanche criterion in erbium doped materials,” Acta Phys. Pol. A 90, 7–19 (1996).

J. S. Chivian, W. E. Case, and D. D. Eden, “The photon avalanche: a new phenomenon in Pr^{3+}-based infrared quantum counters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 124–125 (1979).

[CrossRef]

W. Lenth and R. M. Macfarlane, “Excitation mechanisms for upconversion lasers,” J. Lumin. 45, 346–350 (1990).

[CrossRef]

F. Auzel and Y. Chen, “Photon avalanche luminescence of Er^{3+} ions in LiYF_{4} crystal,” J. Lumin. 65, 45–56 (1995).

[CrossRef]

F. Auzel and Y. Chen, “Multiphonon pumping in Er^{3+} ZBLAN bulk and fiber, the first step for the photon avalanche process,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 184, 57–60 (1995).

[CrossRef]

Y. Chen and F. Auzel, “Room-temperature photon-avalanche up-conversion in an erbium-doped fluoride fiber,” J. Phys. D 27, 1–5 (1994).

Ph. Goldner and F. Pellé, “Photon avalanche fluorescence and lasers,” Opt. Mater. 5, 239–249 (1996).

[CrossRef]

M. F. Joubert, S. Guy, and B. Jacquier, “Model of the photon-avalanche effect,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 10031–10037 (1993).

[CrossRef]

S. Guy, M. F. Joubert, and B. Jacquier, “Photon avalanche and the mean-field approximation,” Phys. Rev. B 55, 8240–8248 (1997).

[CrossRef]

C. M. Lawson, R. C. Powell, and W. K. Zwicker, “Transient grating investigation of exciton diffusion and fluorescence quenching in Nd_{x}La_{1−x}P_{5}O_{14} crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 26, 4836–4844 (1982).

[CrossRef]

F. Auzel, “Materials and devices using double-pumped phosphors with energy transfer,” Proc. IEEE 61, 758–786 (1973).

[CrossRef]

M. J. Adams, An Introduction to Optical Waveguides (Wiley, New York, 1981), Chap. 7.

D. L. Huber, in Laser Spectroscopy of Solids, W. M. Yen and P. M. Selzer, eds., Vol. 49 of Topics in Applied Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1986), p. 87.

H. Scheife, T. Sandrock, E. Heumann, and G. Huber, “Pr, Yb-doped upconversion fibre laser exceeding 1 W of cw output in the red spectral range,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, Vol. 10 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 313–315.