Abstract

We have prepared polymer films doped with novel nonlinear organic ionic materials, pyrylium salt dyes, and have investigated the second-order nonlinear optical properties of these guest–host-type polymer films by changing the counterion and alkyl group derivatives. These films have no absorption in the blue-light region and have second-harmonic-generation activity without electric-field poling. The second-order nonlinearity of the nonpoled-polymer film is constant, with no relaxation at room temperature or at high temperatures. We fabricated a second-harmonic-generation device with the nonpoled-polymer film and observed Čerenkov-type phase-matched second-harmonic-generation of a Nd:YAG laser.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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  1. K. D. Singer, J. E. Sohn, and S. J. Lalama, “Second harmonic generation in poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 248 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. D. Singer, M. G. Kuzyk, and J. E. Sohn, “Second-order nonlinear-optical processes in orientationally ordered materials,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 968 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. A. Mortazavi, A. Knoesen, S. T. Kowel, B. G. Higgins, and A. Dienes, “Second-harmonic generation and absorption studies of polymer-dye films oriented by corona poling at elevated temperatures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 733 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. G. Kuzyk, K. D. Singer, H. E. Zahn, and L. A. King, “Second-order nonlinear-optical tensor properties of poled films under stress,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 742 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. L. Hampsch, J. M. Torkelson, S. J. Bethke, and S. G. Grubb, “Second harmonic generation in corona poled, doped polymer films as a function of corona processing,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 1037 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  6. L. M. Hayden, G. F. Saufer, F. R. Ore, P. L. Pasillas, J. M. Hoover, G. A. Lindsay, and R. A. Henry, “Second-order nonlinear optical measurements in guest–host and side-chain polymers,” J. Appl. Phys. 68, 456 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  7. O. Sugihara, T. Kinoshita, M. Okabe, S. Kunioka, Y. Nonaka, and K. Sasaki, “Phase-matched second harmonic generation in a poled dye/polymer waveguide,” Appl. Opt. 30, 2957 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. X. M. Duan, S. Okada, H. Oikawa, H. Matsuda, and H. Nakanishi, “Comparatively large second-order hyperpolarizability of aromatic sulfonate anion with short cutoff wavelength,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, 1559 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  9. X. M. Duan, T. Kimura, S. Okada, H. Oikawa, H. Matsuda, M. Kato, and H. Nakanishi, “Second-order hyperpolarizabilities of aromatic carboxylates without visible absorption,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, 1161 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  10. X. M. Duan, S. Okada, H. Oikawa, H. Matsuda, and H. Nakanishi, “Second-order hyperpolarizabilities of organic ionic species,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 267, 89 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. Nakayama, O. Sugihara, H. Fujimura, R. Matsushima, and N. Okamoto, “Thermally stable and resonance enhanced large nonlinear optical properties in poled silica films doped with thiazole azo dye,” Opt. Rev. 2, 236 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  12. G. H. Cross, D. Bloor, and M. Szablewski, “Blue window organics for frequency doubling devices,” Nonlinear Opt. 14, 219 (1995).
  13. R. J. Twieg, D. M. Burland, M. Jurich, V. Y. Lee, R. D. Miller, C. R. Moylan, R. Siemens, A. Skumanich, J. I. Thackara, T. Verbeist, W. Volksen, A. Knoesen, R. A. Hill, and D. Yankelevich, “Stability and performance issues for nonlinear optical chromophores, polymers and devices,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 392, 15 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  14. H. Nakayama, O. Sugihara, and N. Okamoto, “Stability of second-order nonlinearity from corona-poled silica films doped with azo dye with simple sol-gel processing,” Nonlinear Opt. 15, 407 (1996).
  15. H. Nakayama, A. Mizuno, O. Sugihara, R. Matsushima, N. Okamoto, and C. Egami, “Second-order nonlinearity of nonpoled polymeric thin films doped with pyrylium salts with blue window characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2813 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. R. Heflin, K. Y. Wong, O. Zamani-Khamiri, and A. F. Garito, “Nonlinear optical properties of linear chains and electron-correlation effects,” Phys. Rev. B 38, 1573 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  17. G. J. B. Hurst, M. Dupuis, and E. Clementi, “Ab initio analytic polarizability, first and second hyperpolarizabilities of large conjugated organic molecules,” J. Chem. Phys. 89, 385 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  18. H. A. Kurtz, J. J. P. Stewart, and K. M. Dieter, “Calculation of the nonlinear optical properties of molecules,” J. Comput. Chem. 11, 82 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  19. T. C. Kowalczyk, K. D. Singer, and P. A. Cahill, “Anomalous-dispersion phase-matched second-harmonic generation in a polymer waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2273 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. M. Ozawa, H. Nakayama, O. Sugihara, N. Okamoto, and K. Hirota, “Guest–host polymer films for stable and large second-order nonlinearity,” Nonlinear Opt. 15, 171 (1996).
  21. F. Ghebremichael, C. Poga, and M. G. Kuzyk, “Optical second harmonic characterization of spontaneous symmetry-breaking at polymer/transparent conductor interfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 139 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  22. P. K. Tien, R. Ulrich, and R. J. Martin, “Optical second harmonic generation in form of coherent Cerenkov radiation from a thin-film waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 447 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  23. O. F. J. Noordman, N. F. van Hulst, and B. Bolger, “Cerenkov-type second-harmonic generation in thin planar calix[4]arene waveguiding films,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 2398 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  24. V. Mahalakshmi, M. R. Shenov, and K. Thyagarajan, “Evolution of the intensity profile of Cerenkov second-harmonic radiation with propagation distance in planar waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 137 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  25. H. Tamada, “Coupled-mode analysis of second harmonic generation in the form of Cerenkov radiation from a planar optical waveguide,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 502 (1991).
    [CrossRef]

1996 (4)

H. Nakayama, O. Sugihara, and N. Okamoto, “Stability of second-order nonlinearity from corona-poled silica films doped with azo dye with simple sol-gel processing,” Nonlinear Opt. 15, 407 (1996).

H. Nakayama, A. Mizuno, O. Sugihara, R. Matsushima, N. Okamoto, and C. Egami, “Second-order nonlinearity of nonpoled polymeric thin films doped with pyrylium salts with blue window characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2813 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Ozawa, H. Nakayama, O. Sugihara, N. Okamoto, and K. Hirota, “Guest–host polymer films for stable and large second-order nonlinearity,” Nonlinear Opt. 15, 171 (1996).

V. Mahalakshmi, M. R. Shenov, and K. Thyagarajan, “Evolution of the intensity profile of Cerenkov second-harmonic radiation with propagation distance in planar waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 137 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (8)

O. F. J. Noordman, N. F. van Hulst, and B. Bolger, “Cerenkov-type second-harmonic generation in thin planar calix[4]arene waveguiding films,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 2398 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. Ghebremichael, C. Poga, and M. G. Kuzyk, “Optical second harmonic characterization of spontaneous symmetry-breaking at polymer/transparent conductor interfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 139 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Kowalczyk, K. D. Singer, and P. A. Cahill, “Anomalous-dispersion phase-matched second-harmonic generation in a polymer waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2273 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. M. Duan, T. Kimura, S. Okada, H. Oikawa, H. Matsuda, M. Kato, and H. Nakanishi, “Second-order hyperpolarizabilities of aromatic carboxylates without visible absorption,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, 1161 (1995).
[CrossRef]

X. M. Duan, S. Okada, H. Oikawa, H. Matsuda, and H. Nakanishi, “Second-order hyperpolarizabilities of organic ionic species,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 267, 89 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Nakayama, O. Sugihara, H. Fujimura, R. Matsushima, and N. Okamoto, “Thermally stable and resonance enhanced large nonlinear optical properties in poled silica films doped with thiazole azo dye,” Opt. Rev. 2, 236 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. H. Cross, D. Bloor, and M. Szablewski, “Blue window organics for frequency doubling devices,” Nonlinear Opt. 14, 219 (1995).

R. J. Twieg, D. M. Burland, M. Jurich, V. Y. Lee, R. D. Miller, C. R. Moylan, R. Siemens, A. Skumanich, J. I. Thackara, T. Verbeist, W. Volksen, A. Knoesen, R. A. Hill, and D. Yankelevich, “Stability and performance issues for nonlinear optical chromophores, polymers and devices,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 392, 15 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

X. M. Duan, S. Okada, H. Oikawa, H. Matsuda, and H. Nakanishi, “Comparatively large second-order hyperpolarizability of aromatic sulfonate anion with short cutoff wavelength,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, 1559 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

O. Sugihara, T. Kinoshita, M. Okabe, S. Kunioka, Y. Nonaka, and K. Sasaki, “Phase-matched second harmonic generation in a poled dye/polymer waveguide,” Appl. Opt. 30, 2957 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Tamada, “Coupled-mode analysis of second harmonic generation in the form of Cerenkov radiation from a planar optical waveguide,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 502 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (3)

H. A. Kurtz, J. J. P. Stewart, and K. M. Dieter, “Calculation of the nonlinear optical properties of molecules,” J. Comput. Chem. 11, 82 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Hampsch, J. M. Torkelson, S. J. Bethke, and S. G. Grubb, “Second harmonic generation in corona poled, doped polymer films as a function of corona processing,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 1037 (1990).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Hayden, G. F. Saufer, F. R. Ore, P. L. Pasillas, J. M. Hoover, G. A. Lindsay, and R. A. Henry, “Second-order nonlinear optical measurements in guest–host and side-chain polymers,” J. Appl. Phys. 68, 456 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

1988 (2)

J. R. Heflin, K. Y. Wong, O. Zamani-Khamiri, and A. F. Garito, “Nonlinear optical properties of linear chains and electron-correlation effects,” Phys. Rev. B 38, 1573 (1988).
[CrossRef]

G. J. B. Hurst, M. Dupuis, and E. Clementi, “Ab initio analytic polarizability, first and second hyperpolarizabilities of large conjugated organic molecules,” J. Chem. Phys. 89, 385 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

1986 (1)

K. D. Singer, J. E. Sohn, and S. J. Lalama, “Second harmonic generation in poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 248 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

P. K. Tien, R. Ulrich, and R. J. Martin, “Optical second harmonic generation in form of coherent Cerenkov radiation from a thin-film waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 447 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Bethke, S. J.

H. L. Hampsch, J. M. Torkelson, S. J. Bethke, and S. G. Grubb, “Second harmonic generation in corona poled, doped polymer films as a function of corona processing,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 1037 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Bloor, D.

G. H. Cross, D. Bloor, and M. Szablewski, “Blue window organics for frequency doubling devices,” Nonlinear Opt. 14, 219 (1995).

Bolger, B.

Burland, D. M.

R. J. Twieg, D. M. Burland, M. Jurich, V. Y. Lee, R. D. Miller, C. R. Moylan, R. Siemens, A. Skumanich, J. I. Thackara, T. Verbeist, W. Volksen, A. Knoesen, R. A. Hill, and D. Yankelevich, “Stability and performance issues for nonlinear optical chromophores, polymers and devices,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 392, 15 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cahill, P. A.

Clementi, E.

G. J. B. Hurst, M. Dupuis, and E. Clementi, “Ab initio analytic polarizability, first and second hyperpolarizabilities of large conjugated organic molecules,” J. Chem. Phys. 89, 385 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Cross, G. H.

G. H. Cross, D. Bloor, and M. Szablewski, “Blue window organics for frequency doubling devices,” Nonlinear Opt. 14, 219 (1995).

Dienes, A.

Dieter, K. M.

H. A. Kurtz, J. J. P. Stewart, and K. M. Dieter, “Calculation of the nonlinear optical properties of molecules,” J. Comput. Chem. 11, 82 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Duan, X. M.

X. M. Duan, T. Kimura, S. Okada, H. Oikawa, H. Matsuda, M. Kato, and H. Nakanishi, “Second-order hyperpolarizabilities of aromatic carboxylates without visible absorption,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, 1161 (1995).
[CrossRef]

X. M. Duan, S. Okada, H. Oikawa, H. Matsuda, and H. Nakanishi, “Second-order hyperpolarizabilities of organic ionic species,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 267, 89 (1995).
[CrossRef]

X. M. Duan, S. Okada, H. Oikawa, H. Matsuda, and H. Nakanishi, “Comparatively large second-order hyperpolarizability of aromatic sulfonate anion with short cutoff wavelength,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, 1559 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Dupuis, M.

G. J. B. Hurst, M. Dupuis, and E. Clementi, “Ab initio analytic polarizability, first and second hyperpolarizabilities of large conjugated organic molecules,” J. Chem. Phys. 89, 385 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Egami, C.

H. Nakayama, A. Mizuno, O. Sugihara, R. Matsushima, N. Okamoto, and C. Egami, “Second-order nonlinearity of nonpoled polymeric thin films doped with pyrylium salts with blue window characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2813 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fujimura, H.

H. Nakayama, O. Sugihara, H. Fujimura, R. Matsushima, and N. Okamoto, “Thermally stable and resonance enhanced large nonlinear optical properties in poled silica films doped with thiazole azo dye,” Opt. Rev. 2, 236 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Garito, A. F.

J. R. Heflin, K. Y. Wong, O. Zamani-Khamiri, and A. F. Garito, “Nonlinear optical properties of linear chains and electron-correlation effects,” Phys. Rev. B 38, 1573 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Ghebremichael, F.

F. Ghebremichael, C. Poga, and M. G. Kuzyk, “Optical second harmonic characterization of spontaneous symmetry-breaking at polymer/transparent conductor interfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 139 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Grubb, S. G.

H. L. Hampsch, J. M. Torkelson, S. J. Bethke, and S. G. Grubb, “Second harmonic generation in corona poled, doped polymer films as a function of corona processing,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 1037 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hampsch, H. L.

H. L. Hampsch, J. M. Torkelson, S. J. Bethke, and S. G. Grubb, “Second harmonic generation in corona poled, doped polymer films as a function of corona processing,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 1037 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hayden, L. M.

L. M. Hayden, G. F. Saufer, F. R. Ore, P. L. Pasillas, J. M. Hoover, G. A. Lindsay, and R. A. Henry, “Second-order nonlinear optical measurements in guest–host and side-chain polymers,” J. Appl. Phys. 68, 456 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Heflin, J. R.

J. R. Heflin, K. Y. Wong, O. Zamani-Khamiri, and A. F. Garito, “Nonlinear optical properties of linear chains and electron-correlation effects,” Phys. Rev. B 38, 1573 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Henry, R. A.

L. M. Hayden, G. F. Saufer, F. R. Ore, P. L. Pasillas, J. M. Hoover, G. A. Lindsay, and R. A. Henry, “Second-order nonlinear optical measurements in guest–host and side-chain polymers,” J. Appl. Phys. 68, 456 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Higgins, B. G.

Hill, R. A.

R. J. Twieg, D. M. Burland, M. Jurich, V. Y. Lee, R. D. Miller, C. R. Moylan, R. Siemens, A. Skumanich, J. I. Thackara, T. Verbeist, W. Volksen, A. Knoesen, R. A. Hill, and D. Yankelevich, “Stability and performance issues for nonlinear optical chromophores, polymers and devices,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 392, 15 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hirota, K.

M. Ozawa, H. Nakayama, O. Sugihara, N. Okamoto, and K. Hirota, “Guest–host polymer films for stable and large second-order nonlinearity,” Nonlinear Opt. 15, 171 (1996).

Hoover, J. M.

L. M. Hayden, G. F. Saufer, F. R. Ore, P. L. Pasillas, J. M. Hoover, G. A. Lindsay, and R. A. Henry, “Second-order nonlinear optical measurements in guest–host and side-chain polymers,” J. Appl. Phys. 68, 456 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hurst, G. J. B.

G. J. B. Hurst, M. Dupuis, and E. Clementi, “Ab initio analytic polarizability, first and second hyperpolarizabilities of large conjugated organic molecules,” J. Chem. Phys. 89, 385 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Jurich, M.

R. J. Twieg, D. M. Burland, M. Jurich, V. Y. Lee, R. D. Miller, C. R. Moylan, R. Siemens, A. Skumanich, J. I. Thackara, T. Verbeist, W. Volksen, A. Knoesen, R. A. Hill, and D. Yankelevich, “Stability and performance issues for nonlinear optical chromophores, polymers and devices,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 392, 15 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kato, M.

X. M. Duan, T. Kimura, S. Okada, H. Oikawa, H. Matsuda, M. Kato, and H. Nakanishi, “Second-order hyperpolarizabilities of aromatic carboxylates without visible absorption,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, 1161 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kimura, T.

X. M. Duan, T. Kimura, S. Okada, H. Oikawa, H. Matsuda, M. Kato, and H. Nakanishi, “Second-order hyperpolarizabilities of aromatic carboxylates without visible absorption,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, 1161 (1995).
[CrossRef]

King, L. A.

Kinoshita, T.

Knoesen, A.

R. J. Twieg, D. M. Burland, M. Jurich, V. Y. Lee, R. D. Miller, C. R. Moylan, R. Siemens, A. Skumanich, J. I. Thackara, T. Verbeist, W. Volksen, A. Knoesen, R. A. Hill, and D. Yankelevich, “Stability and performance issues for nonlinear optical chromophores, polymers and devices,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 392, 15 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Mortazavi, A. Knoesen, S. T. Kowel, B. G. Higgins, and A. Dienes, “Second-harmonic generation and absorption studies of polymer-dye films oriented by corona poling at elevated temperatures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 733 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kowalczyk, T. C.

Kowel, S. T.

Kunioka, S.

Kurtz, H. A.

H. A. Kurtz, J. J. P. Stewart, and K. M. Dieter, “Calculation of the nonlinear optical properties of molecules,” J. Comput. Chem. 11, 82 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kuzyk, M. G.

Lalama, S. J.

K. D. Singer, J. E. Sohn, and S. J. Lalama, “Second harmonic generation in poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 248 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Lee, V. Y.

R. J. Twieg, D. M. Burland, M. Jurich, V. Y. Lee, R. D. Miller, C. R. Moylan, R. Siemens, A. Skumanich, J. I. Thackara, T. Verbeist, W. Volksen, A. Knoesen, R. A. Hill, and D. Yankelevich, “Stability and performance issues for nonlinear optical chromophores, polymers and devices,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 392, 15 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lindsay, G. A.

L. M. Hayden, G. F. Saufer, F. R. Ore, P. L. Pasillas, J. M. Hoover, G. A. Lindsay, and R. A. Henry, “Second-order nonlinear optical measurements in guest–host and side-chain polymers,” J. Appl. Phys. 68, 456 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Mahalakshmi, V.

V. Mahalakshmi, M. R. Shenov, and K. Thyagarajan, “Evolution of the intensity profile of Cerenkov second-harmonic radiation with propagation distance in planar waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 137 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Martin, R. J.

P. K. Tien, R. Ulrich, and R. J. Martin, “Optical second harmonic generation in form of coherent Cerenkov radiation from a thin-film waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 447 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Matsuda, H.

X. M. Duan, T. Kimura, S. Okada, H. Oikawa, H. Matsuda, M. Kato, and H. Nakanishi, “Second-order hyperpolarizabilities of aromatic carboxylates without visible absorption,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, 1161 (1995).
[CrossRef]

X. M. Duan, S. Okada, H. Oikawa, H. Matsuda, and H. Nakanishi, “Second-order hyperpolarizabilities of organic ionic species,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 267, 89 (1995).
[CrossRef]

X. M. Duan, S. Okada, H. Oikawa, H. Matsuda, and H. Nakanishi, “Comparatively large second-order hyperpolarizability of aromatic sulfonate anion with short cutoff wavelength,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, 1559 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Matsushima, R.

H. Nakayama, A. Mizuno, O. Sugihara, R. Matsushima, N. Okamoto, and C. Egami, “Second-order nonlinearity of nonpoled polymeric thin films doped with pyrylium salts with blue window characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2813 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Nakayama, O. Sugihara, H. Fujimura, R. Matsushima, and N. Okamoto, “Thermally stable and resonance enhanced large nonlinear optical properties in poled silica films doped with thiazole azo dye,” Opt. Rev. 2, 236 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Miller, R. D.

R. J. Twieg, D. M. Burland, M. Jurich, V. Y. Lee, R. D. Miller, C. R. Moylan, R. Siemens, A. Skumanich, J. I. Thackara, T. Verbeist, W. Volksen, A. Knoesen, R. A. Hill, and D. Yankelevich, “Stability and performance issues for nonlinear optical chromophores, polymers and devices,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 392, 15 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mizuno, A.

H. Nakayama, A. Mizuno, O. Sugihara, R. Matsushima, N. Okamoto, and C. Egami, “Second-order nonlinearity of nonpoled polymeric thin films doped with pyrylium salts with blue window characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2813 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mortazavi, M. A.

Moylan, C. R.

R. J. Twieg, D. M. Burland, M. Jurich, V. Y. Lee, R. D. Miller, C. R. Moylan, R. Siemens, A. Skumanich, J. I. Thackara, T. Verbeist, W. Volksen, A. Knoesen, R. A. Hill, and D. Yankelevich, “Stability and performance issues for nonlinear optical chromophores, polymers and devices,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 392, 15 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nakanishi, H.

X. M. Duan, T. Kimura, S. Okada, H. Oikawa, H. Matsuda, M. Kato, and H. Nakanishi, “Second-order hyperpolarizabilities of aromatic carboxylates without visible absorption,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, 1161 (1995).
[CrossRef]

X. M. Duan, S. Okada, H. Oikawa, H. Matsuda, and H. Nakanishi, “Second-order hyperpolarizabilities of organic ionic species,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 267, 89 (1995).
[CrossRef]

X. M. Duan, S. Okada, H. Oikawa, H. Matsuda, and H. Nakanishi, “Comparatively large second-order hyperpolarizability of aromatic sulfonate anion with short cutoff wavelength,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, 1559 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nakayama, H.

M. Ozawa, H. Nakayama, O. Sugihara, N. Okamoto, and K. Hirota, “Guest–host polymer films for stable and large second-order nonlinearity,” Nonlinear Opt. 15, 171 (1996).

H. Nakayama, A. Mizuno, O. Sugihara, R. Matsushima, N. Okamoto, and C. Egami, “Second-order nonlinearity of nonpoled polymeric thin films doped with pyrylium salts with blue window characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2813 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Nakayama, O. Sugihara, and N. Okamoto, “Stability of second-order nonlinearity from corona-poled silica films doped with azo dye with simple sol-gel processing,” Nonlinear Opt. 15, 407 (1996).

H. Nakayama, O. Sugihara, H. Fujimura, R. Matsushima, and N. Okamoto, “Thermally stable and resonance enhanced large nonlinear optical properties in poled silica films doped with thiazole azo dye,” Opt. Rev. 2, 236 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nonaka, Y.

Noordman, O. F. J.

Oikawa, H.

X. M. Duan, S. Okada, H. Oikawa, H. Matsuda, and H. Nakanishi, “Second-order hyperpolarizabilities of organic ionic species,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 267, 89 (1995).
[CrossRef]

X. M. Duan, T. Kimura, S. Okada, H. Oikawa, H. Matsuda, M. Kato, and H. Nakanishi, “Second-order hyperpolarizabilities of aromatic carboxylates without visible absorption,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, 1161 (1995).
[CrossRef]

X. M. Duan, S. Okada, H. Oikawa, H. Matsuda, and H. Nakanishi, “Comparatively large second-order hyperpolarizability of aromatic sulfonate anion with short cutoff wavelength,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, 1559 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Okabe, M.

Okada, S.

X. M. Duan, T. Kimura, S. Okada, H. Oikawa, H. Matsuda, M. Kato, and H. Nakanishi, “Second-order hyperpolarizabilities of aromatic carboxylates without visible absorption,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, 1161 (1995).
[CrossRef]

X. M. Duan, S. Okada, H. Oikawa, H. Matsuda, and H. Nakanishi, “Second-order hyperpolarizabilities of organic ionic species,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 267, 89 (1995).
[CrossRef]

X. M. Duan, S. Okada, H. Oikawa, H. Matsuda, and H. Nakanishi, “Comparatively large second-order hyperpolarizability of aromatic sulfonate anion with short cutoff wavelength,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, 1559 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, N.

M. Ozawa, H. Nakayama, O. Sugihara, N. Okamoto, and K. Hirota, “Guest–host polymer films for stable and large second-order nonlinearity,” Nonlinear Opt. 15, 171 (1996).

H. Nakayama, A. Mizuno, O. Sugihara, R. Matsushima, N. Okamoto, and C. Egami, “Second-order nonlinearity of nonpoled polymeric thin films doped with pyrylium salts with blue window characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2813 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Nakayama, O. Sugihara, and N. Okamoto, “Stability of second-order nonlinearity from corona-poled silica films doped with azo dye with simple sol-gel processing,” Nonlinear Opt. 15, 407 (1996).

H. Nakayama, O. Sugihara, H. Fujimura, R. Matsushima, and N. Okamoto, “Thermally stable and resonance enhanced large nonlinear optical properties in poled silica films doped with thiazole azo dye,” Opt. Rev. 2, 236 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ore, F. R.

L. M. Hayden, G. F. Saufer, F. R. Ore, P. L. Pasillas, J. M. Hoover, G. A. Lindsay, and R. A. Henry, “Second-order nonlinear optical measurements in guest–host and side-chain polymers,” J. Appl. Phys. 68, 456 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ozawa, M.

M. Ozawa, H. Nakayama, O. Sugihara, N. Okamoto, and K. Hirota, “Guest–host polymer films for stable and large second-order nonlinearity,” Nonlinear Opt. 15, 171 (1996).

Pasillas, P. L.

L. M. Hayden, G. F. Saufer, F. R. Ore, P. L. Pasillas, J. M. Hoover, G. A. Lindsay, and R. A. Henry, “Second-order nonlinear optical measurements in guest–host and side-chain polymers,” J. Appl. Phys. 68, 456 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Poga, C.

F. Ghebremichael, C. Poga, and M. G. Kuzyk, “Optical second harmonic characterization of spontaneous symmetry-breaking at polymer/transparent conductor interfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 139 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, K.

Saufer, G. F.

L. M. Hayden, G. F. Saufer, F. R. Ore, P. L. Pasillas, J. M. Hoover, G. A. Lindsay, and R. A. Henry, “Second-order nonlinear optical measurements in guest–host and side-chain polymers,” J. Appl. Phys. 68, 456 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Shenov, M. R.

V. Mahalakshmi, M. R. Shenov, and K. Thyagarajan, “Evolution of the intensity profile of Cerenkov second-harmonic radiation with propagation distance in planar waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 137 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Siemens, R.

R. J. Twieg, D. M. Burland, M. Jurich, V. Y. Lee, R. D. Miller, C. R. Moylan, R. Siemens, A. Skumanich, J. I. Thackara, T. Verbeist, W. Volksen, A. Knoesen, R. A. Hill, and D. Yankelevich, “Stability and performance issues for nonlinear optical chromophores, polymers and devices,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 392, 15 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Singer, K. D.

Skumanich, A.

R. J. Twieg, D. M. Burland, M. Jurich, V. Y. Lee, R. D. Miller, C. R. Moylan, R. Siemens, A. Skumanich, J. I. Thackara, T. Verbeist, W. Volksen, A. Knoesen, R. A. Hill, and D. Yankelevich, “Stability and performance issues for nonlinear optical chromophores, polymers and devices,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 392, 15 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sohn, J. E.

K. D. Singer, M. G. Kuzyk, and J. E. Sohn, “Second-order nonlinear-optical processes in orientationally ordered materials,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 968 (1987).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Singer, J. E. Sohn, and S. J. Lalama, “Second harmonic generation in poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 248 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Stewart, J. J. P.

H. A. Kurtz, J. J. P. Stewart, and K. M. Dieter, “Calculation of the nonlinear optical properties of molecules,” J. Comput. Chem. 11, 82 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sugihara, O.

H. Nakayama, O. Sugihara, and N. Okamoto, “Stability of second-order nonlinearity from corona-poled silica films doped with azo dye with simple sol-gel processing,” Nonlinear Opt. 15, 407 (1996).

H. Nakayama, A. Mizuno, O. Sugihara, R. Matsushima, N. Okamoto, and C. Egami, “Second-order nonlinearity of nonpoled polymeric thin films doped with pyrylium salts with blue window characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2813 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Ozawa, H. Nakayama, O. Sugihara, N. Okamoto, and K. Hirota, “Guest–host polymer films for stable and large second-order nonlinearity,” Nonlinear Opt. 15, 171 (1996).

H. Nakayama, O. Sugihara, H. Fujimura, R. Matsushima, and N. Okamoto, “Thermally stable and resonance enhanced large nonlinear optical properties in poled silica films doped with thiazole azo dye,” Opt. Rev. 2, 236 (1995).
[CrossRef]

O. Sugihara, T. Kinoshita, M. Okabe, S. Kunioka, Y. Nonaka, and K. Sasaki, “Phase-matched second harmonic generation in a poled dye/polymer waveguide,” Appl. Opt. 30, 2957 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Szablewski, M.

G. H. Cross, D. Bloor, and M. Szablewski, “Blue window organics for frequency doubling devices,” Nonlinear Opt. 14, 219 (1995).

Tamada, H.

H. Tamada, “Coupled-mode analysis of second harmonic generation in the form of Cerenkov radiation from a planar optical waveguide,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 502 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Thackara, J. I.

R. J. Twieg, D. M. Burland, M. Jurich, V. Y. Lee, R. D. Miller, C. R. Moylan, R. Siemens, A. Skumanich, J. I. Thackara, T. Verbeist, W. Volksen, A. Knoesen, R. A. Hill, and D. Yankelevich, “Stability and performance issues for nonlinear optical chromophores, polymers and devices,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 392, 15 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Thyagarajan, K.

V. Mahalakshmi, M. R. Shenov, and K. Thyagarajan, “Evolution of the intensity profile of Cerenkov second-harmonic radiation with propagation distance in planar waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 137 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tien, P. K.

P. K. Tien, R. Ulrich, and R. J. Martin, “Optical second harmonic generation in form of coherent Cerenkov radiation from a thin-film waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 447 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Torkelson, J. M.

H. L. Hampsch, J. M. Torkelson, S. J. Bethke, and S. G. Grubb, “Second harmonic generation in corona poled, doped polymer films as a function of corona processing,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 1037 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Twieg, R. J.

R. J. Twieg, D. M. Burland, M. Jurich, V. Y. Lee, R. D. Miller, C. R. Moylan, R. Siemens, A. Skumanich, J. I. Thackara, T. Verbeist, W. Volksen, A. Knoesen, R. A. Hill, and D. Yankelevich, “Stability and performance issues for nonlinear optical chromophores, polymers and devices,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 392, 15 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ulrich, R.

P. K. Tien, R. Ulrich, and R. J. Martin, “Optical second harmonic generation in form of coherent Cerenkov radiation from a thin-film waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 447 (1970).
[CrossRef]

van Hulst, N. F.

Verbeist, T.

R. J. Twieg, D. M. Burland, M. Jurich, V. Y. Lee, R. D. Miller, C. R. Moylan, R. Siemens, A. Skumanich, J. I. Thackara, T. Verbeist, W. Volksen, A. Knoesen, R. A. Hill, and D. Yankelevich, “Stability and performance issues for nonlinear optical chromophores, polymers and devices,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 392, 15 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Volksen, W.

R. J. Twieg, D. M. Burland, M. Jurich, V. Y. Lee, R. D. Miller, C. R. Moylan, R. Siemens, A. Skumanich, J. I. Thackara, T. Verbeist, W. Volksen, A. Knoesen, R. A. Hill, and D. Yankelevich, “Stability and performance issues for nonlinear optical chromophores, polymers and devices,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 392, 15 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wong, K. Y.

J. R. Heflin, K. Y. Wong, O. Zamani-Khamiri, and A. F. Garito, “Nonlinear optical properties of linear chains and electron-correlation effects,” Phys. Rev. B 38, 1573 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Yankelevich, D.

R. J. Twieg, D. M. Burland, M. Jurich, V. Y. Lee, R. D. Miller, C. R. Moylan, R. Siemens, A. Skumanich, J. I. Thackara, T. Verbeist, W. Volksen, A. Knoesen, R. A. Hill, and D. Yankelevich, “Stability and performance issues for nonlinear optical chromophores, polymers and devices,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 392, 15 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zahn, H. E.

Zamani-Khamiri, O.

J. R. Heflin, K. Y. Wong, O. Zamani-Khamiri, and A. F. Garito, “Nonlinear optical properties of linear chains and electron-correlation effects,” Phys. Rev. B 38, 1573 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

H. Nakayama, A. Mizuno, O. Sugihara, R. Matsushima, N. Okamoto, and C. Egami, “Second-order nonlinearity of nonpoled polymeric thin films doped with pyrylium salts with blue window characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2813 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Singer, J. E. Sohn, and S. J. Lalama, “Second harmonic generation in poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 248 (1986).
[CrossRef]

F. Ghebremichael, C. Poga, and M. G. Kuzyk, “Optical second harmonic characterization of spontaneous symmetry-breaking at polymer/transparent conductor interfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 139 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Tien, R. Ulrich, and R. J. Martin, “Optical second harmonic generation in form of coherent Cerenkov radiation from a thin-film waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 447 (1970).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

V. Mahalakshmi, M. R. Shenov, and K. Thyagarajan, “Evolution of the intensity profile of Cerenkov second-harmonic radiation with propagation distance in planar waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 137 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Tamada, “Coupled-mode analysis of second harmonic generation in the form of Cerenkov radiation from a planar optical waveguide,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 502 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

H. L. Hampsch, J. M. Torkelson, S. J. Bethke, and S. G. Grubb, “Second harmonic generation in corona poled, doped polymer films as a function of corona processing,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 1037 (1990).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Hayden, G. F. Saufer, F. R. Ore, P. L. Pasillas, J. M. Hoover, G. A. Lindsay, and R. A. Henry, “Second-order nonlinear optical measurements in guest–host and side-chain polymers,” J. Appl. Phys. 68, 456 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

G. J. B. Hurst, M. Dupuis, and E. Clementi, “Ab initio analytic polarizability, first and second hyperpolarizabilities of large conjugated organic molecules,” J. Chem. Phys. 89, 385 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Comput. Chem. (1)

H. A. Kurtz, J. J. P. Stewart, and K. M. Dieter, “Calculation of the nonlinear optical properties of molecules,” J. Comput. Chem. 11, 82 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (4)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

X. M. Duan, S. Okada, H. Oikawa, H. Matsuda, and H. Nakanishi, “Comparatively large second-order hyperpolarizability of aromatic sulfonate anion with short cutoff wavelength,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, 1559 (1994).
[CrossRef]

X. M. Duan, T. Kimura, S. Okada, H. Oikawa, H. Matsuda, M. Kato, and H. Nakanishi, “Second-order hyperpolarizabilities of aromatic carboxylates without visible absorption,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, 1161 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. (1)

R. J. Twieg, D. M. Burland, M. Jurich, V. Y. Lee, R. D. Miller, C. R. Moylan, R. Siemens, A. Skumanich, J. I. Thackara, T. Verbeist, W. Volksen, A. Knoesen, R. A. Hill, and D. Yankelevich, “Stability and performance issues for nonlinear optical chromophores, polymers and devices,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 392, 15 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (1)

X. M. Duan, S. Okada, H. Oikawa, H. Matsuda, and H. Nakanishi, “Second-order hyperpolarizabilities of organic ionic species,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 267, 89 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nonlinear Opt. (3)

H. Nakayama, O. Sugihara, and N. Okamoto, “Stability of second-order nonlinearity from corona-poled silica films doped with azo dye with simple sol-gel processing,” Nonlinear Opt. 15, 407 (1996).

M. Ozawa, H. Nakayama, O. Sugihara, N. Okamoto, and K. Hirota, “Guest–host polymer films for stable and large second-order nonlinearity,” Nonlinear Opt. 15, 171 (1996).

G. H. Cross, D. Bloor, and M. Szablewski, “Blue window organics for frequency doubling devices,” Nonlinear Opt. 14, 219 (1995).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Rev. (1)

H. Nakayama, O. Sugihara, H. Fujimura, R. Matsushima, and N. Okamoto, “Thermally stable and resonance enhanced large nonlinear optical properties in poled silica films doped with thiazole azo dye,” Opt. Rev. 2, 236 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

J. R. Heflin, K. Y. Wong, O. Zamani-Khamiri, and A. F. Garito, “Nonlinear optical properties of linear chains and electron-correlation effects,” Phys. Rev. B 38, 1573 (1988).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Chemical structure of pyrylium salt dye.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Absorption spectra of 1+α--doped polymer films at five dye concentrations.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

SH intensity from a nonpoled 1+α--doped polymer film versus incidence angle.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

NLO coefficients of d33 versus concentration of dye molecules.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

SHG coefficient d33 versus the thickness of the film for various amounts of solvent and speeds of spin coating.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

SHG coefficient d33 versus thickness of the film for various numbers of layers.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Thermal stability of second-order nonlinearity at 120 °C.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Theoretical value of conversion efficiency by coupled-mode theory.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Molecular Structure of Various Alkyl Groups and Abbreviation for Each Chromophore

Tables Icon

Table 2 Decomposition Temperature of Dye and Absorption Data of Dye-Doped Polymer Films

Tables Icon

Table 3 Calculated Dipole Moments and Hyperpolarizabilities of Pyrylium Salt Dyes a

Tables Icon

Table 4 Measured NLO Coefficients of Dye-Doped Polymer Films

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ns(ω)<Neff(ω)=ns(2ω) cos θ<ns(2ω),
ηSHG=P(2ω)P(ω)=π [β(ω)]3ρ μ02d332Lε04[n(ω)]8 Sr2P(ω),

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